Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 74 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 74 of 203)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


field, Mass., Nov. 7, 1839. SUSAN HIDLEY SEDGWICK, wife of the preceding, descended
from an old English border family, and proud of her relationship to bishop Ridley, was a
daughter of Wil liam Livingston, governor of New Jersey. She is the author of The Moral*
of Pleasure (1829); The Young Emigrants, and The Children's Fee&(1830); Allan Prescott,
a novel (1834); Alida (1844); and Walter Thornby, a novel, written in 1859, when she was
more than 70 years old. CATHERINE MARIA SEDGWICK, American authoress, daughter of
judge Theodore Sedgwick, and sister of the second Theodore Sedgwick, was b. at Stock-
bridge, near the close of the eighteenth century. In 1822 she published A New England
Tale, which was followed, in 1824, by Ridwood, a nove 1 , so popular that it was reprinted
in England, and translated into several of the continental languages. This was followed
by Hope Leslie, or Early Times in America (1827); Clarence, a Tale of our Own Times
(1830); LeBossu, and The Linwoods (1835); and these by a series of popular stories, illus-
trating morals and domestic economy, entitled The Poor Rich Man and the Rich Povr
Man; Lice and let Live; Means and Ends; Home. etc. ; and contributed a "Life of Lucre-
tia Maria Davidson," to Sparks's American Biographies. In 1841, on her return from
Europe, she published Letters from Abroad to Kindred at Home; in 1845 Wilton Harvey
and other Tales; followed by The Morals of Manners, and Married and Single. She also
edited and was an active contributor to some of the leading American periodicals. Died
July 31, 1867. THEODORE SEDGWICK, an American lawyer, son of the second Theodore
Sedgwick, was b. at Albany Jan. 27, 1811, was educated at Columbia college, and admitted
to the bar in 1833; and, excepting three years spent at Paris, as secretary of the American
legation, continued in successful legal practice until 1850, when he again visited and made
an extensive tour in Europe. He steadily declined to engage in politics, and refused all
offices tendered him, until, in 1858, he accepted that of United States attorney for the
southern district of New York. Among his writings are, a standard Treatise on the
Measure of Damages; a work on The Interpretation and Application of Statutory and Con-
stitutional Law; the Memoirs of WUliam Livingston, his grandfather; The Life and Works
of William Leggett, and various occasional addresses. He died at Stockbridge, Dec. 9,
1859.

SEDGWICK, ADAM, LL.D., 1785-1813; b. England; educated at Cambridge, where he
became professor of geology in 1818. He made a geological trip through Scotland in
1827; nnd in 1829 through the continent with Murchinson, with whom he afterward had
a sharp dispute in regard to the use of the words Cambrian and Silurian. He was an
opponent of the theory of evolution. Among his works are Discourse of the Studies of
tlie University of Cambridge (1850); and A Synopsis of the Classification of the Paleozoic
Hocks (1855).

SEDGWICK, JOHN, 1813-64; b. Cornwall, Conn.; graduate of West Point, 1837;
brevetted capt. for service in the Mexican war, and brevet! ed maj. for the attack on the San
Cosme gate. He rose through successive grades to maj. gen. of volunteers, 1862. In
1737-88 he was in the Florida war, and engaged in the Cheyenne, Utah, Kiowa, and Coman-
che expeditions. In 1862 (war of the rebellion) he was assigned to duty on the upper Poto-
mac, distinguished himself at Fair Oaks and Glendale; was wounded at the latter, and
at Antietam, and on his recovery was placed in command of the 9th army corps. He
led the 6th corps in the Chancellorsville campaign, carried the heights at Fredericks-
burg, and did good work at Gettysburg. In 1863 he was thanked in a general order for
the capture of a confederate division at the Rapidan. He went through the hard fighta
of the Wilderness at the head of his corps, and was fatally shot at Spottsylvania,

SEDGWICK, ROBERT, d. 1656; b. England; settled at Charlestown, Mass., 1635,
and for many years represented that town in the legislature. With John Winthrop, jr.,
he established, 1643-44, the first furnace in this country. Under authority from Crom-
well, who afterward made him maj.gen., he drove the French from Penobscot in 1654,
and accompanied the expedition which captured Jamaica.

SEDITION (Lat. seditio, from se, apart, and ire, to go), a general name given to suc^i
offenses against the state as fall short of treason. In the law of England it is not a
strictly technical word. Writing, publishing, or uttering words tending to excite sub-
jects to insurrection, though not urging them to rebellion or total subversion of (he
government, come under this denomination. There are various English statutes (as 89



01 Q Sedgwick.

Bee.

Geo. III. c. 70: 57 Geo. IIT. c. 19; and 60 Geo. III. and 1 Geo. IV. c. 8) directed

against particular acts of sedition, such as seditious libels, and seditions meetings or
assemblies, which are punishable as misdemeanors. Act 36 Geo. 111., directed against
all seditious practices and attempts tending to high treason, is extended to Ireland by 11
Viet., and additional provisions are added to it. By this latter act the compassing or
devising, either to depose the queen; to levy war against the qufen, for the purpose of
changing her majesty's measures, or constraining or overawing parliament; or to move
any foreigner to invade the queen's dominions, is made felony, punishable by trans-
portation for life, or for a period not less than seven years, and that even tho~ugh the
facts should amount to treason.

In Scotland sedition is distinguished from leasing-making (q. v.), in so far ns the
object of the latter is to disparage the private character of the sovereign, while the
former crime is directed against the order and tranquillity of the state. "The punish-
ment of sedition, formerly arbitrary, is now restricted to flue and imprisonment.

SEDLEY, SirCHAKLF.s, 1639-1701; b. England; went to London after the restora-
tion, and stood high in the favor of Charles II. He was a town wit whose chief poetical
pieces are brief amatory poems. He was a man of dissolute habits, ;md was once fined
500 for making a speech naked to a mob from a balcony. He opposed James II., it is
eaid, on account of the intrigue of the latter with his daughter.'

SEDUCTION, in point of law, is the taking of an unmarried woman's chastity without
marriage, and under circumstances of fraud. It is not a criminal offense unless violence
is used, and resistance overcome, or the age of the female is under 21, in which cases
the offense is rape (q.v.) or abduction (q.v.). In England, where no force has been
used, no action at law can be maintained by the fenmle seduced, however deceitfully
the man may have acted. But if the female' is a servant, either to her father or mother
or a third party, then the master or mistress can sue the seducer, provided any loss of
service has been caused by the seduction, such as her absence when lying-in of a child.
Though, strictly speaking, the damages recovered by the master or mistress, in such a
case, should be measured solely by the pecuniary value of the services lost, yet it is an
inveterate practice for juries to give damages greatly beyond that amount, especially
where the father or mother sues, and the conduct of the man has been base and heart-
less. In Scotland the woman can sue in her own right for damages if deceit has been
u*ed, but the difficulty of establishing that the deceit was the sole cause of the injury
prevents such actions from being common. The remedy there more frequently resolves
itself into an action for breach of promise of marriage, or for declarator of marriage,
or for filiation and aliment.

SEDUCTION (ante). The common-law principles enunciated in the preceding
article are in most states followed, but far less strictly than in the English courts. It is
universally admitted that the requirement as to actual service is arbitrary and mischiev-
ous, and very slight evidence of such actual service is taken as affording a good ground
on which to" base the action (see PARENT AKD CHILD, ante). Some state's have done
away entirely with the old distinction by enacting statutes making seduction an offense
against the purity and happiness of the family relation, and giving a right of action to
the head of the family, and, in a few cases, to the woman herself who has been seduced.
An action lies by a husband against the seducer of his wife.

SE'DTJM, a genus of plants of the natural order crassulacece, having the calyx in 4 to 8
(usually 5) deep segments, which often resemble the leaves, the same number of spread-
ing petals, twice as many stamens, and 4 to 8 (usually 5) germens, each with a nectarifer-
ous scale at the base. The species are numerous, with succulent, often roundish, leaves;
and pretty, star-like flowers. Many of them grow on rocks, whence the English name
STONE-CROP. They are natives of the temperate and cold parts of the northern hemi-
sphere; some are British. They have no important uses; some are refrigerant, others
are acrid. Among the British species is S. telephium, "popularly called ORPINE, some-
times used as a diuretic; and S. acre, the most common, whose brilliant yellow flowers
adorn the tops of old walls, the debris around quarries, etc.

SEE (Lat. scdes, a seat), in ecclesiastical use, properly signifies the seat or chair
(cathedra), sometimes also called "throne," of a bishop. Popularly, however, and
indeed by universal usage, it is employed to designate the city, and thence, at least in
popular language, the entire diocese, in which the seat of the bishop is placed, and over
which, consequently, his episcopal jurisdiction extends. Sees have always been fixed,
at least in their primitive establishment, in some city or considerable town; and it is to
be observed that the name of a see is always taken not from the district governed by the
bishop, but from the city or town. Sees in partibus infideUum (q.v.) still retain their
ancient names, although in very many cases not merely the cities themselves, but even
all traces of the Christian religion, in the sites upon which they anciently stood, have
disappeared. In the Roman church the pope alone establishes sees, and alters their
distribution and their Iccal limits and boundaries; but these changes are not made
except in extreme cases (such as that of the French revolution) without the consent
of the actual bishop. In the Anglican church this is done by the authority of the legis-
lature.



S0ebMh. 320




performed at Hanover, 1856-65. In 1866 she removed to Berlin with her husband,
Albert Nieniuiiii, and ia 1870 visited the United States.



SEED,



EED, in phanerogamous plants, that part which may in some measure be regarded
'rrespoadiny to the perfectly developed impregnated ovum of animals, and wiiich ia
the utmost, effort made by the plant for the reproduction of its species. It is the per-
fectly developed ovule (q.v.). While one cell of the interior of the nucleus (see OVULE)
greatly enlar-n's the other cells are forced back; the interior of the nucleus thus
becomes a cavity (the embryo sac), and fecundation (q.v.) now taking place by means of
the pollen, the primary cell is formed, which grows to form .the enuryo. As tue fer-.
tilized ovule is developed into the ripe seed, tine foramen (see OVULE) or micropyle cloaca
completely; but its place is commonly marked in ripe seeds by a little cicatrix. In the
ripe seed the integuments of the ovule, more fully developed, form the covering (q&r-
mvterm); while tha nucleus is either entirely converted into the embryo (q.v.), or also
into an inorganic cellular mass called the albumen (q.v.), which is, in an economical
point of view, the most important part of many seeds, as of tho.ie of the cereal grasses,
The embryo, which, with respect to the reproduction of the plant, is the most essential
part of the seed, is developed to various degrees in different plants which is also the
case in different animals, and even in those of the same class, as in mammalia; but in




plant in its youn,__ a _. ..

sometimes completely inclosed in it; sometimes it lies at the aide of the albumen; anl
sometimes it surrounds the albumen like a ring, or even completely. Sometimes, but
rarely, the embryo is not well developsd in ripe Beads, so that its parts cannot be dis-
tinguished, as in the orc.'tidene, in which it appears as a roundish or oval, uniform, little
cellular mass. In germination the embryo breaks through the covering of the seed,
and develops itsslf ir.to ths new plant.

Seeds are either sissile or stalked. The stalk is of various length, and is formed of
Ihe funic>ilus or umbilical cord; the place at the base of th3 seed, by which it is affixed
to the insida of tha fruit, or to the end of the fanicitltts, being called the umbilicus or
Mlum. When the seed is perfectly ripe, it has no further uead of connection with the
parent plant, and the funlculus drias up, leaving the hilum a mere scar.

BssidciS being inclosad in a capsule, or in a succulent fruit, etc., the most essential
parts of the .seed have coveri.igs of thair own, which are reckoned as belonging to the
seed itself. Its general covering is called the sperm-xlerm (Gr. spsrmn, seed, derma,
covering), which consists of an external membrane, the testi (Gr. shell) or epispsrm (Qr.
epi, up-jn) and an internal membrane, the endoplsiira (Gr. en:lon, within, pleura, si.le).
Sometimes there is within the episparm a fleshy layer, called the sarcospenn (Gr. sarx,
flesh). The aril (q.v.) is a comparatively rare additional covering.

The seed* of phanerogamous plants afford characters which distinguish two great
classes as monoeoty!ed'tnou and dicotyledonous (see COTYLEDON). Very few plants have
more than two cotyledons (seed lobes). It is the case, however, with some of the conif-
erce. Cryptogamo'.is plants are also designated acotyl&lonous, as having no seed-lobes;
and the n:ima *p>>rc (q.v.) is distinctively given to their seeds.

Seeds retain their vitality very long; but the time seems to be very various with the
seeds of different plants, and in different circumstances. The grains," or seeds of cereal
grasses, are probably excelled in this respect by none; grains of maize found in the
tombs of the iucas have been made to vegetate; and also, it is said, groins of wheat
taken from Egyptian mummies, although of this there is some doubt. After the great
fire of London in 1636, plants net previously common sprang up abundantly on the
waste ground; certain plants previously unknown there are sure to appear after a fire in
the American forests; and instances are constantly occurring of a deep trenching of land
or a turning up of soil by railway or other operations, producing a crop of some kind
of plant previously unknown or rare in the locality. Thus the writer of this article has
seen plants of the milk thistle appear on rubbish thrown out from the foundation of a
house in Peeblesshire, where there was no other milk thistle in the neighborhood. And in
Paisley Moss, in Renfrewshire, willows spring up in the ditches which are cut for
drainage, from the surface of the soil which underlies the moss or peat. It is difficult
to conjecture how long the seeds, in such cases, may have retained their vitality.

Exposed to the air, however, seeds generally lose their vitality in a few years. Some
kinds retain it much longer than others. Seeds which abound in fixed oil seem to lose
it more quickly than others.

In conveying seeds from one part of the world to another, and through great diver-
sities of climate, it is desirable to have them as closely secured from the air as possible.
But it has been fouud that of seeds brought from the botanic garden at Calcutta to
Scotland, round the cape of Good Hope, with no other c:\rc than would be used in
sending a parcel from a seed shop to a neighboring garden, the greater part readily veg-
etated.



Seebach.'
be-o.

SEE'LAND (Dan. Sjdl'and), the largest and most, important island of Denmark, lies
between the Cattegat and the Baltic, and is separated by the sjuud from Sweden, and
by the- Great Belt from Fiinen. Length, 78 in.; extreme bieadth, 70 m. ; area, 2,673
sq.ni.: pop. '70 (including the two small islands Moen and iSamsoe), 637,711. r i he sur-
face is almost Hat; tlie coasts, which are rock-bound on the s.e., are indented by bays
and fiord-, the chief of which is the lioeskilde-lsefiord in the north. The rivers aro
small, the largest being only 50 in. long; there are several lakes, and all the waters
abound in ri-h. The island contains several beech-forests, is exceedingly fruitful in
corn, and breeds excellent horses and cattle. Agriculture and cattle-breeding aie the
principal employments of the inhabitants. The chief place is Copenhagen (q.v.), the
capital of the country, on the e. coast, and from this city lines of railway traverse the
island to Elsmore in ihe u., and to Korsor in the s.w., on the coast.

SEELEY, JOHN ROBERT, b. London, 1834; educated at Cambridge. In 1863 he was
appointed profes.-or of Laiiu in University college, London, and in 1869 protestor of
modern history at Cambridge. His Ecce llonw published anonymously in 1865, excited
great interest and called forth much discussion and many replies. Among his other
works are an edition of Livy, Roman Imperialism, and a Ltfe of JSlein.

SEE'LYE, JULIUS HAWLEY, S.T.D., LL.D., b. Conn., 1824; graduated at Am-
herst college, 1849; studied theology at Auburn seminary and Halle, Germany; \vas
ordained and became pastor of the First Reformed church, Schenectady, N. Y., in 1853.
In 1858 he was elected professor of mental and moral philosophy in Amherst college.
In 1872 he visited India anil lectured to educated Hindus on the truths of Christianity.
The lectures were published in Bombay, and also in Boston in a volume entitled 7'Aa
Way, Tde Truth and The Life. He has published also Christian Missions; also Sermons
and Adilreyyes, among them, a Massachusetts " Election Sermon;" contributed articled
for reviews, and translated Schwegler's History of l j hilonoj)hy. In 1874 he was elected a
representative to congress as a candidate independent of both political parties, and was
a zealous advocate of reform in the civil service and in the mode of dealing with the
Indian trib.'S. In 1876 he was elected president of Amherst college, still retaining his
professorship, lie is a faithful worker in education, and an earnest and powerful
preacher.

SEEL YE, LAURENUS CLARK, D.D., b. Conn., 1837; graduated at Union college in
1857; studied theology at Andover seminary, 1857-59; at Berlin and Heidelberg, 1860-62.
After traveling in Europe, Palestine, and Egypt, he was ordained and settled pastor of
the North Congregational church, Springfield, Mass., in 1863; was elected professor of
Greek and Latin in Amherst college in 1865; became president of Smith cclleire for
young women at Northampton hi 1874, which position he still fills. He has contributed
to several periodicals.

SEEMANN, BERTITOID, PH.D., 1825-71; b. Hanover, Germany; became a distin-
guished naturalist, and in 1846 sailed with an English expedition which made the tour
of the world and was absent for nearly five years. In this tonr and in explorations of
the Feejee islands and Nicaragua, I860, he made many scientific discoveries of value.
He published an account of the voyage of the Herald, and of three arctic cruises in search
of Franklin: Ifrtttnifnl I&xearches (i85'2- 57); and several other volumes.

SEEE. See PROPHECY.

SEET'ZEN. UI.RIC JASPER, 1767-1811; b. Holland; educated at the university of
GOttingen. and in 1802, with the aid of the duke of Gotha, set ont for the exploration of
Asia and Africa. lie spent 15 months at Aleppo learning Arabic, and traveled through
Syria and Palestine, making valuable scientific collections. In 1805 he explored Lebanon
and the country e. of ihe Dead sea. After exploring upper Egypt, and securinir a col-
lection of MSS. for the museum of Gotha. he visited Mecca in the disguise of a Moham-
medan, lie reached Mocha in 1810, and is said to have been poisoned in 1811. His
diary and maps, recovered in 1815, were published in 3 vols. (Berlin. 1854).

BEGGAR, a vessel used by potters to protect delicate articles from the too fierce action
of the fire in tl-e kiln. See POTTERY.

SEGMENT (Lat. serjmentwm, a part cut off), is. in geometry, a portion cut off from a
circle by a line, or from a sphere by a plane. When the angle subtended at the center of
a circle by the segment, and the radius, or when the chord of the segment and its height,
arc known, the length of the arc of the segment and its area can be determined with as
much accuracy as the circumference and area of the whole circle. See SPHERE.

SEGNO (It:'l. sum), a word used in musical notation in connection with the marks of
repetition. Wh'-n a part is to be repeated, not from the br-srinning. but from some other
point, the mark :,s': is placed over the point where the repetition is to commence, and th
words Dul S'nno (or d. s.) are written at the close of ihe part to be repeated.

SE'GO, an important t. of western Africa, capital of tbo state of Bambarra, stands on
the Nigar, here called the Joliba, in lat. 13 5 n.. Ion;*. T west. Its streets, which are
winding, have a breadth of from 24 to 26 ft., and are extremely clean. The palace of
the king is large enough to accommodate 2,000 men and 500 horses. The houses are built
of clay, and are flat roofed, and the royal residence differs from the other dwellir -
U. K. XIII. 21



Begorbe.
Sme.

only in size. The country in the vicinity is well cultivated, and the town is the scat
of considerable traffic, iluugo Park, from whom \ve derive almost all the knowledge
we jx)ssess of Sego, here first beheld the Joliba. Pop. estimated at 30,01)0.

SEGOKBE a small t. of Spain, in the modern province of Castellou. on the right bank
of the Paiancia, in a valley renowned for the beauty of its scenery and tor it.s amazing
fertility, 20 m. n.w. of Murviedro. It stands on a hill between two castles, and con-
tains stately houses, numerous churches, and a cathedral. Brandy distilling is carried
on to a great extent, and there are flower and paper mills. Pop. 6,290.

SEGO VIA, an interesting city of Spain, capital of the modern province of the same
name (see CASTILE), stands on the Eresma, by which it is nearly encircled, 47 m. n.n.w.
of Madrid. It occupies the top of a rocky knoll, 3,300 ft. above sea-level, is sur.
rounded by picturesque walls with round towers, and consists of narrow uneven streets,
with old, quaint, and stately houses, 24 parish churches, and 21 convents. The Alcazar,
or castle, is perched on the w. extremity of the rocky height, and was originally Moorish,
but repaired magnificently in 1452-58. The cathedral of Segovia, a noble specimen of
florid Gothic, is one of the finest in Spain. The present building was begun in 1525.
The square cupola-crowned tower is 330 ft. high, and the prospect from this elevation is
guperb. The grand aqueduct of Segovio, supposed to Lave been built in the time of
Trajan, is believed to be the most important Roman structure in Spain. It consists of
two rows of arches, the one resting upon the other, from 2,500 to 3,000 ft. long, and 102
ft. high. There is a mint here for coining copper money. Wool-scouring and the manu-
facture of woolen fabrics are languidly carried on. Pop. 13,100.

Segovia was a place of importance during the time of the Romans; was the seat of
immense cloth-manufactures in the time of the Moors, and was frequently the residence
of the kings of Castile and Leon. Charles I. of Er.gland lodged at the Alcazar, Sept.
13, 1623, anil supped on " certaine trouts of extraordinary greatuesse." The unrcskting
town was sacked in 1808 by the French, under Frcre.

The province of Segovia has an area of 3,460 sq.m., and a pop. '70, of 150.812.

SFGUIN, ZrouAUD, 1812-80: b. France: educated at the colleges of Auxerre and
St. Louis in Paris; studied medicine and surgery under Itard (q.v.). and was afterward
associated with Esquirol. At Itard's suggestion Dr. Seguin, soon after <rr:;du:,tmg in
medicine, undertook the training of a fev. idiot children. See IDIOCY. In 184G he pub-
lished a treatise entitled Traitement moral, Hygiene et Education dc* Idiots <t dis autres
Enfants arrieres, which Las always been the standard text-book on the subject. After
the revolution of 1848, Dr. Seguin came to the United States, visiting ihe idiot school
in South Boston and the institution for feeble-minded youth at Barre, Mass.. and then
vent to Albany, where Dr. Wilbur was organizing jin experimental school which devel-



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 74 of 203)