Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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oped into the New York state idiot asylum at Syracuse, and rendered valuable assist-
ance. He then went to France, and returned with his family in 1851, settling at Ports-
mouth, Ohio, to practice medicine. But he visited and taught at various idiot institutions
jn Connecticut, Ohio. Pennsylvania, and New York, and lor a time was at the head of
the Pennsylvania institution. He again wentto Fiance in 1858; returned to the United
States again in 1859. and settled in practice at Mount Vernon, N. Y., from wL< nee he
removed to New York city in 1863, publishing Idiocy and its Treatment by Ihe PJtyxio*
logical Method in 1866. He has also published Theorie tt Pratique de V Ed mention i!>* I''i-
ots (Paris, 1842); Hygiene et Education den Idiots (Paris, 1843); Images graditees d T Uaafffl
des Enfants arrieres et Idiots (Paris, 1846); F. R. Pcrirre, premier Inztiivtcvr (ics Founts
et Muets en France (Paris, 1847); Historical Notice of the Griffin and Progress of the Tnat-
ment f>f Idiots (translated by J. S. Newberry. M.D., 1852); New Fact* and Kemurks Con-
cerning Idiocy (1869); an edition of WundeiiicJi's Medical T/iermometry, with large addi-
tions (1871). He invented a physiological thermometer, which is in among physi-

SEGUE, the name of a French family, distinguished both in arms and letters. It is
of Limousin origin, and was known there, it is said, as far back as the. 9th century.
The first, however, that specially merits notice was HKNUI FRAK^OIS, comic de Scgur
(born 1689. died 1751), an able French gen. in the war of the Austrian succession, llis
son, PHILIPPE HENIU, marquis de Segur (born 1724, died 1801), forgl t in the seven
years' war. obtained the dignity of marechal de France in 1783, and outlived in his retire-
ment the stormy scenes of the revolution. The eldest son of this Philippe Henri was
Louis PHILIPPK, comte de Segur (born 1753, died 1880), a vivid dashing .sort of man.
for some years ambassador at the court of St. Petersburg, and a great favorite with
Catharine II. Of impressionable fancy, full of enthusiasm for the ""philosophers," ihe
"reign of reason," and the " new ideas" generally, he hailed the great revolution with
delight, but took no prominent part in it. His public career during the empire was
respectable, but not brilliant; but one notices with satisfaction that he retained in
extreme old age that love of liberty that marked his early years; the last act of his life
being an culogium on the revolution of July. As a writer, Scgur has in wonderful per-
fection the national graces of style and spirit. Among his numerous writings are: Pen
stex Polit-ique* (Par. 1 795) ; Ilistoire de Frederic QnMavme II. (Par. 1800): Contes, fallen,
Chanson* et Vers (Par. 1801); and Memoirex on Souvenirs et Anecdotes (Par. 1824). He
left two sons, OCTAVE and PAUL PHILIPPK. the latter of whom (who was born in 1780)


VN-aa a gca. of the first empire, took part in the fatal expedition to Russia in 1812, and
wrote tuo etory of the campaign, lii;tuire de Napoleon ct de la Grande pendant
Viinuca lolO (Par. 2 vols. , Ib24). The work has had an immense success, and has been
traa -luted into almost all the languages of Europe. Other works of the comle Paul.'
Philippe do Scrjur are: Lcttre sur la Campugius du General Mucdonakl dam lex Orisons
(Pur. lJO~);ZT;;>-v<A>e de Ramie ct de Pierre le Grand (Par. 1829);Jjiytoire de Charles VIII.,
Rjid& ira:ica (Pur. 1834); etc.

SHCrTHA, a river in the s.e. of Spain, rises in the Sierra Seca, and after an e s.e.
cour-je of aJout 180 m. , enters the Mediterranean 27 m. below Orihuela. Ships unload
at, its mouth.

SEICENTIS'TI, a name given to the Italian authors of the 17th c. ; and, as that
century was a period of literary decadence, the name has become a type for baj laste.

SSID'LITZ POWDEBS are composed of 120 grains of tartrate of soda and potash, and
40 grains of bicarbonate of soda reduced to powder, mixed and inclosed in a blue paper,
and 35 grains of powdered tartaric acid in a white paper. The contents of the blue
paper are dissolved in from half a tumbler to a tumbler of water, and those of the white
paper are then stirred in. The mixture should be taken while the effervescence from the
liberation of tlie carbonic acid is still going on. These powders act as an agreeable and
mild cooling aperient. If a stronger dose id required, either an increased quantity of
the powder may be used, or a little sulphate of magnesia (about a dram) may be

SEIGNIOS, GUAND, a name sometimes given to the sultan (q.v.) of Turkey.

SEKT3 (anc. Seqnnnn), one of the most important rivers of Prance, rises near Mont.
Tasselot, in the middle of the dep. of Cote-d' jr. and after leaving the northern bound-
ary of that dap., flovvs w n. v. through the dep?. of Aube. Seiue-et-Marne, Seine, Seino-
et-Oiss, Euro, and Seine-Inferieure, to the E.igiish channel, wnich it reaches at Havre,
after a course of 470 miles. It passes the towas of Troyes, Mery where, 350 m. from
its mouth, it beco;nes navigable Corbeil. Paris, Elbaur', Houen, and Havre. The source
of the river is about 1420 ft. above the lovel of thj sea; but below Paris its current is.
slo'.v, a:i;l its course to Rouen is m-.irked by nu.njrous windings. Its lower coarse aha
is baake I by steep hills, which, wh.Ie tluy arj pioturesque, are everywhere cultivated.
Tue principil affluents ar^e, from the right, tha Aub3, Marno, and Oise; from the left,
the You ue, Loing, Essone, and E.ire.

SEIXS, the metropolitan dep. of France, coTriljtclf inclosed by the dop. of S'-ino-et-
Oi-'- 1 , is a portion of the former province of L'lle-d>Fraaj3, and derives its n une fro:u
th. -it of its principal river (see S-iiXE, river). It is at o;u3 the; smallest and the mo<t.
populous dep. in the empire; its urea is 18) ^.m. ; its pop. '73, 2,410,849. or 13,17i to
ttie s -\. mile. From s.e. to n.w., the dv>p. is tr iv,>n : I a distanc J of 37 in. by the winding
Sein :, wiiicli receives tin navigable M:irno at Ch irentoa, an I the Biivre at Paris. The
surface is marked by undulation* and lo.v hilh, the highest of which, Mont-Valerien, is
o;ily 446 ft. above sea level. The climite is ]ileisant an 1 healthy. The scenery of
wh'ch tiie w >o,ls of Verrieres, Msudoa, an I Saiut Cloa;l, together with those of Vin-
cenaesand Boulogne, tr.msformsd into parks, an 1 watered by artificial rivers and lakes,
are perhaps the most striking featuresis re-n irkablv pleasi'ig. A not-work of canals,
an.l railways, thtj latter converging in the capital, afford easy means of transit in any
direction. The soil is calcareous, and in tin gre-irer part, naturally infer ilc, but, owing
to the skill of the farmers and gardiners, who o')tai i abun.lant supplies of manure fro:u
th- metropolis, the country around Paris (-] v.) and its suburbs has b^en rendered
remarkably productive. The culture of veg itabl.'s and fruits for the markets of Paris
isou; of the most important branches of husbandry. Enormous quantities of mush-
rooms are cultivated in the ancient quirries of Paris near Mont rouge. Quarries abound
and are productive.

SEIN2-ET-MAENE. an inland department in the n. of France, is bounded on the e.
by the department of Seine-et-Oise, and forms a portion of that wide basin in the middle
of which stands Paris. Area, 2,214 sq.m ; pop. '76. 347,323. The department owes its
name to the two chief streams that water it, and of which the Seine flows through the
southern, and the Marne through the northern part. There are no mountains, but ridges
of low hills separate the fertile and extensive though not deep valleys. Timber is grown
in every part; and among the forests is that of Fontainebleau. The soil is generally
fertile. Of cereals wheat is the principil crop. Vegetable* and fruits are also larirely
grown, and the meadows and pastures, natural and artificial, are extensive and produc-
tive. The wines are mediocre in quality, but the grapes for the table, called the Cltas-
e&w de Fontainebkaii, have a European reputation. The capital is Mehin. and lire
arrondissements are Melun, Coulommiers, Fontainebleau, Meaux, and Provins.

SEINE-ET-OISE, a department in the n. of Franco, incloses the mefropoli an depart-
ment of Seine (q.v.). Area, 2,163 sq.m.; pop. '76, 561.990. The great rivers are the
Seine and Oise, which have numerous affluents. Extensive plains occupy the southern
districts; but in the n. the country is much broken, an, I picturesque valleys and great
forests occur. The soil is not in general very fertile; but owing to the vicinity of the
tapital the amount of produce is great. Among the minerals are several fine varieties of



and the capital is Versailles.

SEINE-INTEBIETJBE, a maritime department of France, bounded on the n.w. by Die
English cuaiuiel, and on the s by the department of Eure. Area, 2,328 sq.m. ; pop. '76,
798,414. The Seine flows through the southern districts; but a number of important

t though small streams flow u.w. across the department and fall into the channel. The
range of the hills of Caux extends from e. to \v., and to the s. of it are rich pasture-lands,
watered by the Seine and its affluents. Husbandry flourishes chiefly in the middle and
in the e. districts. The coasts are formed of chalk-clilfs, varying in height from 200 to
650 feet. The arrondissemeuts are Dieppe, Le Havre, Koueu, Neufchatel, and YvetoL
The capital is Rouen, which communicates with Dieppe by a direct line of railway.

SEIE-FISH, Cybium guttatum, a fish of the family scomberida, having finlets, and th*
sides of tne tail keeled, the teeth compressed and siiakp. It inhabits the seas of the East
Indies, and is one of their moi-t valuable fishes. In size and form it is very similar to
the salmon, which its flesh resembles also in firmness and flavor, although of a white


SEISS, JOSEPH AUGUSTUS, D.D.. b. Md., 1823; pastor of a Lutheran church in Balti-
more; in 1809 became pastor of St. John's church, Philadelphia. He is an earnest
advocate of Millenariantrtn, and a vigorous and copious writer; lias published Lectures
on Hebrews; 'Hie, Last Tiinea; Threatening Ruin; Tlte Baptist System Examined; Th
Gospel in Leviticus; Day of the Lord; A Miracle in Stone, or the Great Pyramid of
Egypt; Voices from Babylon, or the liecords of Daniel the Prophet. He is oue of the
editors of the Lutheran and Missionary, and The Prophetic Times.

SEISTAN', a province in s.w. Afghanistan, drained by the Ilclmund, Khasli-Rud,
flarut, and other rivers flowing into tne lake of beislan or Hamoon; about 9.30 sq. in. ;
poo. about 50,000. About half the population are Seistauis; the rest Belooches or
Afghans. Much of the surface is a fertile plain. The principal productions are wheat
and barley. The cMef town is (Jhurkuusur. Capital, Lekuha.

SEISTAN or HAMOON LAicn (nnc. Ari<i Palux), a large, irrogularly-sliapcd, shallow
lake of Afghanistan, bordered with plantations of tamarisk and other trees, and inclosed
6y the province of Seistan. It is 25 parasangs (a parasang = 3.45 English m.) in length,
and it varies from 6 to 13 ] arasangs iu breadth. It is difficult to fix accurately the form
and posiiion of the lake, but the most recent explorations seem to confirm gen. Fcrrier,
who says that it is in lat. r.bont 31 to 32 n., and that it lies obliquely from 60" Ions:, iu
the n. to 59 long, in the south. It wns visited in 1872 by maj Lovett and fir Richard,
Pollock. Of the rivers which feed the lake, none, except the Helmund, contribute any
waters during the summer, as they are then diverted for the irrigation of the land. Tho
lake, which has no outlet, overflow's its boundaries and fertilizes large tnicts of country.
It is only about 4 ft. deep, and the depth in various parts is constantly altering from
Hie shifting nature of the bottom. Its waters are black and disagreeable to the taste.'
Seistan is a corruption of Saghistan i.e., the country of the saghis. a kind of wood
which grows here in abundance, and is largely used as fuel. See Fenier's Caratan
JVal*te{Lond. Murray, 1856).

SE JANT, or Assis (Fr.). in heraldry , is the term of blazon applied to a benst m his
usual sitting posture. A lion borne in full face, with liis fore-paws extended sideways,
fc blazoned sejant affronte, as in the crest of Scotland.



SELBY. a market t. nnd river-port in the West Riding of Yorkshire, on the right bank
of the Ouse. 12 m. P. of York by railway. The ancient Gothic cross which adorns the
inarket-plnrc, and the character of the architecture of the houses attest the nge of the
town. The magnificent parish rhurch, 300 ft. lonsr by 60 ft. wide, i* part of an abbey
founded by the Conqueror in 1068. The movable bridge across the river offers a passnge
to shipping, and the river is navigable to Selby for vessels of 200 tons. Means of com-
munication by railway and canal are abundant. There iron and brass foundries, and
slips for building river craft; and the manufactures include sail-cloth, ropes, etc. Pop.
"71, 6.193.

SELDEN, JOHN, an illustrious English scholar nnd lawyer, was b. Dec. 16, 1584. near
Wortlrin-r, in Sussex; studied at Hart Hall. Oxford, for three years, and then removed,
first to Clifford's inn. London, and afterward to the inner temple, for the pursuit of law.
It was here that his great learning began to attract attention, and won for him the friend-
ship of Camden, Usher, sir Robert Cotton, and sir Henry Spelman. Selden wrote his
fir^t treatise which related to the civil government of Britain previous to the Norman
conquest, and was entitled Anateeton Anfllo-Brifannj'con, in 1606, when only 22 years of
age. though it was not published till nine years later. In 1610 appeared liis Jrtnl
Anglorum Fades Altera, (English translation, 1683), giving an account of the common and


statute law of English 35r?ttany to the death of Henry II. ; and in 1614 was published
his Title* of lloiwur, a wx>rk siili regarded as of high authority on the subject of which it
treats. Three years later appeau>",l an erudite, but, judging from what Le Clerc says,
not a very critical or well-digested, work on the Syrian gods, especially in their connec-
tion with the Old Testament, entitled DG Diis Syni#, Hyiitafjmata Duo. Isext .year, how-
ever, he excited great indignation among the clergy by his Trtutixe of Tyilus, in \\hich
he endeavored to prove that tithes ure not due by "divine right under Christianity, but
solely because the law has imposed them. Selden was assailed with diatribes, aniinad-
versions, additional animadversions, historical vindications of the jus tlitimtm of tithes,
etc. ; but it does not appear that the arguments were very convincing to Seleien. In
1021 he suffered a brief imprisonment lor advising the parliament to repudiate Uing
James's doctrine that their privileges were originally royal grants; in Ki23 he was elected
member for Lancaster, and from this period till his death lie took a considerable p;:rt in
public affairs, yet not such as to materially interfere with the continuance of scholarly
pursuits. Selden's political position is somewhat difficult to define. There is no doubt
that he was sincerely attached to the cause of the parliament, am', as sincerely opposed
to the views of the court party and the king. But he \v;.s above all things a constitu-
tional lawyer, and derived his ideas of the "rights of the subject from the history of the
nation, and not from religious fanaticism or metaphysical considerations. (Still, he
" loved his ease," according to Clarendon (who has painted Selden's portrait in nis usual
fine style), and so let things be done without protest, of which he did not approve. Per-
sonally, he was rather a favorite with king Charles, on account of his learning and mod-
eration. In 1(530 he was committed to the tower for his activity in opposing the policy
of the court, and remained a prisoner for four years, when lie was released through the
iavor of archbishop Laud and the lord treasurer; in 1640 l.e was chosen number for the
university of Oxford; and now, when the struggle between the king and the nation
began to grow dead-earnest, lie was occasionally suspected of not being zealous enough
by such as were themselves perhaps over-zealous. He threw the weight of his learning
and argument into the scale against the bishops (toward whom, like" Milton and other
lay-champions of freedom, l.e 1'elt a peculiarly strong antipathy), \\hen the question
came up as to their tenure of seats in parliament; he \\ as one of those who drew up the
articles of impeachment against Laud; he sat as a lay-member in the assembly of divines
nt "Westminster, 1643, and perplexed his clerical colleagues sadly. In 1044 he was
elected one of the twelve commissioners of the admiralty; in lC46thesum of 5,000 was
voted to him by parliament, in consideration of his services and sufferings; in 164? he
was appointed one of the university "visitors," r.r.d always used his influence to moder-
ate the tyranny of his fanatical colleagues. After ll:e execution of C harks (of which it
is certain he strongly disapproved, :"s both unlawful and inexpedient), he took little
share in public matters, j;nd when requested by Ciomwell to answer the Eikon Lasilike,
he refusedf His death occurred Nov. 30, 1654, in the house of Elizabeth, dowager-
countess of Kent, with whom Le Lad leng lived in sueh intimacy that people said they
were married. The principal writings of Selden, besides those already mentioned, are:
Marmora Arvndelliana (1629); He SvcceseiofibUf iiiBona Defyncti xectntdvm J.fges flcbre-
oriim (1634); De fuccexsione in Ptmtijicatvm Hebrcrorum. Lilri Duo (Level., 1688); Le Jure
Nuturali et Gentium, ji/yfa Dizciplinam Hebrwtrvm (1G40); a woik more learned than
critical (like most of Selden's biblical productions, who thought far too much of the
opinions of the Rabbins); and Vror Htbraica ; Mare Clausum (1635), a reply to Grotius's
Mare J.iberum (treatises which originated in a dispute between the English and Dutch
concerning the herring fishery upon the British coast, to which the Dutch laid claim);
DeAnno Cirili ft Calendario judaico (1646); De Synedriis et Pmfccturis Htlrccorum (16^0
etteq.); besides a great variety of posthumous works, of which the most famous, and
also the most valuable, is his Table-talk (recorded and published by his amanuensis,
Ilichard Milward, in 1689), of which Coleridge says (with considerable exaggeration,
however): "There is more weighty bullion sense in this book than I can find in the
wine number of pages of any uninspired writer." Selden was highly esteemed by all
his great contemporaries, both royalist and parliamentarian, on account of his integrity,
candor, and vast erudition; but his moral couratre or enthusiasm was not remarkable
(except when tilting at the bishops Men. like Erasmus on the monks, he was quite
heroic); and, on the whole, as compared with Milton, he occupies the level which Eras-
mus did in relation to Luther. Seldeu's works were collected and published at London
in three folio volumes (1726).

SEL D'OR, a salt employed in photography, originally to aid in fixing and improving
the image on a daguerreotype-plate, and more recently for toning positive paper-proofs.
It i* a doable hyposulphite of <rold and sodium, the constitution of which is expressed
by the formula AuO.SO s + 3NaO,S 3 O 2 + 4Ho. It is formed when 1 part of chloride of
gold in solution is added to 3 parts of hyposulphite of soda, also in solution. The hypo-
sulphite of soda should be always in excess during the mixture, a condition which ia
secured by adding the chloride of golel to the hyposulphite of soda, and not rice rersd.
The salt so formed is precipitated in fine, white, crystalline needles on the addition of
alcohol to the above mixed solutions; these are collected on bibulous paper, and gently
dried for use. Adulterations in the commercial article, which are unfortunately only


too con.mon, may be ascertained by precipitating, igniting, and weighing the gold COM
tamed in the sample it is desired to test. Nitric acid free from chlorine will decompose
this salt and precipitate its contained gold in the metallic form.

SELENE, the Greek name of the goddess of the moon; called also Mene, and in
Latin, Luna'. Her myth is differently told, but the most common account makrs her a
daughter of Hyperion and Theia, and sister of Helios (the sun) and Eos (the dawn); as
sister of Helios, also called Phoibos (the s-hiniug one), she had the name-~f Ph&be, and lat-
terly was identified with Artemis (see DIANA), though the identification was never quite
exact, as Artemis always retained her reputation for chastity, while Selene had 50
daughters hy her lover Endymion, and several by Zeus, one of whom was called Er6
(' the clew"), indicating the oiiginal physical character of the myth. Iu art the two are
always distinct. Selene is represented by the poets with long wings and a golden diadem
riding across the heavens in a chariot drawn by two white horses, cows, or mules.

8ELEKITE (Gr. Selene, the moon), a transparent and beautiful variety of gypsum
(q.v.), white, or tinged with green, gray, or yellow. It receives its name from its pecul-
iar moon-like luster. It is often crystallized in six-sided prisms, sometimes in lenses,
and twin crystals and quadruple crystals occur. It is found in common gy]>sum, in
rock-salt, in the blue clay of the s. of England, etc. There is in the British museum a
splendid group of crystals of selenite presented by the late prince Albert. Seleuite js
easily cut, and is capable of being split into extremely thin plates, which are flexible,
although not elastic. It was used by tlie ancients for some of the purposes for which
we use glass. The Romans imported it from Spain, Cyprus, Cappadocia, and Africa.
The hot-houses of Tiberius were covered with it, and Pliny mentions that it was used in
the construction of beehives by those who wished to watch the operation of the bees.
It is used for making the finest kind of stucco, and the 'most delicate pastel colors.
When burned, and perfectly dry, its powder is used for cleansing and polishing articles
of gold and silver, precious stones, and pearls.

8ELE NITTM (symb. Se, equiv. 39.5 new system, 79 and sp. gr. 4.28) is one of the
metalloid elements. At ordinary temperature, it occurs as a solid of a dark-brown color,
and when broken, presents a conchoidal vitreous fracture; thin splinters of it are, how-
ever, of a dark-red tint when seen by transmitted light. It is tasteless and inodorous, a
non-conductor of electricity; and like sulphur, to which it presents a remarkable anal-
og}', it may be obtained in all three forms of atomic aggregation, being solid up to 392,
when it fuses into a fluid, which boils at 650, emitting an inodorous vapor of a deep
yellow tint. When heated in the air, selenium does not very readily take fire, but ii is
combustible, and burns with a blue flame, while a portion of it is volatilized in red fumes
which emit an odor resembling that of bisulphide of carbon or garlic. The products
of combustion are oxide of selenium and seleuious acid, the peculiar odor being prob-
ably due to the former. ^

Selenium is of rare occurrence in nature; it is chiefly found as a selenide in combina-
tion with lead, silver, copper, or iron; but it has also' been discovered in the sulphur
from the Lipari isles, and in certain sulphides of iron, which accounts for its detection
in sulphuric acid. It is unnecessary to enter into any description of the mode of is<-,].it-
ing it; nor need we do more than simply mention that it forms three compounds with
oxygen SeO, oxide of selenium; SeO 2 , selenious acid; and SeO 3 , selenic acid: while
with hydrogen it forms HSe, seleninreted hydrogen, or hydroselenic acid, a colorless
gas, which resembles, but is more offensive than sulplmreted hydrogen. Bcrzelius
found that by the application of the nos to a bubble of it not larger than a pea. he was
deprived of the sense of smell for several hours. It is prepared in the same way as the
corresponding sulphur gas. As it is soluble in water, it should be collected over mer-

Selenium was discovered in 1817 by Berzelius, who named it from Serene, the Gr. for
"the moon." because it was associated with tellurium, which is named from Tdlus, the
Lat. for " the earth."

8ELETT CIA, the name of seven ancient cit'ies of Asia, situated in Syria. Pisidia, Pam-

Shyliu, Cilicia, Caria, and Mesopotamia, and founded during the earlier existence of the

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 75 of 203)