Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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m. by the North British railway s.s.e. of Edinburgh. The county buildings (opened
1870), the old town-hall, with a spire 110 ft. hiirh. and the monuments to sir "Walter Scott
and to Mungo Park are the principal architectural features. Selkirk has large woolen-
Tweed. hosiery, and blankets are the chief articles of manufacture. Pop. '71,
4,040. Selkirk joins with Hawick and Galashiels in sending one member to parliament.

Q 1 Selkirk.


Selkirk commands a splendid view across the valley or haugh in which the Ettrick ar.d
Yarrow meet. It is within a few miles of many of the most famous localities in Scot-
land, and is a favorite starting-point for tourists desirous of exploring the '"Scotl"
country, the " forest," the Yarrow, and St. Mary's loch. Upward of a hundred fight-
ing men went from Selkirk to join king James in his fatal march to Flodden; of these,
only four returned, but they proudly bore a standard taken from the enemy on that
occasion. The manufacture of "single-soled shoou" long flourished here, and the
" Soulers of Selkirk" are commemorated in song and story.

SELKIRKSHIRE, in ancient times called Ettrick Forest, is bounded by the counties
of Midlothian, Roxburgh, Dumfries, and Peebles, on the n., e., s., and w. respectively.
It extends in length from n. to s. about 28 m., and from e. to w. 16 to 18m., and con-
sists mainly of the two parallel valleys through which flow the rivers Ettrick and Yar-
row. Its area is 260 sq.m., or 166,5,'4 acres. Selkirkshire contains three entire par-
ishes, and party of other seven. It is in a great measure a pastoral county, and some of
the hills are of considerable altitude, being upward of 2,000 ft. in height. The hills
are rounded at the top instead of peaked, and are covered generally with grass, afford-
ing excellent pasturage, but in some places with heather. The arable land, situated from
nearly 300 to bOO ft. above sea-level, and bearing the proportion of about one-eighth of the
area, is, in general, of a light soil, and produces the ordinary crops in abundance.
Besides tlie Ettrick and Yarrow, the Tweed. Gala, and Caddon flow through parts of
the county The banks of several of these are beautifully wooded; but the extensive
woods from which the county originally took its name of the Forest, have disappeared.
According to the agricultural returns for 1876, the acreage under permanent pasturage
(exclusive of heath and mountain land) was 6,236; that of corn crops was 5,325, includ-
ing 22 acres of wheat, 660 acres of barley, and 4,636 acres of oats; that of green crops
was 3,454, embracing 2,990 acres of turnips, 180 acres of potatoes, ;.r.d 227 acres of cab-
bage, kohlrabi, and rape. The acreage under hay and grass, not included under per-
manent pasturage, was 7,676. The average of producers above that of most of the
other counties. Of horses there were 568; of cattle, 2,572; of sheep. 162.719; of swine,
447 total stock, 166,306. The old valued rent was 6,692.- The new valuation,
including the burgh, is about 110,000. This county contains some historical scenes,
among which is the field of Philipbaugh, where the marquis of Montrose was defeated
by the Covenanters under gen. Leslie. Oakwood Castle, in ruins, was the residence of
the famous wizard, Michael Scott; and Newark, also in ruins, was the residence of Anne,
duchess of Bucclcueh, where the Lity of the Last Alinstrel is represented by Scott as hav-
ing been surg. Selkirkshire is pretty well appointed for roads. The Havvick line of
the North British railway runs for a short distance along its border, from which, at
Galashiels, there is a branch to Selkirk; and the North British line from Edinburgh to
Peebles passes through its northern end from Innerleithen to Galashiels, a distance of
about 12 miles There are several places of worship, belonging to the Establishment, the
Free church, and various other dissenting bodies. There is no coal, or lime, or sand-
stone. The Douglas family, four centuries ago, were the principal proprietors. The
duke of Buccleuch now holds about two-thirds of it. The population in 1871 was
14,005, the inhabited houses 1741. Selkirkshire and Peeblesshire conjoined return one
member to parliament.

SEL'TERS WATER (commonly but incorrectly written teltzer water), takes its name
from the village of Lower Sellers near Limburg, in the duchy of Nassau, where several
springs united, in one basin, yield 5,000 cubic ft. an hour of 'this sparklingand efferves-
cing mineral water. Its chief ingredients are carbonic acid, carbonate of soda, and com-
mon salt. It acts as a mild stimulant of the mucous membranes and as a diuretic; and
is applied in chronic disorders of the digestive, respiratory, and urinary organs. It is
much recommended as a beverage, either alone or with sugar, to those suffering from
liver complaint, and in hot climates and seasons. More than 1 millions of jars or bot-
tles of this famous water are exported yearly to all quarters of the world, affording to
the state a revenue of above 6,000. The spring was discovered early in the 16th c.,
but was at first so little prized, that in the middle of the 18th c. it was rented for 4s.
The water is little drunk at the spring. Artificial sellers water is extensively manufac-
tured both on a large scale and for domestic use. See AERATED WATERS.

SELMA, a city in Alabama; co. seat of Dallas co., on the n. bank of the Alabama
river; pop. '70, 6,484. It is on elevated land far above the bed of the river, which flows
at the base of a steep bluff; and is on the Selma and Gulf railroad, and the New Orleans
and Selma, the s. terminus of the Alabama Central, making connections here with the
Western railroad, and the Selma, Marion and Memphis. It is 160 m. from Mobile by
the river, 44 m. direct. It has 16 churches, 2 banks 1 national, 2 public schools, 2
academies, a court-house, 5 newspapers, and is lighted by gas. During the late war it
supplied the confederates with shot and shell, having factories for the manufacture,
niter work*, artillery works, an arsenal, and a navy-yard. It is the depot for a large
exportation of cotton, more than 80,000 bales being shipped from here annually.
Amonir the manufactories are cotton-mills, iron-works, oil-works, steam lumber-mills,
manufactories of car-wheels, railroad and machine-shops, a steam cotton-press; and it
has 6 cotton warehouses.

Sclrryn. QQQ


SELWYN, GEOKGE AUGUSTUS, P.D. ; b. England, 1809; educated at St. John's col-
lege, Cambridge; tutor at Eton, and for a while rector at Windsor; consecrated iu 1641
Lisho;) of New Zealand, where lie labored for many years. In 1867 lie was appointed
bishop of Licufield. In 1874 he visited the United Suites and Canada. His published
works are; Are Cathedral I institutions Usele**? ten/ton..*; Tribal Ana! f/xit of ike Bible; The
Work <>f Christ in t/ie World. His brother William. 1806-75, was professor of divinity at
Cambridge in 1833, and one of the English revisers of the authorized version of the Old

SEM APHOEE (from se,mn, a sign, and phero, I bear) was the name applied to the sys-
tem of telegraphy in use before the application of the electric current. Semaphores were
first established by the French in 1794, as a plan for convey ing intelligence from the cap-
ital to the armies on the frontier. lii the following year, lord George Murray introduced
them in England; and by their means the board of admiralty were placed within a few
minute* of Deal. Portsmouth, or Plymouth. These semaphores consisted of towers built
at intervals of from 5 to 10 m., on commanding sites. On the top of each tower was the
telegraph apparatus, which at first comprised 6 shutters arranged in 2 frames, by the
opening and shutting of which, in various combinations. 63 distinct signals could be
formed. In 1816 sir Home Popham substituted a mast with 2 arms, similar to many of
the present railway signals. The arms were worked from within the tower b}' winches
in the look-out room, where a powerful telescope in either direction constantly commanded
the mast of the next station. If a fog set iu at any point on the route, the message was
delayed; otherwise, when a sharp look-out was kept, the transmission was very rapid.
For instance, the hour of one by Greenwich time was always communicated to Ports-
mouth when the ball fell at Greenwich; the seLiiaphores were ready for the message, and
it commonly passed from London to Portsmouth and the acknowledgment back to Lon-
don within three quarters of a minute. Each station was in the charge of a naval officer
usually a lieut. with one or two men under him. To save the cost of this establish-
ment, the Deal anJ Plymouth lines fell into disuse soon after the peace of 1815; and the
superior advantages of the electric telegraph being incontestable, the Portsmouth line sent
its last message Dec. 31, 1817, and, on land at least, the semaphore closed its career of
usefulness for ever. In calm weather, when flags will nt extend, semaphores are
employed on board ship as a means of signaling from, vessel to vessel, or to the shore; in
such a case, the post containing the arms is movable, and can be readily shipped or
unshipped near the stern. See also SIGNALS.

SE'ME, in heraldry. When a charge is repeated an indefinite number of times so as to
produce the appearance of a pattern, the term items (som3times asperse! or powdered) ia
applied to it. When a' field is seme, it is treated as if it were cut out of a larger extent
of surface, some of the charges being divided by the outline of the shield. The term
crustily denotes seme of cross crosslets, and bttletty sema of billets.

SEMECARPrS, a genus of trees of the n-ituml order anacardiacetv. The MARKING
NUT of India is 8. anacardium, a tree 50 ft. high, growing on mountains. The swollen
receptacle of the flower becomes a succulent fruit, eatable when roasted, but astringent
and asrid when raw. On the receptacle is seated the nut, which is heart-shaped and
black, consisting of a kernel not unwholesome, although rarely eaten surrounded by
two skins, between which is a black acrid juice. This juice is used in medicine as an
external apolication to heal rheumatism, etc. It is al-;o in gem-nil use in Indi.i for mark-
ing cotton cloth; and the color is improved, and running prevented, b\ r the addition of a
little quicklime and water. The wood of the tree contains so much acrid juice that it is
dangerous to work upon.



SEMEIIDRIA, a frontier fortress of the principality of Servia (q.v.), stands amid
romantic scenery on the right bank of the Danube, 28 m. s.e. of Belgrade. The inhab-
itants, about 12,000 in number, are employed principally in the wine-culture, in breeding
hogs, and in general trade. It was at one time the seat of the Servian kings; and it has
been frequently stormed by the nations who have contended for the Danube from tfie
middle ages to the present century.

SEMIBEETS, in music, a note of half the duration of the breve of old ecclesiastical
music, but the longest note in use in modern music. It is represented by a character cir-
cular or elliptical in form ~jgiz and is adopted as the integer or measure-note, the other

poles minim, crotchet, quaver, etc. being proportional parts of it.

SEMI-DEMI-SEMIQUAVER, a musical note, of which 8 are equivalent to a quaver,

82 to a minim, and 64 to a semibrcve. It is represented thus, jj^V^ or in groups




SEWTK'OLES, a tribe of American Indians, originally a vagrant branch of the Creeks,
whose name, Seminole, signifies wild or reckless. In 1705 they aided in driving the
Appalachea from Florida; and in 1817 they joined with the Creeks and some negroes
who had taken refuge with them, ravaged ihe white settlements in Georgia, plundering
plantations, and carrying off slaves, whom they rei'used to surrender. Gen. Jackson, sent
to punish them, took at the same time several Spanish forts, and hastened ihe negotia-
tions which ended in the cession of Florida to the United States. At this cession in 1823,
the Semiuoles engaged to relire into the interior, and not molest the settlers; but as the
negroes continued to take refuge wilh them, a treaty was made with some of the chiefs,
in 1882, for the removal of the whole tribe west of the Mississippi. This treaty wj 3
repudiated by the tribe, at the instigation of Osceola (q.v.), one of their chiefs; and a
War commenced against a handful of savages, which lasted eight years, and cost thou-
sands of lives, and ten millions of dollars. In the end, the remains of the tribe were
removed to the Indian territory on the borders of Arkansas.

SEMIPALATINSK', an extensive Russian territory in central Asia, is bounded on the
e. and s. by 'lomsk, the Chinese empire, and Turkestan. Area, 170,000 ; pop. '70,
510,103. It is separated ironi Turkestan on the south by the Alexandrian mountains
in hit. 42 oO' 11., anil it is traversed by several other mountain chains. The ehiif rivers
are the Irtish, lli, and Chui; and among the lakes are those of Lssik-Kul, Ala-Ku), and
Balkash. The country abounds in pasturage, and cuttle form almost the sole wealth of
the inhabitants, although the precious metals, together with lead and copper, are found.
Steamers ply on the groat rivers and lakes. Beinipalatmsk, the capital, stands on the
left bank of the Irtish, in hit. about 50 15 north. It is the seat of ail important transit
trade, and contains (18157) 14,135 inhabitants.

SEMI-PELA'GIANISM, a modification, n<* the name implies, of the doctrine of the
Pelagians as to the powers of the human will, and as to the effects to be attributed to the
action of tlu supernatural grace of God, and of the divine decree for ihe predestination
of the elect. The Pelagians\q. v.), discarding altogether the doctrine of the fall of Adam,
and the idea that the powers of the human will had been weakened through original .sin,
taught that man, without any supernatural gift from God, is able, by own natural
powers, to fulfill ihe entire law, and to do every act which is necessary for Ihe attain-
ment of eternal life. The condemnation of Ibis doctrine by Ihe several councils held in
the early part of the 5th c. is capable of various constructions, and has been urged by
some to the extreme of denying altogether the liberty of man, and converting the human
will into a merely passive instrument, whether of divine grace upon the one Land, or of
sinful concupiscence upon the other. The writings of St. Augustine on this controversy
have been differently construed by the different Christian communions( see PELAGIANS);
and Ihe same diversity of opinion existed in his own day. Among those who, dissenting
from the extreme view of Pelagius, at the same time did not go to the full length of tho
Augiistini in writings in opposition to Pelagius, were some monks of the southern prov.
inces of Gaul, and especially of Marseilles, whence their school was called Massilian,
from the Latin name (Mvt*i/.i) of that city. Of these leaders, the chief was a priest
named Cassian. who had be"n a deacon at Constantinople. Of the system which
he propounded, without going into the details, although many of them are exceedingly
curious and interesting, it will be enough to say that it upheld the sufficiency of
man's natural powers only so far as regards the first act of conversion to God and
the initial act of man's repentance, for sin. Every man naturally possesses the capa-
bility of beginning the work of self-conversion; but for all ulterior acts, as well as
for the completion of justification, the assistance of God's grace is indispensable. The
Semi-Pelagian doctrine is often confounded with that of the Molinistic (sec MOLINA)
school of ll>man Catholic theology; but there is one essential difference, vi/., that the
latter persistently maintain the necessity of grace for all supernatural act-, even for the
beginning of conversion, although they" are generally represented as agreeing with the
Semi-Pelagians as to the modeof explaining the freedom of the human will acting under
the influence of divine grace. The chief writers in the controversy were Prosper, Hilary,
and Fulgentius; and the question was referred to Celesline, bishop of Home in 431. It
continued, however, to be agitated in the west for a considerable time. Faustus, bishop
of Riex, toward the end of the oth c., revived the error, and it was condemned in a
council held at Aries in 475, and still later in a synod (the second) held at Orange (Arau-
sio) in 525, and again in the third council of Valence in 530

SEMIPLE'NA tROBA'TIO, in Scotch law, is that kind of half-proof, half-suspicion,
which was usually given in cases of affiliating a bastard, as well as in a few other cases.
It was a species of primd ftvie evidence; ami when considered by the court sufficient, it
was eked out by the oath of the p-irty, called an oath in supplement. The praclical
effect of the admission of parties as witnesses, under 16 Viet. c. 0. has been to do away
\vithoaths in supplement, the parties beingusually the principal witnesses, and the court
'deciding from a consideration of the balance of credibility between them

SEillQIAVEE, a musical note, represented thus, - * or in groups thus,


* * *

equivalent in value to \ of a quaver, \ of a crotchet, \ of a minim, or ^ of

a semibreve.

SEMI QTJTETISM, a form of mystical asceticism which, while it adopts the theoreti-
cal principle tliat the most perfect state of the soul is that of passive contemplation, and
denies, iu certain conditions of the soul, the necessity of prayer or other active manifes-
tations of virtue, yet maintains the incompatibility of this passive contemplation -with
any external sinful or sensual action. The Semi-Quietists thus differed from the grossei
sectaries referred to under QUIETISM.



SEMITONE, in music. The name given to the smaller intervals in the diatonic scale,
as K F or \j C, in which the ratio is as 15 to 16. In the pianoforte, the interval between
an}' two notes between which no other note is interposed, as C to Ctj or Up to B, is a

SEMLEE, JOHANN SALOMO, one of the most influential German theologians of the
18th c., \vus born Dec. 18, 1725, at Saalfeld, where his father was archdeacon; educated
at Halle, ar.d in 1749 went to Coburg as professor at the .gymnasium. In 1751 he was
appointed a professor of theology at Halle, where he t; ugYit with great success; and six
years later, became director of the theological seminary there. He died Mar. 14, 1791.
tremh-r was, in the early part of his student-career, somewhat of a Pietist, but the pre-
lections of Sigm. Jak. Baumgartenmay be said to have revolutionized his religious con-
victions, and swung him round to rationalism, of which he was the first systematic
exponent. Sender's rationalism, however, was always moderate in degree, though defi-
nite enough in kind. As a thinker, he was deficient in philosophical consistency and
breadth 01 view; and as a writer he possessed no literary skill or grace; but his works
are valuable for the spirit of historical criticism. by which they are pervaded. The
principal are: Apparatus ad Ubcralciu Vcteris Tistamenti Interpretaiumem (Hade, 1713),
Ab]i(titlvr<g fan dcr U7itirmiclfung des Kano-n* (4 vols., Halle, 1771-75), l)e Dainohiacis
(Halle. 176U), Uinistautiliche Untcravchviiff der Daemomxchen Lauie (Halle, 1762), Vtrsitch
eincr Biblischen Dacmoiwloyic (Halle, 1776), Sclecta Capita Hiatorw Ecdexin*iic<f (8 vols.,
Halle. 1767-69), Commentaliones Historical de Antique Chrintianorum Malu (2 vols., Halle
1771-72), Vei'tsiich Christlicher Jahrlucher oder auxfilhrhche Tabctten iiber die l\ireJicnge-
scliichte bis avfo Jalir. 1500 (2 vols., Halle, 1783-86), Obterratione* notes, qi/ibus Ilistoiia
Clirintianortim vtque ad Constantmum Magnvm ilhistratur (ITalle, 1784). iSe'e his
Lcbcntbexhretbunff ton iftm telbst terfasst (Halle, 1781-82), Wolf Uiber Vernier'* Icizte
Lebcmtaffc (Halle, 1791), H. Sehmid, Theologie Sender'* (1858), and Tholuck in his Ver-
misclitc Schriften.

6ZETIIII. a frontier t. of Austria, in the military frontier, stands on a tongue of lard
at the junction of the Save and Danube, on the right bank of the latter, opposite Bel-
grade. "Within recent years the town has been much improved, though even yet a sub-
urb consisting of mud huts thatched with reeds stretches along the Danube. The only
noteworthy edifices arc the churches, the German theater, and the lazaretto (Cont-umae),
the chief quarantine station in the whole of the military frontier. At this institution,
travelers crossing from Turkey are compelled to remain a greater or less time some-
limes 40 days in proportion to" the violence and proximity of the plague. The reason
why the principal lazaretto is here is that Semlin is the great seat of the Turco- Austrian
transit-trade, and the principal ferry for passengers from Christendom to the land of the
Moslem. Pop. '69, 8,915. For a graphic notice of Semlin, see Kinglake's Eothen.

SEMMEEING, a mountain on the borders of Styria and Austria, and 44 English m.
s.w. by w. from Vienna, is 4,416 ft. above the level of the sea. The Vienna, Gratz, and
Trieste Railway has been carried across this mountain by a series of ingenious engineer-
ing contrivances. See GLOGGNITZ.

SEMMES. RAPHAEL, American naval officer, was b. in Maryland about 1810, in 1828
entered as midshipman in the sloop of war Lexington, and was employed in the service
as passed midshipman and lieutenant until 1855. when he attained the rank of com-
mander. In 1858 he was appointed secretary to the lighthouse board; but resigned
Mf.r. ','fi, 1861, joined the naval service of the confederate" states, and was appointed to
the command of the Avar steamer, Snmter. The career of captain Semmes until the
sinking of his famous ship, the Alabama, by the American war-steamer Kersarge, is
described at length in the article ALABAMA. Captain Semmes. with 13 of his officers
and most of his men, was rescued from drowning by the yacht Deerltound, and brought
to Ens-land, where he expected to take command of one of two rams built at Liverpool
for the confederates, but which were seized by the British government. He returned to
America, was included in the surrender, and was elected judge of probate at Mobile,
Alabama; b ;t being prohibited by the federal authorities, he was, in 1866, appointed
profess* >r o: moral philosophy in a southern university. Pie published the Cruize of the
Alabama and ili-e Sumter, in 1864; and My Adventures Afloat in 1869

OOp; Semi.


SEMNOPITHE'CTTS, a genus of monkeys, natives of the east, having a very- long, slen-
der, power!' ully muscular, although not prehensile tail. The canine teeth are long, but
the molar teeth are more tuberculous than in Gibbons (q.v.) and other allied monkeys,
indicating a greater aptitude for vegetable food. With this the structure ;>f ihe stomach
corresponds, which is very remarkable, and different from that of aii oilier animals;
consisting of a cardiac pouch, slightly bifid at the extremity; a very wide middle por-
tion, formed of numerous pouches or sacs; and a very long canal, furnished with
sacs at its commencement but simple toward its termination. Professor Owen has been
careful, however, to point out that these three portions do not correspond to any of the
parts of the stomach of a ruminant animal, not exhibiting any such diversities in their
internal surface. Tiie species are numerous. The entellus (q.v.) monkey is one of them.
Another is the negro moakey (S. maurux) of Java, remarkable for its jet-black color and
long silk}- hair.

SEMOLI'NA (Semola or Semoule), an article of food much used in France and Italy,
and to a small extent in Britain, and other countries. It consists of particles of wheat
varying in size from grain.'- of sand to small millet. Only the hard-grained wheats
of Spain, Odvssa, and southern Italy are adapted for making it; these hard wheats are
not easily reduced to flour, and small particles escape being crushed bv the mill-stones,
and will not pass through I he sieves these constitute semolina. In France more atten-
tion is paid to this article- t urn in any other country; and as it fetches a higher price
than flour, the skillful miller so adjusts his mill - as to produces considerable quau-
tity. The granules of semolina are of various sizes, and they are carefully separated by
sieves, the openings of which are from fine to coarse. A favorite kind of bread made of

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 77 of 203)