Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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the coarser kinds of semolina (the semoule of the French) is sold in Paris under the
name of yrnmt. In Italy it is used in making polenta, in common with maize, meal, and
millet; and in Britain it is used for puddings.

SEMPACH. a small t. of Switzerland, ia the canton of Lucern?, an 1 9 m. by railway
n.w. of the town ot that name, stands on thee. shore of the lake of Sempach. It is sur-
rounded with wails, now in a ruinous condition, ha-i a population of a'little over 1000,
and was one of the outposts of the confederate c int >ns ag linst their Suabi in and Austrian
assailants in the 14th century. Under the walls of Sempach took place the second great
conflict of the confederated S.viss cantons with Austria. Leopold's army of 4 000 horse
Sncl 1400 f<
oppos
bein<:

into a solid an I compact body, which was at once ciiarged by the LucL'rners; but the
wall of steel was impenetrable, and not a m.in of \]\n Austrims was even wounded, while
60 of the bravest of Lucerne, with their !and-im in, fell. The mountaineers were begin-
ning to despair of m iking an impression on their apparently invulnerable opponents,
when Arnold von Wiukclried, a knight of Uaienvaldjn, seized with a noble inspiration.
rushed forward, grasped with outstretched arms as m.iny pikes a> he could rea-jh, buried
them in his bosom. and bore them by his weig'it to the earth. His companions rushed
over his body into the breach thus made, slaughtered the armor-encumbered knights like
sheep, and threw the remainder into the utmost confusion and dismay. The conflict
continued in an irregular unniur for some time longer, but the result was a decisive vic-
tory for the Swiss, who had lost only 200 men; while the loss of the Austrian* was tea
times as great, including 600 counts, barons, and knights. The body of ilikc Leopold,
who had throughout displayed the most obstin-ite valor, was fpunl next day buried
amomr a heap of slain. The anniversary of this great vietorv is still celebrated by prayer
and thanksgiving on the field of battle.

SEMPER. GOTTFIUED, 1804-79; b. Hamburg; studied architecture in Italy and
Greece; professor at the academy of art in Dresden, and at the school of architecture
1834-40; became involved in political difficulties and went to London. lie tausrht at the
Royal academy for a few years, and in 1856 went to Zurich as teacher in the polytechnic
institute. His greatest works are the observatory at Zurich, the festt heater. -it MuniHi, the
new theaters at Dresden and Darmstadt, and the museum and imperial palace in Vienna.
He published Die mer E'ementc der Bmtkunst (1851), and Der Styl in den Tcchnisdien und
Tektonischen Kunsten, 2 vols. (1860-65).

SEMPEEVI VTJM. See HOUSE-LEEK.

SENATE. See ROME.

SENATE, UXITED STATES, the upper house of congress; composed of twice
as many members as there are states in the union, the two members from each state
being elected by the respective state legislatures, to hold office for six ycjirs. The
senators are held to represent the local sovereignty of their respective states. All
bills in congress must pass both houses to become laws: thouch these may originate in
either house. Of special functions, the senate possesses that of ratifying treaties with
foreign powers; of confirming nominations to office made by the president, and of sit-
ting as a high court of impeachment in case of the trial of public officials. The different
states have each an upper house corresponding in its duties and powers with the United
States senate.



ic conieuaraiea s.viss cantons witn Austria. Ljeopoiua army or 4,UUU horse
id 1400 foot arrived before ri:::np:ich 0:1 July 9, 1333, an 1 found itself unexpectedly
p posed by the confederated Swiss to the number of 13)0. The nature of the ground
jing uniitted for the action of cavalry, the luiigiits dismounted, and formed themselves



* ena *? 8 - 336

SciieHe.

SENATTTS ACADEM'ICT/S, one of the governing bodies in the Scottish universities,
consisting of tiie principal and professors. It is charged with the superintendence and
regulation of discipline, and the administration of the university properly and revenues,
which last function, since the universities Scotland act of 1858, the senatus exercises sub-
ject to the control and review of the university court. Degrees are conferred by the
eenatus through the chancellor or vice-chancellor. The principal is president, and,
besides his deliberative vote, has a easting vole. In his absence, the senior professor
present acts as chairman, who has also a double vote. One-third of the scnatus is
required to form a quorum.

SENDOMIR or SANDOMIU MOUNTAINS. See RADOM.

SENECA, a co. in central New York, having Cayuga lake and Seneca river on the
e., Seneca lake, form ing two-thirds of its \v. boundary; 325 sq.rn. ; pop. '80, ~ ( J.2? ( J 25,315
of American birth, 247 colored. It is drained by tue Seneca and Clyde livers. Its sur-
face is hilly; its soil fertile, producing grain, potatoes, flax, dairy products, and live
stock. It is intersected by the New "iork Central, the Geneva, Ithaca and Athens
railroads, and the Erie, Cayuga and Seneca canal. Its manufactures consist of carriages,
wagons, fire-engines, iron castings, machinery, woolen goods, malt, leather, ale and beer,
etc. Co. seats, Ovid and AVaterloo.

SENECA, a co. in n. Ohio, intersected by the Lake Erie and Western, the Cincin-
nati. Saudusky and Cleveland, the Baltimore and Ohio railroads, and the Northwestern
Ohio which terminates at Tiffin; 540sq.ui.: pop. '80,36,955 33, 184 of American birth. 141
Colored. It is drained by the Sandusky river, Honey Rock and Green creeks. Its surface
is level, largely covered with forests of live oak, hickory, ash, and building timber, with
occasional groves of beech and sugar-maple. Its agricultural products are grain, pota-
toes, wool, fruit, butter, etc. Stock-raising is one of the most important industries, and
the manufactures are agricultural implements, carriages, wagons, iron castings, \\ooleus,
etc. Co. seat, Tuliu.

SENECA, M. ANN/EUS, the rhetorician, was born at Corduba (Cordova) in Spain.
The time of his birth is doubtful, probably about 61 B.C. He seems to have been in
Rome during the early period of the power of Augustus. He was rich, belonged to tho
equestrian order, and enjoyed the friendship of many distinguished Romans. From
Rome lie returned to Spain' where he married Helvia, and had by her three sous. Tho
time of his death is uncertain; but he probably lived till the close of the reign of Tibe-
rius, and died in Rome or Italy. His extant works are Contivcersiarum Libri X., and
Suasoriuntm Liber, neither of "which is complete. They are elaborately rhetorical in
style, but do little to support the fame of their author, who is more remembered for his
prodigious memory than for anything else.

SEI72CA. L. ANX.KUS, son of M. Axx^rs. and a celebrated philosopher, was also
born at Corduba, a few years B.C. When a child, he was brought b^v his father to Rome,
where he was initiated in the study of eloquence. He cared more, however, for phi-
losophy, in which his first teacher was the Pylhngorean Sotioti, whom he afterward left
to follow Attalu,s the Stoic. He traveled in Greece and Eirypt; and, in obedience to
his father's wishes, he pleaded in courts of law; but, notwithstanding his forensic tri-
umphs, he left the bar from fear of Caligula's jealousy. On entering into public life, ho
filled the oflir-e of quaestor, and had already risen high in the favor of the emperor Clau-
dius, when he w?? accused of an adulterous connection with Julia, the daughter of-Ger-
ttianicus, and wife of Vinicius. He was exiled to Corsica, w here ho remained for eight
years, deriving from philosophy what consolation he could, while incessantly complain-
ing with a by no means philosophic qucrulousness, and appealing to the emperor for
pardon. When Claudius married his second wife. Asrrippina, Seneca was recalled by
her influence, raised to the prselorship, and appointed instructor of her son Nero. On
the death of his uovernor and military tutor, Durrus, Nero gave way to his depraved
passions with a force which Seneca could not control. All his influence over his pupil
was lost, but he profited by his extravagant bounty to such a degree that his accumulated
wealth amounted lo 300,000 sestertia, or to 3.421,870 of our money. Nero soon began
to look with envious eyes on this fortune; and Seneca, to avert dangerous consequences,
offered, with much tact, to refund to the emperor his gifts, and beirged leave to retirt on
. a sn.nll allowance. This Nero declined ; and Seneca, under pretense of illness, shut him-
self up and refused to appear in public. Nero then attempted to have him poisoned,
but failed. A short time afterward, Antonius Natalis. when on his trial for participat-
ing in the conspiracy of Piso. implicated Seneca as one of the conspirators. This was
quite enough to fix Seneca's guilt. lie was sentenced to put himself to death. His wife,
Paullina, declared her resolution to die with him, and, in spite of his remonstrances,
accompanied him into the bath in which, according to his own choice, he was to be bled
to death. The emperor, however, would not allow Paullina, to die. but removed her
from her husband, who gradually expired. Go A.D. Seneca's extant writing are mainly
on mor.-'l subjects, and consist of Epistles, and of Treatises on Anger. Consolation, Provi-
dence. Tranquillity of Mind. Philosophical Constancy. Clemency, The Shortness <-f Life,
A Happy Life, Philosophical Retirement, and Benefits. He also speculated on physical
phenomena, and wrote seven books entitled Q/nextioiies Nuturales, in which he is thought



Senefl*.

to have anticipated some notions regarded as principles in modern physics. Ten trage-
dies, ascribed to him by Quintilian, and generally included in editions of his works, have
also come down to us; but whether he is really their author remains still a dubious and
debated point. Some allege that they were the work of his father, Seneca the rhetori-
cian; some that they must be attributed to another Seneca. They were not intended,
and are certainly net adapted, for the stage. They are overcharged with declamation;
and, if rich in moral sentiments, arc wanting in dramatic life. Of his genuine ] roso
writings, modern opinion takes a divided view; some critics praising his practical f-agao-
ity, others finding him wanting in speculative reach. It is perhaps a signiiicant fact,
that he is admired by French scholars and disparaged by German. One of the best i ui
tions of the prose works is the Bipontine, 1800; of the tragedies, that of Bothe, lbl'->.

SKXECA FALLS, a village in Seneca township, Seneca co., N. Y., on the Seneca rivei
or creek, and 16 m. w. of Auburn; on the N. Y. Central lailroad, near lake Cayuga;
pop. '70, 5,890. There is a fall of about 50 feet in the liver, from which the village is
named, which furnishes water-power for manufactories of pumps, fire-engines, blinds,
gashes, flouring and saw nulls, etc. There are '6 banks, 2 weekly papers, and 7 churches^

SENECA LAKE, me of a range of narrow lakes in the western part of the state of
New York. It is 87m. from n. to s., and from 2 to 4 m. in width, 441 ft. above the
Atlantic, 680 ft. deep, and was never known to be frozen over until Mar., 1856. It is
navigated by steamboats from its head to the pretty village of Geneva at its mouth, and
empties itself by the Seneca and Oswego rivers into lake Ontario. It takes its name
from the Seneca Indians, one of the Six nations.

SENEGAS, a tribe of Indians, of the Six Nations, living in the state of New York
TV. of Seneca lake. Iheir tribal name is Tsonnundawaor.o, or "people of the great hill,''
receiving the name of Seuecas from Dutch settlers who called them Sinnekaas. The
tribe was originaiiy divided into < ight families, the Turtle, Snipe. Hawk, Bear, Heaver,
Wolf, Deer, and Heron; and they gained from corqnend iribcs the Scannouaenrat
(Hurons), and a majority of the Neuters, the Erics. ;:nd ^u.-quchannas. They were
visited by missionaries in the 17th c. Chr.umonot in 1657, and Fremin in 1668. La
Salle built a block-house at Niagara without molestation, and the French built a fort
there in 1712; but the Indians were hostile from lime to time, and left the confederation
of the Six .Nations to join Poutiac in his league against the English, destroying Venango
and making an assault on fort Niagara in 1708. They were on the side of England
during the revolution, and in 1719 their villages were destroyed by gen. Sullivan
They joined in the fort Stanwix treaty in 1784, selling most of their lands in the
Genesee valley, and nxmdto lake Eiie and the Ali< ghany river. In 1812 they joined
with the Americans, and rendeicd valuable service on the frontier. A number living
at Samhisky and Stony creek, Ohio, were hostile; but in 1815 they joined in a Jricndly
treaty at Spring Valley, ceding all but a reservation with the Shawnees in 1818, selling
that also in 1881, to go to the Indian territory on the Nccsho. The New York Seneca?
occupy 66,000 acres of reservation called the Alleghauy, C'attaraugus, and Tor.awai.da,
and near them are several large towns. They numbered in '70, 8,060 in New York, in
the Indian territory 206, and 00 with the Mohawks en the Grand res; rvalion in Canada.
The society of Friends has done much to improve the condition of these tribes, and
missions of different sects have been established since 160o. Each clan speaks a differ-
ent dialect of the same language. The rev. Ashur Wright, missionary, 1802-75. prepared
a grammar and dictionary of their language, translated a portion of the Bible inio it,
and arranged a hymn-book. Red Jacket and Coin-planter were their most distin-
guished chiefs. They have prospered in agriculture and in religious and secular educa-
tion, and have largely increased since 1812.

SENE'CIO, a genus of plants of the natural order compr,*i'fa, suborder covfymbiftra,
having a hairy pappus, a naked receptacle, and cylindrical involucre- of linear equal
scales^ with a few smaller scales at their base. The" species are very numerous; annual,
perennial, and half-shrubby plants, natives chiefly of the temperate and cold parts of
the world, the half-shrubby species being from the warmer latitudes. Eleven species
arc reckoned as British, and commonly known as groundsel (q.v.) and ragwort (q.v.).
<S. Rarac-eiiicva, probably not a true native of Britain, but introduced in the middle
ages, lias undivided lanceolate leaves, and was once in repute as a vulnerary. The FIJIK-
WEED of North America is /S. Jneracifolius. It receives its popular name from ils
appearing abundantly wherever a part of the forest has been consumed by fire. Many
species of senecio have a strong disagreeable smell. A few are rather ornamental as
flowers.

SE'NEFELDER, ALOYS, 1771-1834; b. Prague; studied law, and was afterward an
unsuccessful playwright and actor. By accident he discovered lithography, for which
he obtained a patent. In 1809 he became director of the royal lithographing estah
lishment at Munich. His Lehrbuch der Lithographic appeared in 1819. Sec LITIIOQ

RAPIIY.

SENEFFE, or SEXEF, a t. in the province of Hainault. Belgium, about llm. n.w.

of Charleroi, has a pop. of between 3,000 and 4,000, and is The center of a district

in which manufactures of pottery arid glass are extensively carried on. Seneffe.

V U. K. XIII. 23



Senega. 338

Sonn-i.

ever, is chiefly notable for its proximity to the battlefield on which William of Orange
(III/ of England), at the head of the force of the coalition against France, was defeated,
after a bloody contest, by the great Coude Aug. 11, 1674. In William's army there were
four lieutenants Montocuculi (q.v.), duke Charles of Lorraine, the prince of Waldeck,
and llio prince of Vaudemont. the first three of whom subsequently attained prominence
as military commanders. Of the allied forces of 60,000 men, the Dutch lost from 5,000
to 6,000 meji, the Spaniards 3,000, and the Imperialists COO; while the French army,
which entered into the conflict 30,000 strong, could scarcely muster 20,000 ai'ier their
victory. Under the walls of Seneffe, Moreau in 1794 defeated the Austrians.

SENEGA, or SNAKE ROOT, is the dried root, of polygala senega. The following are
its characters: " A knobby root-stock, with a branched tap-root of about the thickness
of a quill, twisted and keeled; bark, yellowish-brown, sweetish, afterward pungent,
causing salivation; interior, \voodv, tasteless, inert." Senega is a powerful anil trust-
worthy stimulating expectorant, and may be advantageously prescribed in the advanced
stages of chronic bronchitis and pneumonia, especially wheu occurring in aged or very
debilitated patients. It is also a valuable remedy in prolonged hooping-cough, and in
the latter stages of croup and of bronchitis in young children. The preparations are
the infusion and the tincture; tho average dose of the former being an ounce and a half,
of the latter a drachm. For children, the powdered root in doses of 10 grains is tho
best form. See POLYGALA.

SENEGAL' (called by the natives Senaga), a large river in western Africa, rises in
Mt. Cooro, in lat. 10' 30' n., long. 10 40' w., flows first n.w. and then w.. and falls
into the Atlantic after a course of 1000 m., for the last 740 of which it is navigable for
flat bottomed boats. Here and there, throughout the whole course, the navigation is
interrupted by cataracts, shoals, and rocks. In the lower course the river forms numer-
ous large, cultivated, and very fertile islands, and its banks are green and productive,
and in "part clothed with wood. The entrance is difficult on account of breakers and a
bar which, in the dry season, is covered by only 8 to 9 ft. of water.

SENEGAL, the name of the French possessions on the river Senegal in Senegambia
(q.v.).

SENEGAM BIA, a large maritime tract of country in western Africa, in lat. about 10 3
to IS" u., long, about 4 to 17 30' e., is bounded on the n. and w. by the Sahara and
Soudan; on the s. by the colony of Sierra Leone, -and on the w. by the Atlantic. Area
about 400.000 sq.m. ; pop. estimated at about 12,000.000. The country takes its name
from its two principal rivers, the Senegal and the G.unbia. Between these two rivers,
which are 250 m. apart, there are no water-courses of any importance, and from tli3
Gambia s. to the frontier of Sierra Leone, the only considerable stream is the Rio Grande.
The coast is deeply indented by arms of the sea, which resemble the estuaries of rivers.
The country forms the western and northern declivity of the plateau of Kong, and part
of it is still unexplored. The soil is of two kinds, that of the coasts and that of the
interior; the former consisting in part of low flat allu rial plains, and partly of an undu-
lating country, which broadens toward the n. until, on the northern frontier, it merges
into the Sahara; while the plateau of the interior rises from the coast plains in mount-
ainous terraces until it loses itself in the Kong mountains. Its loftiest elevations are
only about 3,230 ft. high. Senegambia is divided into three districts High, Middle,
and" Low Senegambia. The first comprises the country to the n. of the Senegal, and is
inhabited by Moors, who, of course, profess Islamism. Middle Senegambia comprises
the country bordering the Senegal, having an area of 1350 sq.m., and is inhabited by
negroes, who divide themselves into numerous tribes. Of this tract the climate is
extremely hot, and is unhealthy in the marshy districts. The soil is generally fertile,
and yields the crops usually produced in the hot regions of Africa. Low Senegambia
comprises the countries bordering the Gambia, and extends s. to Nunez. Of the coast
regions of Senegambia, France possesses on the banks and around the estuary of the
Senegal about 1440 sq.m. of territory; the Portuguese a tract of 35, 437 sq.m. on and
around the estuary of the Rio Grande; and the English some little territory on the
Gambia, with a pop. of 14,190.

SENESCHAL (Teuton, sene-scalc, senior servant?), in the origin of the office, probably
an attendant of the servile class who had the superintendence of the household of the
Prankish kinns. In the course of time, however, the seneschalship rose to be a position
of dign.ity. held no longer by persons of servile race, but by military commanders, who
were also invested with judicial authority. The lieutenants of the great feudatories
often took the title of seneschal. A similar office in England and Scotland was desig-
nated steward, but is rendered into Latin as senescallus.

SENIOR, NASSAU WILLIAM, political economist, b. 1790, eldest son of rev. 3. R. Senior,
vicar of Durnlord. Wilts; was educated at Eton and Magdalen college, Oxford, where
he graduated in 1811. taking a distinguished first-class in classics. In 1819 he was called
to the bar at Lincoln's inn. In 1825 he was elected to the professorship of political
economy at Oxford, founded by the late Henry Drummond, M.P. He held it for the
statutory term of five years, and was succeeded by Mr. Whately, afterward archbishop
of Dublin. In 133.2 tlic enoi'iuouii evils of the poor-law administration in England led



ooq Senega.

Seuiiu.

to the appointment of a commission of inquiry. Senior was one of the commissioners;
and the portion of the report in which the abuses of the existing system were detailed
was drawn up by him. This report encouraged the whig government to bring in the
poor-law amendment act of 1834. See POOH and POOR-LAWS. In 1836 he received the
appointment of master in chancery; and in 1847 was re-elected to his former professor-
ship for another term of five years. More recently he was nominated one of the com-
missioners of national education, under tiie presidency of the late duke of Newcastle.
His publications, which are numerous, comprise various excellent treatises on political
economy, some of which were delivered in the form of lectures at -Oxford, and several
pamphlets on social and political questions. He also contributed numerous articles to the
Edinburgh Review, and other leading periodicals. He has left some interesting journals
of his visits to Turkey and Greece, and observations on the political and social condition
of these countries. His Essays on Fiction contributed to the chief reviews between the

Sjars 1821 and 1857, and republished in 1864, relate principally to the novels of Scott,
ulvver-Lytton, and Thackeray. He analyzes the plots, and classifies the characters of
the Waverley novels with cuiious felicity, and devotes a masterly essay to Thackeray,
whom he regards as the greatest novelist of his day. The intellect of Senior was clear
and penetrating, and the perspicuity of his style made him an able expositor of the
truths of political and social science. His article on " Political Economy" in the Ency-
clope<lui Metropolitana, and his remarks on some definitions in this science, .published in
the appendix to Dr. Whately's treatise on Logic, may be consulted with advantage. He
died June 4, 1864.

SEN. KESHOB CIIUNDER, Babu, first became known through his connection with a
society in Calcutta called the Brahmo Somaj, which he joined in 1857. The Sornaj was
then under the leadership of Debendra Nath Tagore, and aimed at the abolition of caste
and the maintenance of a divine worship. Chunder Sen became the leader of a party of
the younger portion of the Somaj, who wished to advance more rapidly than the others
were willing to follow. In 1865 he presented to Nath Tagore three propositions, intimating
that if rejected a separation would ensue. These were: 1. That the external signs 01
caste distinction, as the Brahmauical thread, should be no longer used. 2. That none
but Brahmas of fair ability and good, moral, pure lives should be allowed to conduct the
services of the Somaj. 3, That no word should be uttered in the Somaj in contempt or
haired of other Somajes. The first was rejected as too radical. A division resulted;
Tagore and the minority calling themselves the Adi (original) Somaj, the majority
becoming known as the "progressive Somaj," of which Chuuder Sen is the acknowl-
edged leader. Recently he delivered a lecture in Calcutta, in which he used the follow-
ing expressions: " My love of Christ constrains me to speak of him. The Christ who is
advancing in all directions has touched India, and hence the question she asks, Who is
ChrL-t? Though often defied and persecuted by the world, I have found sweetness and
joy unutterable in my master Jesus. I fell at his feet, saying, Blessed child of God,
when shall others see the light that is in thee?" From this one would suppose him a



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 78 of 203)