Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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about 50 of the new churches, and, among others, the new cathedral. In 1673 he sub-
mitted several designs for a new cathedral to the king, who selected one, and ordered a
model of it on a large scale to be prepared. This was done by Wren, and the model
still exists. Its plan is in the form of a Greek cross, having a large dome over the cen-
ter, supported on eight arches This was, however, eventually departed from; and the
new design was modeled on that of a Gothic cathedral, with an interior length of 460
ft., width 240 ft. across transepts, and a nave 94 ft. wide. The dome and the eight sup-
porting arches of the model are preserved; but in the new design the angle arches lead
to no spacious compartment, but to small dark passages only, while the upper portions
of these <_Teat arches arc blocked up with other arches, introduced for constructive pur-
poses, but verv destructive of the architectural effect. The plan of supporting the
dome on eight 'arches had the charm of novelty, and also of simp icity of construction.

OS Saint Panl.

Saint Petersburg.

but it made the arches themselves too small in proportion to the great span of the dome.
The constructive skill displayed by Wren in this building is universally acknowledged
and a-. 1 in i red, but it is thought that lie has allowed the mechanical exigencies of the
work to interfere too much with its decorative requirements. The dome, for example,
is (-(instructed on a new and most masterly principle, the thrust of the vault being coun-
terbalanced by the weight of a buck cone, which is carried up to support the stone lan-
tern "v< T the exterior dome. But in order to carry this out with the least expenditure
possible, the drum, or plain cylindrical wall under the dome, is sloped inward, so that
the columns with which it is decorated appear to the spectator below to be falling
inward, thus producing a painful and disagreeable effect. Great exception is taken to
the fact, that the external dome is of wood, and not of stone, and so liable to premature
decay; but the same may be said of the wooden roofs, over the vaults of Goihic cathe-
dral-;; and by making it of wood sir Christopher was enabled to raise it to a height which
makes it one of the noblest buildings of the kind in the world. The design of the nave,
from the classic vaulting with which it is covered, is necessarily to a great extent a
failure. When domes, or intersecting vaults, used in a classic building the compart-
ments must be about square; there can therefore be but a small number of nave piers,
as compared with those of a Gothic cathedral, and the perspective effect of the latter ig
thus entirely wanting. The same is the case at St. Peter's. The dome is particularly
successful, and is admit ed to be the finest in existence; no other being so graceful and
varied in outline, and yet so massive in general effect. Its height from the pavement to
the top of the cross is 404 feet. The w. front, as seen from Ludgate hill, is most striking;
the two campaniles group most harmoniously with the dome, and, together with the
portico, produce a most pleasing and remarkable effect. This front must, however, be
condemned, along with the screen-walls, if strictly criticised. The upper portico appears
to indicate an upper stoty where there is none, and the actual construction and true form
of the building are not expressed at all. St. Paul's is the burial-place of many heroes
and men of distinction, whose tombs are in the crypt, and whose monuments adorn the
interior of the cathedral. Among these are Nelson and Wellington, Collingwood, Aber-
cromby, Moore. Howe, St. Vincent, Picton, Rodney, an 1 many other celebrated soldiers
and sailors; Howard, Johnson, Reynolds, Barry, Opie, West, Astley Cooper, sir William
Jones, sir Christopher Wren, and other distingui.-hed civilians. Several of the monu-
ments are by Flaxman, Chantrey, Bacon, and Rossi; but it must be confessed that
they savor generally too much of heathen mythology to be appropriate in a Christian

SAINT PETER, a city in s. Minnesota, on the w. bank of Ilia Minnesota river; p">p.
'70, 2.G80. It is in Nicollet co.. at the junction of the Winona and St. Peter and the
St. Paul and Sioux City railroads, 75 m. s. w. of St. Paul. It has 10 churches, and is the
s -at of Gnstavus Adolphus college. It has a line court-house, a national bank, public
schools, Roman Catholic parochial schools, and the state hospital for the inline, com-
pleted in 187.5. built, of limestone from a ledge on Hie premiss, at a cost of $500.000,
damaged by tire in 1881. It has 2 weekly newspapers. 5 hotels, and marble works,
foundries and machine-shops, breweries, and a furniture factory.

SAINT PE TERSBTJRG, a maritime government of Russia, one of the Baltic provinces,
between lake Ladoga on the n e. and lake Peipus on the s. w. Area. 17,057 sq.m. ; pop.
'70, l.:5'2->,471. The soil is damp and thin, and woods and marshes cover two-thirds of
the level surface. In the vicinity of the capital much ground is laid out in market-
gardens. The usual crops are grown, but the quantity of corn produced is greatly less
than the quantity consumed. The chief town is the capital, Saint Petersburg (q.v.j.

SAINT PETERSBURG, the capital of the Russian empire, and of the government of
the same name, .-lands up >n and around Hie lower branches of the Neva, and on Hie
shores of the eastern extremity of Ihe gulf of Finland, 16 m. e. of Cronstadt. its port.
Lat. 59 1 56' n.. long. 30 19' east. The Great Neva, the most southern branch of the
Neva, divides the city into two great sections the Petersburg side on the n., and the
Great side on the south. The former is built on the islands which are formed by the
delta of the Neva, the chief of winch are the Vassili Ostrov, the Citadel island, and
the islands Aptekarskoi, Kammennoi, Petrovskoi, Krestovskoi. and Elaghinskoi. The
Great side, s. of the Great Neva, is compactly built, and contains the residences of the
court and of the nobility, and more than half the population. The city covers an r'r-a
of 42 sq.m., stands 5(3 ft. above Ihe level of the sea, upon plains which were fonverlv
malarious marshes, but are now for the most part drained and laid out in meadows and
gardens. Pop. '63, 539.475; '78, about 900,000.

Tlie climate, severe in winter, is pleasant and mild in summer. The mean tcmiv ra-
ture in summer is 62^; in winter, 14 Fahr. The extreme* of temperature are 90" arid
51. Fourteen arms of the Neva, irrespective of the s*ttller branches, ramify through
St. Petersburg, and there are seven canals.

General Vie-in of St. Petersburg. Approaching the city from Cronstadt (q.v.). the port
and fortress of the Russian capital, the first indications "of the great city are the gi! led
dome of the church of St. I/ak, and the lofty spire of the admiralty, which are feen
rising apparently from Ihe water's edge. The Admiralty square faces the English quay
on the s. bank of the Great Neva, and may be considered the center of the city. From

Saint Peter's.


the spire, with its numerous galleries, the whole plan of the city can be clearly seen.
Right opposite it is the populous Vussili Ostrov, on the s. shore of which are the Bourse,
academy of sciences, corps of cadets, etc. To the u. is the Citadel island, and further n,
the densely peopled Aptekarskoi island, and the Kammennoi, and other islands, which
are for the most part studded with wood-embosomed villas, and laid out iu charming
gardens. Considering the river on the u. as the chord, and the admiralty as the center,
the semicircle that might be drawn witli a radius of 2i m. would pretty nearly describe
what is called the Great side of St. Petersburg. This section of the city is divided into
three or four portions by the Moika, St. Catharina, Fontanka, and New canals; and it ig
intersected by three spacious streets, which radiate es.e., s.e., and s. from the great cen-
ter, the admiralty. The streets are named respectively the Nevski Prospekt (Neva Per-
spective), Gorokhovaia Oulitza (Peas street), Vosuoseuskoi Prospekt (Resurrection Per-
spective). Extensive suburbs also are rising on the eastern bank of the Neva, and there
are five railway stations.

Streets, Squares, Monuments, Bridges, Churclifs, etc. The street architecture of St.
Petersburg, unlike that of Moscow, with its pale-yellow walls and red and grt en roofs,
is almost destitute of color. Here the rigid, military aspect of the streets, with the
houses drawn up in long regular lines of gray, or massed together in blocks like the
squares of battalions, is one of the first features of the Russian capital that impress
'themselves upon a traveler. Except in the more fashionable quarters the greater num-
ber of the houses are built of wood: but owing to the liability of such houses to catch
fire, building in this material is very much discouraged. St.. Petersburg contains ,500
streets, and among these lanes and alleys are unknown, as, Avhile the finest streets have
a breadth of 120 ft., the narrowest are 42 ft. broad. Tlje Nevski Prospekt is the most
splendid street in St. Petersburg; and for architectural grandeur, as well as for natural
beauty, for proportions, and for variety, is considered the finest street iu Europe. It is
130 ft. broad, and about 4 m. long, is planted on both sides with trees, contains a largo
number of the most beautiful palaces, of highly ornamented churches, and splendid
warehouses, and increases in breadth and magnificence as it advances from the admii ';dty.
For the first mile it does not contain more than about 50 mansions, each of which, however,
is of colossal magnitude. The houses are built of brick faced with stuc co, are three and
four stories high, and are in many cases furnished with ornamental porches, colonnades,
gilded balconies, and parapets that gird the fiat roofs. About ten of the other streets of
the city are distinguished for their grandeur, though none of thcin equals the Nevski
Prospekt. Th^re are 64 squares in the city, and of these the Admiralty square is one of
the most famous. It contains one mass of buildings, presenting to lie Neva a fine
facade, nearly half a mile in length, while its sides are 650 ft. long. In (he Palace
square, adjoining the Admiralty, stands Alexander's column, an immense monolith,
erected in 1834. It consists of a shaft of red granite, standing on :i pedestal of the same
material, and supporting a capital, above which rises the figure of an angel and a cross.
The length of the shaft is 80 ft., and that of the whole column 150 feet. Peter's square
contains the noble and well-known equestrian statue- of Peter the great, 18 ft. high, and
erected 1768-82. The Field of Mars, large enough to allow of 40.000 men being put
through military evolutions, contains the bronze statue of Smvaroff, and a monument to
Catharine II. Bridyes. Of the 150 bridges that unite the islands, cross the canals, and
span the Neva, the Annitchkoff bridge, leading across the Fontanka canal, consists of
five arches, is 110 ft. long, and is decorated with four spirited groups, in bronze, of wild
horses and their tamers, by a native artist. The Nikolayevski bridge, a magnificent struc-
ture in granite, and the only permanent bridge save one that crosses the Neva the others
being temporary bridges supported on boats, and removed every autumn and spring
was completed in 1850. It crosses the Neva from the English quay on the s. bank" of
the Vassili Ostrov shore, is 1200 ft. long, and consists of seven elegant arches, supported
upon ponderous piers of granite. At the northern end of the bridge there is a draw-
bridge which affords a passage to ships. No part of St. Petersburg affords a foundation
solid enough to support weight}' structures. The foundation for the Nikolayevski
bridge was not obtained until three sets of piles hnd been driven into the oozy bed of
the river, the one on I he top of the other, and so close that all the timbers touched each
other all the way across. Palates, etc. St. Petersburg might be called a city of palaces,
from the number of edifices of that description whic'i it contains. The Winter palace,
destroj'ed by fire in 1837, but soon after rebuilt, is certainly the largest, and, in one
sense, probably the most magnificent palace in the world. It is 450 ft. long and
840 wide, has an imposing facade, and contains 800 inhabitants, and, during the resi-
dence of the emperor within it, is inhabited by 0,000 people. It has numerous ample
halls, decorated in the most artistic manner, and containing collections, furniture, and
articles of rerttt of immense value. The Hermitage, situated on the Neva like the Win-
ter palace, is connected with that structure by several galleries. Its gallery of 2.000
paintings is famous for its specimens of the Spanish school. The library of this palace
contains the, collections of Diderot, Voltaire, etc., and possesses in all 120,000 vols. The
Annitchkoff palace is the residence of the cesarewitch. The imperial library, one of the
first in Europe, contains 1,100,000 vols. and 35,000 MSS. The gilded tower of the
admiralty buildings, which is said to be visible from Cronstadt, and certainly forms in
these flats a most conspicuous land-mark, ij 230 ft. high. The old and new arsenals are

Saint Peter's.

surrounded by cannon taken from the Turks and Persians. Churches. St. Petersburg
contains about 350 churches, 300 of which are orthodox. Within the citadel stands the
church of St. Peter and St. Paul, finished in 1727. It is surmounted with a slender
tower, crowned by a gilded spire, the whole being 345 ft. high. The cathedral of St.
Izak, though destitute of architectural beauty, is'remarkable for its rude magnificence,
and is one of the most considerable buildings of modern times, is 330 ft. long, 290 ft.
broad, and 310 ft. high. It is surmounted by a great gilded dome, and by four smaller
domes. The domes are made of bronze, and the value of the plate-gold by which they
are overlaid is stated at 50.000. Each of its four sides is adorned with a peristyle of
12 or 1 X 6 red granite monolith pillars from Finland. Other notable churches are the
cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan, and the Vladimir church.

Academies, Scientific luxtitutiviix, etc, The academy of sciences, with a library of
150,000 books and MSS., was founded by Peter the great in 1725. In the institute of
technology, founded in 1828, 200 pupils are taught silk-spinning, the manufacture of
cloth, silk, and woolen stuffs, wood-carving, and engraving on copper. The university,
founded in 1829, is attended by 1400 students, and has between 80 and 100 professors.
The new national museum of antiquities, painting, and sculpture, completed in 1851,
is a noble structure, built entirely of marble and metal. There are numerous benevo-
lent institutions, a number of splendid theaters, and an Italian opera, a magnificent

Manufactures and Commerce. About 3,000 ships annually leave the port. The
exports have a value of over 5,000,000; the imports of about 15,000,000 a year. Of
the manufacturing cities of Russia, St. Petersburg is one of the most important. The
principal private factories are mills for spinning and weaving cotton. The immense
imperial establishments produce admirable specimens of Gobelin tapestiy, mirrors, arti-
cles in bronze, playing-cards, crystal, and porcelain.

St. Petersburg is little more than a century and a half old, and yet it takes rank
among the first capitals in the world. It was founded by Peter the great, May 27, 1703.
After a long struggle against the severe climate, insalubrious from the exhalations of
of \\ide extended marshes, and from the arctic rigor which even yet can cover the
Neva with ice a .yard and a half thick, at length the town was founded and declared
the capital in 1712. Under the successors of Peter, the improvement, embellishment,
and extension of the city were carried on. Catharine II. constructed the great canals
which, while they afford means of ready communication, serve also to drain the marsh-
lands, to render the atmosphere more healthy, and to mitigate the rigors of winter. The
city suffered great damage and the loss of several hundred lives in 1824 from an inunda-
tion of the Neva: and every April, when the ice breaks up, the lower regions of the city
are threatened with a similar disaster. At St. Petersburg all the ministers from foreign
courts are bound to reside.

SAINT PETER'S CHURCH, at Rome, is the largest cathedral in Christendom. It
stands on the site of a much older basilica, founded by Constantino, A.D. 306, over the
reputed grave of St. Peter, and near the spot where he is said to have suffered martyr-
dom. This basilica was of great size and magnificence; but had fallen into diecay, when
pope Nicholas V., in 1450, resolved to erect a new cathedral, worthy of the dignity and
importance of the Roman pontificate, then in the zenith of its power. A design was
accordingly prepared by Rosselini on a very grand scale, and the tribune was begun,
when the pope died. The new building remained neglected for about half a century,
when Julius II. resolved to carry out the building, and employed Bramante, then cele-
brated as an architect, to make a new design. This design still exists. The foundation
stone was laid in 1506; and the works carried on with great activity till the death of the
pope in 1513. Bramante, who died the following year, was succeeded by Baldussare
Penizzi. Almost every architect who was employed during the long course of time
required for the erection of this great edifice, proposed a new design. That of San
Gallo, who succeeded Peruzzi, is one of the best, and is still preserved. It was not till
his deatli in 1546, when the superintendence devolved on Michael Angelo, then 72 years
of age, that much progress was made. He designed the dome; and had the satisfaction,
before his death in his 90th year (1564), of seeing the most arduous part of the task com- '
pleted; and he left such complete models of the remainder that it was carried out
exactly in conformity with his design by his successors, Vignola and Giacomo della
Port a.* and successfully terminated by the" latter in 1590 in the .pontificate of Sixtus V.
The design of Michael Angelo was in the form of a Greek cross, but the building was
actually completed as originally designed by Bramante as a Latin cross, under Paul V.,
by the architect Carlo Maderno. The portico and fa$ade were also by him. He is
much blamed for altering Michael Angelo's plan, because the result is that the project-
ing nave prevents the dome (the great, part of the work) from being well seen. The
facade is considered paltry, and too much cut up into small pieces. It is observable
that this entrance facade is at the eaxt end of the church, not the west, as it would cer-
tainly have been n. of the Alps. But in Italy the principle of orientation was little

Maderno's nave was finished in 1612, and the facade in 1614, and the church dedica-
ted by Urban VIII. in 1626. In the front of the portico is a magnificent atrium in the

30 1 159

Saint Peter's. OQ


form of a piazza, inclosed on two sides by grand semicircular colonnades. This was
erected under Alexander VII., by UK- architect Bernini.

The facade of the cathedral is 3t58 ft. long and 145 1't. high. As already mentioned,
the design is not generally approved, hut some allowance must be made i'or the neces-
f-itics of the case. The balconies in the front were required, as the pope, at carter,
always bestows his blessing on the people from them, five open arches lead into a
mignificent vestibule, 439 ft. long, 47 ft. wide, and 65 ft. high, and adorned with
statues and mos.iics. Here is preserved a celebrated mosaic of fct. Peter walking on the
sea, called the Nuvicella, designed by Giotto in 1298, and preserved from the old basil-
ic*. central bronze doors are also relics saved from the old church. On entering
UK- interior of the cathedral, its enormous size does not produce the impression its
grandeur of proportions should do on the spectator. This arises from the details being
all of an excessive size. The pilasters of ihe nave, the niches, statues, moldings, etc.,
are ill such as they might have bi-en in a much smaller church, magnified. There is
notlu'u r lo m irk the scale, and give expression to the magnitude of the building. The
ligur,3 s;;pp;>:-ii:ig t'.ie holy water fountain, for example, appear to be those of cherubs
of a natii - d size, bat when more closely approached, turn out to be 6 ft. in height, and
the figures in the niches are on a stiil more colossal scale. The cathedral is 613 ft. long,
and 450 ft. across the transepts. The arch of the nave is 90 ft. wide, and 153 ft. high.
The diameter of the dome is 195} feet. From the pavement to the base of the lanicni
is 405 ft., and to the top of the cross 434f ft. The dome is thus 50 ft. wider, and G4 ft.
higher than that of St. Paul's (q. v.) in London.

Tne walls of the interior are adorned with plate:* of the richest marbles, and copies
of the most celebrated paintings executed in mosaic. The arch piers have two stories
of niches with statues of saints, bill I Jese, unfortunately, arc in a debased style of art.
The pavement is all in marbles of different colors, arranged in beautiful patterns
designed by Giacomo della Porta. Tli3 dome is, however, the finest part of the cathe-
dral; it is supported on four great arches. Immediately under the dome stands the high
altar over the grave of St. Peter. It is surrounded by a magnificent baldacchiuo or
canopy, in bronze, which was designed by Bernini in I6o!3, and executed with bronze
strippe 1 from the pantheon by pope Urban VIII. Beneath the high altar is the shrine,
in which 112 lamps burn da}' and night The building is adorned with many remark-
able monuments and statues, some of them by Michael Angelo, Canova. and Thonv aid-
son. The most of the monuments arc erected in memory of the popes, but there is
one to "James III., Charles III., and Henry IX., kings of England," the remains of
t!u exiled Stuarts being buried i:i tiiu vaults beneath. The " grotte Vaticane," or
crypt, has been most carefully and religiously preserved during all the changes ami
works of the cathedral; so much so, that the ancient pavement remains undisturbed.

As a work of architectural art. St. Peter's is the greatest opportunity which lias
occurred in mod -ru tunes; but, notwithstanding the great names of the men who
were engaged upon the work, it is universally admitted to be a grand and lamentable

SAINT PETER'S COLLEGE, Cambridge, commonly called Peter-house, was founded
before any other college now existing in England viz., in 1257, by Hugh de Balsham,
bishop of Ely, and was endowed by him in 1282, with a maintenance for a master
and 14 fellows. In addition to the 14 original foundation-fellows, there are two bye fel-
lows on different foundations, and 23 scholars. The master is elected by the society.

SAINT PETER'S LE PORT, or commonly St. Peter's, the chief town of Guernsey, one
of the channel islands. See GUERNSEY.

SAINT PIERRE, the chief t., though not the scat of government, of the island of
Martinique (q.v.), belonging to France, stands at the head of n, bay, 16 m. :i.w. of the
capital, Foi t-la-France (formerly Fort Royal). It is Ihe largest town in the Antilles, with
a pop. of 30,000, and is the chief entrepot of those islands.

SAINT PIERRE, a t. of the island of Bourbon (q.v.), or Reunion, on the s.w. coast,
34 m. s.w. from Saint Denis. Pop. 14,132.

SAINT PIERRE, CHARLES IRENEE CAGTEI,, Abbe de, 1658-1743, b. France; entered
the priesthood. He was appointed chaplain to the Hshop of Orleans in 1702, and soon
afterward received the abbey of Tiron. He accompanied cardinal Polignac to the con-
gress of Utrecht in 1712, and the next year appeared the first part of his Projet de Puix
pei'petueUe. He was expelled from the academy on account of \\JsDineourtgur In P!y~
nuiiorUc, 1718, which favored a constitutional government, and attacked Louis XIV.
He continued to advocate his views in the so-called club de i'aitrcsol, which was closed
by Fleury in 1731.


SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON, a French colony s. of Newfoundland, opposite
the gulf of St. Lawrence, consisting of the islands of Great and Little Miquclon and St.
Pierre; about f-0 sq.m.; pop. '70, 4,750. The chief occupation is fishing. Capital, St.

SAINT-PIERRE-LES-CALAIS, a t. of France, in the department of Pas-de Calais. It
may almost be regarded as the bouth-easteru suburb of Calais, to which it nearly adjoins,

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 8 of 203)