Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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it. was long attempted to determine some one point in the brain where the soul is
more especially located or centralized, and to this ideal point the name of Sensorium was
applied in the older psychological speculations. The fancy of Descartes made it a small
body near the base of the brain, called the "pineal gland." The recent views of the
nervous sys'em repudiate the idea of a central point of this nature; in consciousness the
brain generally is active, although under different impressions and ideas the currents
may be presumed to follow different nerve tracks. Consequently no meaning is now
attached to a scnsorium in psychology, as distinct from the cerebrum at large.

SENTENCE. A sentence is the form of words in which a thought or a proposition
(q.v.) is express";!. A mere phrase or group of words, such as "A very high mountain."
which only conveys a meaning or calls up an idea, but does not make an affirmation, is
not a sentence. Since speech is the expression of thought, the sentence is the proper
unit or integer of speech* and thus forms the starting-point in the study of language.

Every single sentence is made up of two parts the one naming the subject, or the
something that is spoken about; the other the predicate, or the something that is said


of it as '"The sun shines; " " Those who have the greatest gifts, and are of the greatest
usefulness are the most humble." Every sentence must contain a Unite verb, as it is
the function of the verb (q.v.) to make affirmations. "The sun shines, "is an example of a
sentence in its barest form, containing merely the subject "sun," and the predicate
"shines," which are called the principal elements. The enlargement or development of
the sentence takes place by means of adjuncts, or secondary elements tacUed on to the
principal elements as " Young birds build nesis iritfutut experience." Sentences may be
divided into simple, compound, and complex.

1. A simple sentence has only one subject and one finite verb. Reduced to its essen-
tials, it is of the form, " The sun shines;" "The day is cold." 2. A compound sentence
consists of two or more simple sentences combined as, " The sun gives light by day,
and the moon by night;" which contains two affirmations or sentences, "The sun gives
light by day," and "The moon gives light by night." 3. A complex sentence consists
of one principal sentence together with one or more dependent sentences. In the com-
pound sentence given above, there are two distinct statements, and as both are put on
the same footing they are said to be co-ordinate sentences. But when we say "The
moon rose as the sun went dow T n," the going down of the sun is not mentioned on its
own account; the only thing directly Affirmed is that the moon rose at a certain time,
and the going down of the sun is only introduced as marking that time. Such clauses
are called subordinate sentences (see CONJUNCTIONS). The subordinate clauses of com-
plex sentences may be considered as transformations of the elements of the simple sen-
tence; and according to the nature of the element which has been transformed, chey
might be called noun-sentences, adjective-sentences, or adverbial sentences e.g., " The
existence of God is denied by none" = " That God exists, is denied by none." " Benevo-
lent men are happy" = " Men who seek the good of others are happy." " The moon rose
at sunse-t" = "The moon rose a* tJie sun went down." Further, the nouns, adjectives,
and adverbs that enter into a subordinate sentence, may, one and all of them, be trans-
formed in their turn into sentences, which will thus be subordinate in a still higher
degree e.g., "Europe rejoiced that Greece was delivered from tJiat oppressive power" =
"Europe rejoiced that Greece was delivered from the power that had oppressed her." Here
the adjective oppressive in the first sentence has in the second been converted into a sen-
tence which is directly dependent, not on the principal sentence (Europe rejoiced), but
on the subordinate, and is therefore subordinate in the second degree. Subordination
is seldom carried beyond the second or third degree, as it becomes perplexing, and
weakens the force of the principal assertion. The same sentence is often compound, as
containing two or more co-ordinate sentences, and at the same time complex, as con-
taining one or more subordinate sentences in addition; and to discriminate all these and
point oit their relations is to give the syntactical analysis of the sentence.

SENTER, ISAAC, 1755-99; b. N. H. ; educated at Yale college. He was a surgeon
in the continental army, and afterward the head of the medical profession in Rhode

SENTINEL SENTRY (from the Lat. sentire, to feel or perceive, through the Ital.
tenUnetta), a private soldier, marine, or sailor posted at a point of trust, with the duty of
watching the approach of an enemy or any person suspected of hostile intentions.
Sentries mount guard over depots of arms, the tents of commanding officers, etc. Dur-
ing the night each sentry is intrusted with the " w r ord," or countersign: and no person,
however exalted in position, may attempt to approach or pass him without giving that
as a signal. lu such case the sentry is bound to arrest the intruder, and, if necessary,
to shoot him. It has happened before now that the commander-in-chief of an army has
been a prisoner in the hands of one of his own sentries. When an army is in the field
the sentries are its eyes, for they guard the approaches in every direction some distance
in front of the main body of troops. In the event of attack they give the alarm and
retire slowly on their supports. There is usually an agreement, tacit or expressed,
between commanders that their outlying sentries shall not fire upon one another, which
would only be productive of useless 'bloodshed. Under martial law death is the penalty
to a sentry for sleeping on guard.

SENZA SORDINO (Ital. without the mute, or without the damper), a musical term
which, when applied to the violin or violoncello, denotes that the mute (q.v.) is to be
removed. In pianoforte music it means that the performer must press down the pedal
which takes off the dampers.


SEPARATE ESTATE is the legal term denoting the property of a married woman,
which she holds independently of her husband's 'interference and control. Where a
marriage is about to be entered into, and the lady has property, it is usual, before the
marriage, for her to assign and convey to trustees all or part of her property, so that it
may continue to be vested in them for her exclusive benefit, and so that she may be able
to deal with it in much the same manner as if she were not married. The deed in that
case entirely regulates the extent of her rights. Where the deed has been properly exe-
cuted she can draw the interest, and do what she pleases witn it. A third parly who
bequeaths property to a married woman may also so give it as to make it separate estate.

OJK Senter.


If there is no clause in the deed or will prohibiting alienation or anticipation, she will
be able to dispose of her life-interest. She can, in general, alienate her separate estate
without her husband's consent ; and she is not bound out of it to maintain the husband,
even though he may be destitute; nor is she bound to maintain her children, unless the
latu.-r would otherwise be chargeable to the parish. When a wife incurs debts and lia-
bilities, her separate estate will become chargeable with these unless she was at the time
acting only as the atrent of the husband, such as ordering necessaries for the house. In
Scotland a wife is bound out of her separate estate to maintain a destitute husband, and
the husband's consent is necessary to her alienation of the separate estaie.

SKPARAT1-: LUTHERANS are those followers of Luther who in Prussia refuse to
unite with the state church. In 1817 Frederick William III. formed a plan for uniting
the Reformed and the Lutheran churches; but many zealous Lutherans were opposed
to it. and found a leader in Johann Gottfried Scheibel, professor of theology at the uni-
versity of lln-slau. In 1830 two cabinet orders, designed to further the scheme, caused
an open breach. Several distinguished men, many ministers, and nearly 300 families,
joined Scheibel. He was soon driven into exile, and died at Nuremberg in 1842. His
followers adhered to their principles. The government employed against them both
policemen and soldiers. Ministers were imprisoned, laymen fined, and religious meet-
ings dispersed. Many families emigrated to America, but the enthusiasm of the 'rest
increased. In 1810 Frederick William IV. released the ministers from prison, allowed
the congregations to organize themselves, and in 1845 recognized their right to unite
under their own officer- free from the control of the state church. The official acts of
their ministers were to be acknowledged in law, and their church registers to be received
in evidence. Under these provisions a high consistory was constituted as the supreme
ecclesiastical authority for separate Lutherans in Prussia. It consists of 4 members, and
has charge of the spiritual welfare of the church, of receiving new congregations, of
parochial relations, the appointments of clergymen, the ritual, censures, complaints, and
the calling of synods. The processes of discipline are admonition, requisition of apolo-
gies, and excommunication. The church service is conducted according to the received
forms; preaching on free texts requires permission from the high consistory, and the
Lord's supper is an essential part of the chief service. Lutherans are not compelled to
send their children to the united schools. In 1847 the high consistory had under its
charge 21 congregations with 19,000 members. A very large number of Lutherans,
influenced by the king's concessions, remained in the state church. The great political
movement of 1848 gave a powerful impulse to the separate Lutherans; but as it also
encouraged their brethren in the state church to strive within it, rather than out of it,
for greater independence, the alienation between the two parties was increased. In later
years the separate Lutherans have been divided among themselves. In 1861 two parties
were formed, the one conservative and the other radical, between which friendly inter-
course ceased.

SEPARATION" of married persons is either judicial or voluntary. If the parties enter
into a deed, or other arrangement, to live separate, this is called a voluntary separation,
and, in general, the legal rights of the parties are not altered, except that if the wife is
provided with maintenance, she has no longer an implied authority to bind the hus-
band. And though voluntary separation is not encouraged by courts of law, yet effect
will be given frequently to deliberate contracts of this kind entered into between the



SEPIA, a pigment used as a water-color. It is prepared from the secretion of a
peculiar organ called the ink-bag, found in the dibrauchiate cephalopoda, or cuttle-
fishes. This secretion is black at first, and insoluble in water, but extremely diffusible
through it ; it is therefore agitated in water to wash it, and then allowed slowly to sub-
side, after which the water is poured off, and the sediment, when dry enough, is formed
into cakes or sticks. In this state it is called " India ink." If, however, it is dissolved
in a solution of caustic potash, it becomes brown, and is then boiled and filtered, after
winch the alkali is neutralized with an acid, and the brown pigment is precipitated and
dried: this constitutes the proper sepia. It is usually prepared in Italy, great numbers
of the species which yields it most abundantly, sepia officinalis, being found in the Medi-
terranean. The black Jund, called India ink, is prepared in China, Japan, and India,
and forms the common writing-ink of those countries

SE POY. corrupted from the Indian word sipaJri, a soldier. This word sipahi, in its
more familiar form of spahee, is known in most eastern armies; and is itself derived
from sip, a bow and arrow, the ordinary armament of an Indian soldier in ancient times.
The word sepoy now denotes a native Hindu soldier in the British army in India. See
EAST INDIA ARMY. The present sepoy force numbers about 140,000.


SEPTA RIA are ovate flattened nodules of argillaceous limestone, internally divided
into numerous angular fragments by reticulating fissures radiating from the Center to
the circumference, which are filled wjj,h some mineral substance, as carbonate of liine


or sulplinte of barytes, that has been infiltrated subsequent to their formation. The fis-
sures have been produced by the cracking of the nodule when drying. They are h.rgest
and most numerous in the center, and gradually decrease outward, showing that the
external crust had first become indurated, and so, preventing any alteration m the si/.e
of the whole mass, produced wider rents as the interior contracted The radiating fig-
ure, and the striking contrast between the dark body of argillaceous limestone and the
more or less transparent sparry veins, when the nodule is cut and polished, has caused
thorn to be, manufactured into small tables and similar objects. They arc, however,
most extensively employed in the manufacture of cement. As they are composed of
clay, lime, and iron, they form a cement which hardens under water, and which is known
commercially as Roman cement, because of its properties being the same as a iamous
hydraulic cement made of ferruginous volcanic ash brought from Rome. Septaria occur
in layers in clay deposits, and are quarried for economical purposes in the clays of the
London basin. Large numbers are also dredged up off Harwich, which have been
washed out of the shore-cliffs by the waves. The nodules generally contain a scale,
shell, plant, fruit, coprolite, or some other organic substance, forming the nucleus that
has apparently excited the metaniorphic action which withdrew from the surrounding
clay the calcareous and ferruginous materials scattered through it, and aggregated them
around itself.

SEPTEMBER (Lat. septem, seven) was the 7th month of the Roman calendar, but is
the 9th according to our reckoning, though we preserve the original m;me. Various
Roman emperors, following the example of Augustus, who changed "Sextilis." the 6th
month of the Roman calendar, into "Augustus" (August), attempted to substitute other
names for this month, hut the ancient appellation continued to hold its o round. The
Saxons called it ger&t-monatk, or barley-month, because barley, their chief cereal crop,
was generally harvested during this month. It has alwaj^s contained 30 days.

SEPTEMBSISTS SEPTEMBRI SEES (Fr. SeptemMsenrs\ the name .civen to the
frantic executioners in what are known as the " September massacres" in Paris. The
particular causes of this ferocious outburst were twofold mad fear of domestic traitors
and of foreign despots. The news came pouring into Paris, ever more and more mad-
dening, of Prussian and Austrian hordes marching victorious over the frontiers: insolent
loyalists obtruding themselves in the van of the invading armies, and breathing tiireat-
enings and slaughter; while numerous aristocrates (i.e., favorers of the king and court)'
were believed to be making preparations to receive them in Paris. At the very same
mo.nent broke out the royalist insurrection in La Vendee, rendering France still further
delirious, whereupon Danton, "minister of justice," got a decree passed, Aug. ^S. 17i<2,
ordering domiciliary visits for the arrest of all suspected persons, and f. ue of

arms of which patriotic France tood much in need. Upward of 2,000 stand of arms
were got in this way, and 400 head of new prisoners. On the moining of Sept. 2 the
news of the capture of Verdun by the Prussians arrived. The mingled rage and panic
of the people cannot he described. xVll the bells in Paris were set a-clanging: and
women hurried in myriads to the Champ de Mars to get themselves enrolled as volun-
teers. Danton entered the legislature "the black brows clouded, ihe colossus-figure
trampiiuz heavy, grim energy looking from all features of the rugged man" and made
that famous speech, ending: "Pour les vainere, pour Us atterrer, qv-e faui-il? De
faudace. encvre de FaitdfMe, et tovjours de Vatidace." The effect was electrical, lie
obtained from the assembly a decree condemning to death all "who refused to march
to the frontiers or to take up arms." But patriotism against foreigners was not enough.
Were not the traitors at home deserving of death ? Marat thought so: multitudes of
ardent frantic men and women shared his conviction; but it is not proved that either
Marat or Danton formally ordered the massacres, or, indeed, that anybody ordered
them. They were rather the spontaneous outburst of patriotic insanity, beholding aris-
tocratic treachery and plots everywhere. Priests, Swiss soldiers, aged and infirm
paupers, women both reputable and disreputable, and criminals, were mercilessly cut
down or shot. From Sunday afternoon till Thursday evening the wild butchery went
on at the Bicfitre, the Abba'ye, the convent of the" Carmelites, the Conciergerie du
Palais, the Grand Chatelet, St. Firmin, La Force, and the Salpetriere. One gathers a
glimpse of the savage sincerity of the Septembriseurs when one reads that the gold
rings, watches, money, etc., found on the persons of the massacred were all religiously
brought to the town-hall; not a single thing was stolen or furtively appropriated until
after the essential work was done. Then the roughs or blackguards (" sons of dark-
ness," asCarlyle calls them) sallied out into the streets like Mohawks or Alsatians, and
commenced to plunder, but were speedily suppressed and forced back into their dens.

Great misapprehension prevails as to the numbers who perished in these fearful scenes.
Royalist pamphleteers and others, tnisting mainly to fantasy (according to Carlyle, Fr.
R<-*., vol. ii. p. 158) reckon the victims at 3,000. 6*000, and even 12,000; but the accurate
advocate Maton (who was in the thick of the horrors, and narrowly escaped the guillo-
tine) reduces the number, by "arithmetical ciphers and lists," to lOfii), which," bo it
observed, included numbers of forgers of assignats, and other criminals. It was a sad
and horrible affair, as all massacres are; but it .is above all things desirable to know

3, H September.

i ' Septuugiut*

exncilv (lie dimensions of, and the motives that stirred the actors in, so execrable a

GZ1 , in music. When a note is divided into 7 instead of 4 parts for example,

a miu!:.i iato , quavers, or a crotchet iutot) semiquavers the group is called a sepiiuiole,


E y~r^~lT5~ J !Lirzrs"?l'i:] and the figure 7 is generally placed over it. A scptimole

I Kf" _ '.

7 ~^jr -=^xa23flB^^a



may also occur i:i a measure, in which case the 7 notes are collectively of the value,

not of 4, but of 0.

S2?T~7AGES'i:aiA SUNDAY (Lat. Si-pinagcxima, "the seventieth"), the third Sunday
bcfo; v.). so called, like " Sexagesima" and " Quiuquagcsima," from its dis-

tance (:-e;-koued in round numbers) before Easter.

SEP TUAGINT (Gr. Hot tun 0. or Iwi 0; Lat, Septuagintn; Seventy. LXX., Alexan-
drine version, etc.), the most ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament that has
come down to us, and t
Its origin is shrouded
Philo, Jo-ephus, the T

Epiphan^is, and the roM), with individual variations is contained in a letter purporting
to he writ; en by a Greek, ArUtcas, to his brother, Philokrates, during the reign of Ptol
emv Philadelphia (^S 1-^47 B.C.). Tliis king, it is stated, anxious to embody in a collec-
tion the laws of all nations on which he was engaged, also those of the Jews, invited, by
the advi-.-e of his librarian, Demetrius Phalereus, <2 men of learning and eminence from
tine, who performed the task of translation (on the isle of Pharos) in 73 days. The
:i;v>:i which this legend utterly rejected now as a piece of history re^ts, cannot
well be ascertained now. So much, however, seems clear from another anterior testimony
(ArUobulus). that Ptolemy, aided by Demetrius, did cause a Greek version of the Penta-
teuch uted, probably during the lime of his being coregent of Ptolemy Lagi.

That til- translator or translators, however, were not Palestinian but Egyptian Jews,

the most ancent reek transaton o te estament a as

d the one commonly in use among the Jews at the time of Christ.

ed in deep obscurity. The principal myth about it repeated by

Talmud, and the church fathers (Justin, Clement of Alexandria,

our ivceived text, but agrees in ma:iv instances with the Samaritan i^.v.). 'Hie question
of th-: number of translators has been' mue!i and warmly discussed, but with littL- positive
S.) muc!) only seems certain, that different hands weiv employe.! in the iv:ul..T-
itiir of th different parts of the Pentateuch, upon which infinite caiv w. -; b sstowi d. as
well as of the other books of the Old Testament, which, indeed, d.> rot seenj to
done at the same time. In some instances, it would appear as if the translation h ut
b"" .1 made before the non-pentateuchial books were united with tlie others into one
canon. This seems particularly evident in the case of the book of Jeremiah, which, in
the tran<:atio:i, appears in a m ire primitive form than in tho .^to in which we p
it now. In a less degree does this discrepancy app-ar in Job, the Proverb;, Danii '. and
Esther; of these, however, our canon probably contakis the original form, while the
LXX shows later variants. It is, however, in neither of thec bo )ks \n lie d<'cidcd now
whether th discrepancies observable are d'.ie to an already altered lex! u;on which the
translators worked, or whether they were their own emendations; or even whether many
of them are not due to a much later period. The translation of the book of Daniel is
the most ilagrant instance of subsequently introduced "corrections" and additions.
Apart from the apocryphal pieces attached to it, its obscure passages were " emendated "
to such an extent by both Jews and Christians, that it was by the authority of the early
church utterly rejected, and replaced by the version of Theodotion. The translator of
Job, though less arbitrary, has yet altered, added to, and abbreviated considerably, his
text, Esther has many apocryphal addi'ions, which owe Ilieir origin probably to the
Alexandrine period, and never existed in Hebrew. Of exaggerated liieralness is the
version of Ecclcsiastes and the Psalms. Among the most successful books are to be
mentioned the Psalms and Ezekiel. But, on the whole, there is to be noticed through-
out, a lack of an exact knowledge of the original, a striving after minute fidelity i:i one
part, and an unbridled arbitrariness in another; further, a desire to tone down or to
utterly eliminate anthropomorphisms or anything that appeared objectionable to the
refined taste of the time.

The Septuagiut was held in the very highest repute among the Alexandrine Jews,
while the Palestinians looked upon it as a dangerous innovation, and even instituted the
day of its completion as a day of mourning. Gradually, however, it also found its way
into Palestine, and at the time of the composition of the New Testament it seems almost
to have superseded the original, considering that its quotations from the Old Testament
are almost invariably given from the LXX. It was read and interpreted in the syna-
gogues for some centuries after Christ, until the increasing knowledge of the original,
fostered by the many academies and schools and the frequent disputations with the
early Christians, brought other and more faithful and literal translations, such as that
of Aquila, Theodotion, etc., into use, and gradually the LXX. was altogether discarded


in the synagogue. The church, however, for a long time, and the Greek church up to
this day, considered it as of equal authority and inspiration with the Hebrew text itself;
and many translations were made from it into the vernaculars of different Christian
communities (the Itala, the Syriac, the Ethiopian, Egyptian, Armenian, Georgian,
Slavonian, etc.). The large diffusion of the LXX. among the Hellenists ami the
churches, and the want of anything like a critically fixed text, together with the pious
desire bodily to insert" the peculiar explanation given to obscure passages by single

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 80 of 203)