Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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authorities, the ignorance of the copyists, and a number of other causes, contributed not
a. little to render the MSS. corrupt, in some instances past mending. Nor were the
endeavors of Origen (q.v.) in his Hexupla, or of Lucianus and Hesychius for a restora-
tion of tiie proper text of any avail. The principal MSS. that have, as far as we know,
survived are the Codex Alexaudriuus in the British museum, the Codex Yaticanus in
Rome, and the Sinaitic Codex (imperfect) in St. Petersburg, all of which belong to the
time between the 4th and 6th centuries A u. The principal editions are the Compluteu-
sian (151417), reprinted in the Antwerp and Paris Polygot; the Aldine of Venice (151tS);
the Sixtiue of Rome (1587), partly reprinted in Walton's Polvgot (1657), by Lamb Bros.
(Franeker, 1709); Remeccius (Leip. 1730); Parsons & HolmeV (Oxford, 17a8-1827); Tis-
chendorf (1850, etc.). Following more closely the Codex Alexandrians is the edition
of Grabe (Oxford, 1707-20, completed by F. Lee), reprinted by lircitiuger (Zluich,
1730-32) and others. The Alexandrine Codex has been reproduced in fac-simiie by H.
H. Baber; the Sinaitic in the same manner by Tischeudorf. Some other 31S. recen-
sions arc mentioned by the early fathers, such as the ' Hebrew," the "Syrian," the
"Samaritan," the "Helleuian," etc. The literature of the LXX. is very large, and
special grammars and dictionaries have been compiled for its peculiarly corrupt idiom.

SEPULCHSAL MOUND. The practice of rearing mounds of earth and stone over the
resting place of the dead may be traced to remote antiquity. It had doubtless its origin
in the heap of earth displaced by interment which, in the case of the illustrious warrior
or chief, it became the practice to raise into the size and form of the barrow or tumulus
which is found all over northern Europe, from Great Britain and Ireland to Upsala in
Sweden and the steppes of Ukraine. Sepulchral mounds of some sort seem, indeed, to
have been erected among all the nations of Asia as well as of Europe, and they are
found in numbers in Central America. Some of the larger tumuli or moathills are but
partially artificial, natural mounds having been added to or shaped into the form which
it was wished that they should take. There is considerable diversity in the form of
the tumuli, the different forms corresponding to different periods considerably remote
from each other. The oldest are long-shaped, and in the form of gigantic graves, often
depressed in the center and elevated toward one end. Inside the tumulus the body was
laid at full length, often along with spear and arrow heads of flint and bone. The bell
and bowl-shaped tumuli seem to have succeeded this early form. Within them is often
found a short cist and primitive cinerary urn, showing that the body had been burned;
but there appears also to be evidence that the processes of inhumation and cremation
had been in use contemporaneously, or sometimes the body was placed within the cist
in a sitting posture. Skeletons of dogs and Jiorses are occasionally found beside the
ashes of the deceased. The sepulchral mounds which seem to be of latest date are broad
and low, surrounded sometimes by an earthen vallum, and sometimes, particularly in
Scotland and Scandinavia, by a circle of standing stones. In both the inclosed "and
encircled tumuli, weapons have been found belonging to the period when the metallurgic
arts were practiced, and in some instances Roman as well as native relics. A remarka-
ble form of tumulus frequent in Sweden, and occasionally seen in Scotland, consists of
an oblong mound larger than the primitive barrow, and terminated at both ends in a
point, whence it has been called the kibs ailiinger, or ship-barrow. Scandinavian anti-
quaries have come to the conclusion that the bodies of the warriors of the deep were
sometimes burned in their ships, whose form was repeated in the earthwork reared above
their ashes.

The most numerous class of sepulchral mounds in Scotland are the cairns (q.v.) or
tumuli of stone, which abound in every district of the country, and were often of much
larger dimensions than the earthen tumuli. Another species of monument is the
cromlech (q.v.).

SEPTJLVEDA, JUAN GINKS DE. a Spanish historian, surnnmed the Livy of Spain, was b.
at Pozo-blanco, in the neighborhood of Cordova, about 1490; studied first at Cordova
and Alcala, and went to Bologna in 1515, where he obtained the acquaintance and
esteem of the most celebrated savans of Italy and Spain. There he wrote the life of
cardinal Albornoz. which was published in 1521. lie assisted cardinal Cajetan at Naples
in revising the Greek text of the New Testament, and in 1536 returned to Spain as chap-
lain and historiographer to Charles V., and preceptor to his son, afterwards Philip II.
Died in 1573 or 1574. Erasmus speaks of Scpulveda in the Cieeronianvs in terms of
high encomium, and there is indeed little doubt that he was one of the most learned
men and best writers of his time. His works comprise Latin translations of part of
Aristotle (1531). and of the commentary of Alexander Aphrodisiensis (1527); miscella-
neous dissertations, among which were treatises on fate and free-will, in opposition to
Luther (152G), in favor of a war with the Turks (152U), in defense of Alberto Pio Cardi-

O 4 O Sepulchral.


nal Carpi (1531), on marriage (1531), and in support of the congruency of the military
profession with Christianity (1541), ou monarchy and the duty of kings (1571). Ilfs
histories of tlie reign of diaries V., of tliat of Philip II., and of the conquests of the
Spaniards in Mexico, all of them written in Latin, are still iuedited. His other works
were collected and published by the royal academy of history at Madrid in 1780 (4 vols.
fol.), accompanied with a portrait of Sepulveda, and an account of his life and

SKQl ATCHIE, a co. in e. Tennessee, drained by the Sequatchie river, a brunch of

the Tennessee, llowing through it centrally; 250 sq.iii. ; pop. '80, 2,565 2,557 of Amer-
ican birth, 56 colored. Its sv.rface is mountainous in the n. and s. where part of the
elevated country belongs to the Cumberland, and part to Walden's ridge. The hills are
largely covered with forests of oak and hickory. On the river bottoms are groves of
beech, maple, and cottonwood. Its soil is moderately fertile, producing jjrain and
tobacco in the arable portions, and is well adapted to stock raising. Wool is exported.
Its mineral products comprise limestone, iron, and coal. Co. seat. Dunlap.

SEQUESTRATION, the Scotch legal term for bankruptcy (q.v.). In English law
sequestration is the appropriate term denoting the process by which the creditor of a
clergyman of the church of England in possession of a living sues out execution on his
judgment, and obtains payment of the debt. In ordinary cases of lay debtors, the sher-
iff takes po.-session of the real estate of judgment debtors; but when the debtor is a
clergyman, the bishop puts in force the law, and appoints sequestrators to take posses-
sion of the benefice, and draw the emoluments, and pay them over to the creditor, first
making due provision for the proper celebration of divine worship.

SE'QTJIN (Ital. zccchino. from eecrn, the name of the Venetian mint), a gold coin, first
struck at Venice about the end of the 13th c., was about the size of a ducat (q v.), and
equivalent to about 9s. 4d. sterling. Coins of the same name, but varying in value,
were issued by other states.

SEQUOIA, a genus of coniferous trees of the cypress family, comprising two spe-
cies, the xitjiioi'ii xci/ijH rcl rent, or redwood, of the C'oast ranges of California, and the S.
glgnntea, the big tree, or big redwood, growing upon the western side of the Sierra

SEQUOYAH, a co. in s.w. Kansas, intersected by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa
Fe railroad; 864 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 568 521 of American birth. It is drained by the
Arkansas river, flowing through it centrally, its course being followed by the railroad.
Its surface is a fertile rolling prairie.

SERAGLIO (properly, SEP.AI) is the palace of the snltan at Constantinople. It stands
in a beautiful situation on a head of land projecting into the eea, known as the Golden
Horn, and is inclosed by walls 71 m. in circuit. Within the Avails are a variety of
mosques, gardens, and large edifices, capable of containing 20,000 persons, though the
whole number of the inhabitants scarcely ever reaches the half of this. The principal
entrance (Babi Jnnnayun, or Sublime gate) is a kind of pavilion, which is constantly
guarded by <'<'/. /<;/;x, or officers of the seraglio; and the chief of the large edifices within
is the harem (Arab, sacred spot), which is di-linctly separated from the rest of the
seraglio, and consists of a group of bouses and gardens, one of each being possessed by
each of the sultan's wives, and of the habitations of the concubines and slaves. The
harem is ruled by the kxdn-lclm.tun, or inspector of the wcmen, who is under the sultan's
authority alone, 'and is supplied with what they require by the kixlar-aga, or chief of the
black eunuchs who form the principal or inner guard of the harem. The second and
outer guard is given to the white eunuchs, under their chief the kapu-agaMy, or kapu-
oghla-i. Other classes of household officers are the ;//>//<* (Turkish, bit-dan or dilxxix),
who, till recently, were the executors of the sultan's orders, especially those in which
the utmost secresy was required; the boxtftrijis, or gardeners: the laltajis, or cleavers of
wood; and the Ush-ogfUcmt, or attendants of the sultan. The sultan's mother always
resides within the seraglio, but his sisters do not. Access may easily be had to the
seraglio, with the exception of the harem, which is scrupulously guarded from even the
eyes of strangers. The English have improperly confounded the two terms "seraglio"
and "harem."

SERAING, a t. of Belgium, in the province of Liege, and between three and four m.
e.w. from Liege, on the right bank of the Meuse. It is a station on the railway between
Namur and Liege, and is connected by a handsome suspension-bridge with the village
of Jemeppe, on the left bank of the Meuse. Seraing is a place of great activity, and
contains a manufactory of steam-machinery, locomotives, etc.. which is probably the
largest in the world. This manufactory was established by an Englishman. John
Cockerill. in 1816; the king of Holland, to whose dominion 'Belgium "then belonged,
joining him in the enterprise. After the revolution of 1830, Cockerill bought up the
shares belonging to the king of Holland, and the works became entirely his own. Ou
his death in 1840. a company was formed, called La John Cork- rill >V///< : . to which they
now belong. They occupy the former palace of the prince-bishops of Liege, which still
forms their front, the extensive gardens behind it having been covered with buildings,
where all the processes of machine-making are carried on. Forty or fifty tall chimneys

f^ajo. 350


are clustered on this spot. The town depends on these works for its prosperity. Pop.
'70, 2.3, COO; 75, 30,193.


SERAMPO RE, a neat t, of British India, built in the European style, and extending
a mile along tlie right bank of the Hooghly, 14 m. n. of Calcutta. Paper is hero manu-
factured in large quantity. Serampore was at one time a Danish settlement, but was
transferred by purchase to the British in 1845. Pop. '71, 24,440.


SERA PETJM (Gr. zerapeion or sarapeiori), a temple so named in honor of Serapis (q.v.)/
several of which are known to have existed in the ancient world. The most remarkable
of these temples was that of Alexandria, which was situated s. of the canal, and outside
the walls of the city, and superseded an older temple at Rhacotis. Hither was trans-
ported the statue of Dis or Pluto from Sinope by Ptolemy I., and attached to it was the
celebrated Alexandrian library (q.v.). The serapeum at Memphis attained scarcely less
reputation, and consisted of a group of temples dedicated to Astarte, Anubis, ImouUios
or JSscuIapius, and Serapis. It was approached from the city of Memphis by an
avenue of sphinxes, which had already become partially buried in the sands in the
days of Strabo, and were discovered by M. Mariette in 1850, who, after a series of
excavations, uncovered the ruins, and discovered the cemeteries of the mummied apis
or bulls sacred to Ptah and Osiris at Memphis. Close to the serapeum was the apeuia,
or temple of the living apis, in which the bull lived, as well as the cow which had pro-
duced him. The serapeum, or, as it was called in Egyptian, the abode of Onor-/ntpi, or
the Osiris- Apis, was, in fact, the sepulcher of the bull. The most remarkable part of the
work, which was of great extent, was the subterranean tombs of the mummies of the
apis, consisting of galleries with numerous chambers, in which the remains of these
bulls had been deposited from the reign of Amenophis III. of the 18th dynasty, about
1400 B.C., till the time of the Romans. Two principal galleries contained the tombs.
The second gallery, commenced in the 53d year of Psammetichus I., was on a grander
scale than the first, with larger sepulchral chambers and magnificent sarcophagi of
granite, measuring sometimes 12 ft. high, 15 ft. long, and weighing many tons. During
the reign of the Persians, and subsequently, the chambers decreased in size, and the
monuments exhibit the general decadence of the arts. The apis, considered as the
incarnation of the god Ptah during life, received royal and divine honors after death;
his body, or the principal portion, being embalmed^ and a sepulchral tablet or tomb-
stone placed on his sepulcher, along with other tablets of diff3rent worshipers, who
adored his divinity, and dedicated them to the deceased bull. As the principal tomb-
stone of the bull contained the dates of the king's reign in which he was born or
discovered, enthroned in' the apeum, and died or was buried in the eerapcum, these
tablets have become an important element for the chronology of the 19th and subse-
quent dynasties, and have aided to fix some of the hitherto doubtful points of the
chronology of the period. They terminate with Ptolemy Euergetes II., 177 n c. The
tablets, votive and sepulchral, amounted to about 1,00, and the most remarkable are at
present in the museum of the Louvre at Paris. Numerous bronze figures and other
antiquities were found during the excavations, comprising costly objects of jewelry,
many of which are also in the Louvre. Besides these, several Greek papyri which
appear to have formerly belonged to the library or archives of the serapeum were pre-
viously known, and many have been published. Thece throw great light upon the con-
stitution of the hierarchy of the serapeum, among which was a kind of order of monks,
who lived within the precincts of the building, beyond which they did not go, and
subsisted upon alms or the contributions of their family. Mariette, Serapeum fie Mem-
phis (4to, Paris, 1856); La Mere d'Apis (4to, Paris, 1856); Athen. Fran. (4to, Paris,
1855-56); Lepsius, Ueber den Apis-kreis, Zeitech. d. Morg. Gesell. (8vo, Leip. 1853).

SERAPHIM (plural of serapfy, celestial beings in attendance upon Jehovah, men-
tioned by Isaiah. They are similar to the cherubim (q.v.), have the human form face,
voice, two hands, and two feet but six wings, with four of which they cover their face
and feet as a sign of reverence while with two they fly. Nothing is more uncertain
than the origin of this conception, or of the word which expresses it. Their office of
singing the praises of Jehovah's greatness, and of being the swift messengers between
heaven and earth, does not go far to explain it. Deserving of consideration, however,
considering the close contact between Judea and Assyria and Babylon, both before and
after the captivity, is a comparison between the seraplum and the winged men and
beasts that have been brought to light in these last-named countries.

SE3APHINE, a keyed musical instrument in which the sounds were produced by the
action of wind on free vibratory reeds. It was the precursor of the harmonium (q.v.).

SERA PIS or SARAPIS, the Greek name of an Egyptian deity, introduced into Egypt
in the time of Ptolemy I., or Soter. This monarch is said to have seen the image of a
god in a dream, commanding him to remove it from the place where it was; and Sosibius,
a traveler, having recognized it as existing at Sinope, Soteles and Dionysius were sent
from Egypt, and brought it from Sinope to Alexandria. On its arrival it was examined

OK -I Serajo.

001 Serf.

by Thnotheus the interpreter and the celebrated Manetho, who called it Serapis, and
appear to have identified it with Osorhapis, or Osiris united with Apis, i.e., Osiris, in
in his character of the Egyptian Piuto, as a deity of similar character. The figure, in
fact, appears to have been one of Hades or Pluto, having at its side Cerberus, and a
dragon or snake. According to some authorities, the statue of Serapis was sent to
Ptolemy II., or Philadelphia, because that monarch had relieved the city of Sinope
from famine by supplying it with corn, ami the statue was placed in the Serapeum, at
the promontory of Khacotis. The Serapis of the Ptolemaic period, however, was not an
Egyptian, but a Greek deity, whose temple was not admitted into the precincts of Egyp-
tian cities, and only found favor in the Greek cities founded in Egypt. It is said that 43
temples were erected under the Ptolemies and Romans to this god in Egypt. His reseru-
blancu to Osiris consisted in his chthonic or infernal character, as judge of the dead and
ruler of Hades. About his nature and attributes the Greeks themselves entertained very
different idea-;, some considering him allied to the sun, others to ./Esculapius or Hades.
The god had a magnificent temple at Alexandria, to which was attached the celebrated
library; another at Memphis, iu the vicinity of the cemetery of the mummies of the
Api.s, "which has been recently excavated by M. Mariette; and another temple at Canopus.
From recent discoveries, it appears that he represented or was identified with the
Hesiri Api, or Osorapis, the "Osirified" or ''dead Apis," who was also invested with
many of the attributes of Osiris, and considered, while living, to be the incarnation of
the god Ptah-Socharis-Osiris, the tutelary divinity of Memphis. The worship of Serapis,
introduced into Egypt by the Ptolemies, subsequently became greatly extended in Asia
Minor; and his image, in alliance with that of Isis and other deities, appears on many of
the coins of the imperial days of Rome. In 146 A.D. the worship of tiie god was intro-
duced into the city of Rome by Antoninus Pius, and the mysteries celebrated on May
6; but they were not long after abolished by the senate, on account of their licentious
character. A celebrated temple of Serapis also existed at Puteoli (Pozzuoli), near
Naples, and the remains of it are still seen, and present curious geological phenomena.
In Egypt itself the worship of the deity subsisted till the fall of paganism, the image
at Alexandria continuing to be worshiped till destroyed, 398 A.D., by Theopiulus, arch-
bishop of that town. Busts of Serapis are found in most museums, and his head or
figure engraved on certain stones was supposed to possess particular mystic virtues.
His temples were oracular, the votaries consulting him by sleeping and dreaming in
them; and at Alexandria the priests connected his worship with the healing art.
Plutarch, De Md, s. 28; Clemens, Orat, Adhort. p. 21; Tacit. Ilist.iv. c. 83, 84; Strabo,
Lib. xvii. p. 5o'3; Macrobius, Saturn, i. 7, 25; Nixon, Dell' Edifizio di Pozzuoli dctlo il
Tempio di Serapide (Nap. 1773); Wilkinson, Mann, and Oust. iv. p. 360; Gibbon, Decline '
and Fall, c. 28.

SERAS'KIER. or SERI-ASKEK (Pcrs. head of the army), the name given by the Turks to
every gen. having the command of a separate army, and, in particular, to the commander-
in-chief or minister of war. The seraskier, in the latter sense, possesses most extensive
authority, being subordinate only to the sultan and grand vizier; Ite is selected by the
monarch from among the pashas of two or three tails.

SERENADE (Ital. serenata}, originally music performed in a calm night: hence an
entertainment of music given by a lover to his mistress under her window. Serenading
has been chiefly practiced in Spain and Italy. It is common among the students of the
German universities to assemble at night under the window of a favorite professor, and
give him a musical tribute. A piece of music characterized by the soft repose which is
supposed to be in harmony with the stillness of night, is called a serenade, or sometimes
a nottorno.

SER'ES, a t. in s. European Turkey, in the eyalet of Salonica, department, of Mace-
donia, 43 m. n.e. of the city of Salonica; pop. 30,000. It is protected by high walls,
and contains a citadel, many handsome villas, fountains, several mosques and churches.
It is the center of a fertile agricultural region, producing cotton and rice. It has a brisk
local trade, and manufactories of cotton and woolen goods.

SERETH', an important affluent of the Danube, rises in the Austrian crownland of
Qalicia, runs southward through almost the whole length of Moldavia, and joins the
Danube 5 m. above Galatz, after a course of 300 miles.

SERF (Lat. sermtx, a slave). A numerous class of the population of Europe known as
serfs or villeins were in a state of slavery during the early middle ages. In some cases
this serf population consisted of an earlier race, who had been subjugated by the con-
querors; but there were also instances of persons from famine or other pressing cause
selling themselves into slavery, or even surrendering themselves to churches and monas-
teries for the sake of the benefits to be derived from the prayers of their masters. Dif-
ferent as was the condition of the serf in different countries and at different periods, his
position was on the whole much more favorable than that of the slave under the Roman
law. He had certain acknowledged rights and this was more particularly the case with
the classes of serfs who were attached to the soil. In England, prior to the Norman
conquest, a large proportion of the population were in a servile position, either as
domestic slaves or as cultivators of tlic land. The name of nativUs, generally applied to

Serge. 350


the serfs, seems to indicate that they belonged to the native race, the earliest possessors
of the soil. The powers of the master over his serf were very extensive, thoir principal
limitations being, that a master who killed his serf was bound to pay a tine to the king,
and that a serf deprived of his eye or tooth by his master was entitled to his liberty.
The Norman conquest made little change in the position of the serf. The lowest class
of serfs were the i^iileins in gross, who were employed in menial household services', and
were Ihe personal property of their lords, who might sell them or export them to foreign
countries; while the most numerous class, who were employed in agriculture, and
attached to the soil, were called villeins regardant. These hitter, though in some respects
in a better position than the villeins in gross, might be severed from the land, and con-
veyed apart from it by their lord. They were incapable of enjoying anything like a
complete right to property, inasmuch as it was held, in accordance with the principles
of the Roman law, that whatever the slave acquired was his pccitlmm, which belonged
to his lord, who might seize it at his pleasure. l3y a peculiarity in the usages of Britain,
the condition of a child as regards freedom or servitude followed the father, and not the
mother, and therefore the bastards of female villeins might be free. In Fiance and
Germam r , besides the classes of serf alluded to, there were others whose servitude was
of a milder description, and who were only bound to fixed duties and payments in
respect of their lands.

The abolition of serfdom in western Europe was a very gradual process, various
causes having combined to bring it about. The church both inveighed against the
practice of keeping Christians in bondage, and practiced manumission to a large
extent. In the course of time, usage greatly modified the rights and liabilities of
the serf, whose position must have been considerably altered when we find him
making stipulations regarding the amount of his services, and purchasing his own
redemption. The towns afforded in more than one way a means of emancipation.

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 81 of 203)