Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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and the style incorrect. After its publication, Servetus wished to go to Italy, by way
of Switzerland, but in passing through Geneva, was arrested and imprisoned at the
instigation of Calvin (q. v.). After u long and complicated judicial procedure, Servetua
was condemned to be burned, and die sentence was carried into execution, Oct. 27,
1553 the hapless heretic expiring in agonies. The fate of Servetus, after all the pallia-
tions that can be offered are weisrh/xJ, remains a dark stain on the memory of Calvin.
(Bee Willis's Sertetus and Calvin < V 1

SEEVIA (Turk. Syrp), a principality formerly included within the limits of European
Turkey, but independent since 1878. It is bounded on the n. by Austria; on the e. by
Wallachia and Bulgaria; on toe s. by Koumclia and Bosnia; and on the w. by Bosnia.
Area about 18,816 sq.m. ; por>. 78, 1,642,068. The country is mountainous and densely
Wooded. From the interior, numerous chains proceed northward, forming massive
barriers both on the eastern and western frontiers, and sloping pretty steeply toward
ttie swampy plains along 1he Save and the Danube. In the extreme u.e. near
Orsova they reach the very edge of the Danube, and along with the Eastern Carpathians
Dn the opposite shore, imprison the great river within a wall of rock, known as the Iron
Gate of the Danube. Tii'; highest of these chains is the Rudnik mountains (gathered
into a knotty group about the center of the state), which in the Great Schturaz attains
an elevation of 3,400 fset. The Schumadia, or forest, extends southward from Bel-
grade for 60 miles. Beautiful landscapes are everywhere to be seen. The principal
fivers (Serb, lijeka) flowing through the country are the Morava and Timok, affluents of
the Danube; and the Kolubara. an affluent of the Save, which itself falls into the Danube
nt Belgrade. The tlimate is temperate and salubrious, but somewhat cold in the higher
regions. The soi\ in the valleys and level districts is fertile, and equally fitted for the
rearing of cattle, the favorite occupation of the people, and the production of corn and
Xvine; but not mere than ^th of the land is under tillage, and fully T yhs is forest or
wilderness. Oak is the most common wood, but chestnuts and fruit-trees of all sorts
abound, especially pears, of which tliere are whole forests in some places. The mount-
ains are believed to be rich in copper and silver, but mining is almost unknown, and
manufacturing industry is in the most backward condition.

Comtitutwn, Internal Administration, etc. The constitution now in force dates from
1869 The land is divided into 17 oci-uzia, or circles (Turk. Kazas): each circle has a
prefect and a court of the first instance, and sends a deputy to the scubsch'tina, or
national parliament. The circles are subdivided into 53 srezi, or arrondissemeuts, and
these agai'i into 1152 obsch'tine or parishes, each of which has a justice of peace court.
The civil legislature of Servia is modeled after that of Austria. The government com-
prises a president, who is also minister of foreign affairs, together with ministers of the
interior, of justice, of finances, of public worship, of war, and of public works. The
military force is composed of a small body of regulars, under 6,000 men, including cavalry
*nd artillery, and an immense national guard of about 115,000 men, which can easily be
raised to 150,000, for every Serb carries arms, and is trained to military habits. In 1867
ttie Turkish government, "at the instance of friendly powers, surrendered to Servia the
fortresses previously held by it, the chief of which was Belgrade.

Religion, Education, and Finance. The inhabitants nearly all belong to the Greek
Thurch', but are independent of the patriarch of Constantinople. Ecclesiastical affairs
are managed by a metropolitan, whose seat is at Belgrade, and by the three bishops of
Uzitza, Shabatz, and Timok. For the few who acknowledge the authority of the pope
and t\ie Latin church, there is a bishop in. part, infid., but who resides at Diacobar in
Austrian Slavonia. Servia, according to recent estimates, had 298 churches, 651 parishes,
and 6o2 priests, besides 38 cloisters. It also possessed upward of 300 educational insti-
tutions, including several gymnasia, a lyceum for philosophical and juristic studies, a
theological college, an artillery school, a school of agriculture, and 300 elementary
schools for boys, and 13 for girls. These schools are not under the control of the
clergy, and education is consequently making rapid progress. In 1875-76, the revenue
of the country amounted to 35,256,692 piasters, and the expenses to 34,806,884. Servia
has no public debt.

character. The Servians are distinguished for the vigor of their frame, their per-
sonal valor, love of freedom, and glowing poetical spirit. Their manners and mode of
life are exceedingly picturesque, and strongly prepossess a stranger in their favor. They
rank among the most gifted and promising members of the Slavic family.

Hixtot-y. In the earliest times of which we have record, Servia was inhabited by


Thracian or Illyrian races the Bessi, Scordisci, Dardanii, and Triballi. Shortly before
Christ it was subjugated by the Romans, and under the name of Mcesia Superior formed
part of the province of Illyricum, whose fortunes it shared during the vicissitudes of
the empire. Overrun successively by the Huns, Ostrogoths, Longobards, etc., it reverted
to the Byzantine rulers about the middle of the 6th c., but was wrested from them by
the Avars in the 7th c., to oppose whom the emperor Heraclius, about 636, invoked the
aid of the Serbs from eastern Galicia. The Serbs obeyed the call, and in less than two
years drove the Avars from the land, over which they themselves spread in great num-
bers, their settlements extending from the Morava as far w. as the Dalmatian Alps and
the Adriatic, and from the Save as far s. as the Balkan" and lake Scutari. About the
middle of the 9th c. they were converted to Christianity by missionaries sent by the
emperor Basilius, but this did not in the least abate their natural ardor for battle, and
for nearly 200 years they were almost constantly at war with the neighboring Bulgarians
the inveterate enemies of their Byzantine "liege lord. In 1043, however, Stephen
Bogislav expelled the imperial governors; and during 1050-80 his son, Michael, made
himself wholly independent, took the title of king of Servia, and procured the recogni-
tion of his royal dignity from pope Gregory VII. "For the next hundred years the Serbs
had to fight hard to maintain their independence, but the struggle terminated in their
favor; and in 1165 Stephen Nemanja founded a dynasty which lasted for two centuries,
during which period the kingdom of Servia attained the acme of its power and pros-
perity. Under Stephen Dushan (1336-56), the greatest monarch of the Nemanja dynasty,
it embraced the whole of Macedonia, Albania, Thessaly, northern Greece, and Bulgaria.
The progress of the Turkish arms, however, was fatal to its welfare, and in 1389 king
Lazar fell in the disastrous battle of Kossovopolje. Sultan Bajazet divided the country
between Lazar's son, Stephen, and Lazar's son-in-law, Vuk Brankovitch, but compelled
both to pay tribute, and to follow him in war. Gradually the Serbs sunk more and
more under the Turkish yoke, until, in 1459, Servia was thoroughly subjugated by the
sultan Mahmud. It was uniformly the theater of the bloody wars between Hungary
and Turkey, and frequently suffered the uttermost horrors of devastation. Prince
Eugene's brilliant successes for a moment flashed a ray of hope into the miserable hearts
of the long-suffering Serbs, and by the treaty of Passarowitz (1718) a considerable por-
tion of the country was made over to Austria: but in 1739 it reverted to Turkey, and for
the next 60 years the cruelty and oppressions of the pashas and their janizaries surpasses
all belief. At length the. unhappy people could endure the tyranny of their foreign
.masters no longer, and in 1801 an insurrection broke out, headed by George Czerny
(q.v.), which, by the help of Russia, ended in the triumph of the patriots, and in the
election of Czerny by the people as prince of Servia. The invasion of Russia by France,
however, left the Serbs at the mercy of their late rulers, and the war again broke out.
Czerny was forced to flee, and the tyranny of the Turks became more ferocious than
ever. Again the people flew to arms under the leadership of Milosch Obrenovitch, and
were a second time successful in winning back their liberties. Milosch was chosen
prince of Servia in 1815. Compelled to abdicate in 1839, he was, in 1858, restored to his
former dignity, which was made hereditary in his family. In July, 1876, Servia, excited
by the rebellion in Herzegovina, detlared war against Turkey, and was joined by Mon-
tenegro. The Servians, generally unsuccessful," in spite of the help of numerous Rus-
sian volunteers, were totally defeated at Alexinatz in September; in November an
armistice was concluded; and in Mar., 1^77, the conditions of peace were signed. Next
month war was declared by Russia against Turkey. The sympathies of the principality
were undoubted; but Servia did not venture again to tako'tl* field against Turkey till
the fate of the war had been practically decided by the fall of the Turkish stronghold of
Plevna in Dec., 1877. The recognition of Servia's independence and an important
increase of its territory to the southward, demanded by Russia at the close of the war,
were agreed to by the Berlin congress in 1878.

Language and Literature. The Servian language, called also the Illyrian. belongs
to one of the four great divisions of the Slavic family, and is more nearly allied to Rus-
sian than to Polish or Bohemian. It is distinguished from the other members of its
division by the predominance of vowels, and consequently by its soft, melodious reso-
nance. This character it owes in part to the influence of the Italian and Greek languages
the former influence being the result of commercial intercourse; the latter of com,
munityof religious belief. The long domination of the Turks has also left unmistakable
traceson the Servian tongue; nevertheless it has on the whole preserved a genuine Slavi*
character, possessing along with the other members of that family a complete system of
declension and conjugation, along with a free syntax. The old classical meters art
imitated with facility in it. It is spoken (in the three dialects Herzegovic, Razavic,
and Syrmic) by more than 7,000,000 people, of whom 4,500,000 are under Austrian,
2,500,000 under Turkish, and a few under Russian authority.

After their conversion to Christianity, the Serbs, like the Russians, employed the old
Slavic church language in writing, but "in two different styles, one called the church
style, and the other the chancery or legal style. The most important monument of the
latter is the "law-book," published by king Stephen Dushan, though the oldest extant
pecimens go back as far as the llth century. The literary remains of the former aro
more numerous, and embrace ecclesiastical, devotional, and historical works, for th

OO Service.


most part composed by the clergy and the monks. With George Brankoyitch (b. 1645,
d. 1711), who wrote a History of tie-ma from the origin of the nation to his own time,
this first or mediaeval period in Servian literature closes. The second or modern period
is characterized iu its commencement by an effort to raise the spoken language of the
Serbs to the dignity of a written language. The consequence was, for a considerable
time, the literary language of Servia was a chaos of confusion, writers not appearingable
to make up their minds which dialect to use, and spoiling their productions by a bar-
barous mixture of both; and it was not till Vuk Stephanovitch published his GraimAar
vf tfie Sen-tan Language (1814), and his Songs of the Servian People, that the victory of
me reformers was complete. Since then the spoken language of Servia has also become
Che language of literature. These Servian popular songs or ballads constitute by far the
finest part of Servian literature. The picturesque scenery of the land, and the free soli-
tary life led in the mountain ranges, kindled the imagination of the people, and awoke
the voice of song at an early period. Some of the ballads now so widely known
throughout Christendom by means of translation go back to a period anterior to the
appearance of the Turks in Europe. In a wonderful manner they combine the rude
strength, spirit, and naivete characteristic of the ballad everywhere, with oriental fire
and Greek plasticity. They are invariably uurhynied, but preserve at the same time a
rhythmic measure See Kapper's Volkslieder der Serbien (2 vols. Leip. 1852); and Bow-
ring's Servian Popular Poetry (Lond. 1827); and Owen Meredith's Serbske Pesme (Loud.
1861); the last, however, a book of doubtful honesty. Among the poets who acquired
distinction in the first part of the century, and have employed the vernacular, the most
important is Lucyau Muschiki (died 1837), archbishop of Carlovitz, whose Poeinx appeared
at Pesth in 1838. Of recent or living Servian poets, the most gifted are Branko Radit-
shevitz and Jovan Ilitz. As yet, science has made little progress. In another branch of
the Servian people the so-called Illyrians, especially the Dalmatians, who profess the
Roman Catholic faith literature received an earlier and more artistic development than
among the Serbs of the Greek church. In the 12th c. a priest of Ducla (Dioclea) wrote
a chronicle, first in Slavic, and afterward in Latin, fragments of which are still extant.
During the 13th and 14th centuries devotional works in the vernacular were numerous,
toward the end of the 15th c. the republic of Ragusa (Slav. Dubrovnik) obtained the name
of the " Illyrian Athens" on account of the brilliant success with which it cultivated
literature, art, and science. Epic, lyric, and dramatic poetry, history, and jurisprudence
are all admirably represented. The list of its poets is particularly large. Toward the
end of the 18th c. literary activity abated among the southern or Illyrian Serbs, but at the
rftime time began to increase in the n., especially in Croatia and Hungary. See Ristitz,
Ueber die Serb" Literatur (Berl. 1853), and, in English, Talvi's Historical View of the Lan-
guages and Literature of the Slavic Nations (New York, 1850); as also Schafarik's
Gexchichte der SudalawiscJien Literatur (1864), and Novakovitz's Istorija srpske Knijzevnosti
(Belgrade, 1867). There are numerous grammars and dictionaries.

SERVICE, Pt/rus dome.stica (see PYRUS), the Sorlms domestica of many botanists, a tree of
50 or 60 ft. in height, with pinnated leaves, which are downy beneath, and their leaflets ser-
rated upward, and small white flowers in panicles, a rare native of England, found also
in various parts of Europe, the w. of Asia, and the n. of Africa, and cultivated for its
fruit, which is obovate, and about an inch in length, resembling a small pear, but
pleasant only in a doughy and over-ripened state, like the medlar. It is more cultivated
in Italy, Germany, and France than in Britain. The tree is of very slow growth, and
attains a great age. The timber is valuable, very heavy, fine grained, and susceptible of
a high polish, possessing a strength and durability which particularly adapt it for some
purposes of the machine-maker. It is used also for making mathematical rulers, etc.
The name WILD SERVICE is given to an allied species, pyrus tormina I is. also called the
SORB, a common native of the middle and s. of England, and of the middle and s. of
Europe a small tree, with a spotted fruit, considerably larger than that of the common
hawthorn, which, like the fruit of the true service, becomes mellowed and pleasant
by keeping, and is regularly brought to the market in many parts of Europe. Large
quantities are brought to London from Hertfordshire. The dried fruit is used in some
places as a cure for diarrhea. The wood is highly valued. It is hard and tough,
yellowish-white, with brownish-red and dark brown streaks.

SERVICE AND WORK is the name usually given to an action brought by a workman
frho has done work to order, or on request, or has been engaged for a specific time.


SERVICE OF HEIRS is a proceeding in the law of Scotland by which the heir of a
deceased owner of land has his relationship recognized and declared, and his feudal title
to the land completed.

SERVITUDE, a name borrowed by the law of Scotland from the Roman law, to denote
that kind of right or interest which a person often has in land of which he is not the
owner, as a right to cut turf, etc. Servitudes are divided into predial and personal. A
predial servitude is a right constituted over one subject or tenement by the owner of
another subject or tenement; while a personal servitude is constituted over a subject in
favor of a person without reference to possession of property. The only kind of per-

Sethi leg.

sonal servitude is life-rent or usufruct. The predial servitudes are those usually referred
to under the head of servitude. Such a servitude being constituted in respect of the
ownership of property, passes to third parties with such ownership. The tenement over
which the servitude exists is called the servient tenement, and the other is called the
dominant tenement. Predial servitudes ave again subdivided into rural and urban,
according as they affect land or houses. The usual rural servitudes as those of passage
or road, pasture, feal and divot, aqueduct, thirlage, etc. Passage or road is the right
which a person has to walk or drive to his house over another's land. Pasture is the
right to send cattle to graze on another's lands. Feal and 'divot is the right to cut turfs
or peats on another's land. Aqueduct is the right to have a stream of water conveye*
through another's lands. Thirlage is the right to have other people's corn sent to one's
mill to be ground. The urban servitudes are stillicide, light, oncrisftrendi, etc. Stilli-
oide is the right to have the rain from one's roof drop on another's land or house. Light
ia the right lo prevent another from building so as to obstruct the windows of one's
house. O/irrfs ferendi is the right of the owner of the flat above to have his flat sup-
ported by the flat beneath.


SEE VTJS SER70 RUM DEI (Lat., Servant of the Servants of God), a form of subscrip-
tion adopted by the Roman pontiffs from the days of pope Gregory the great, by whom,
according to his biographer, Paul the deacon, it was assumed as a practical rebuke of
the ambitious aosumption of the title of " Ecumenical (or universal) patriarch," by John,
eurnamed Nesteutes. or the faster, the contemporary patriarch of Constantinople.
Gregory is said, indeed, by Paul to have been the first Christian bishop by whom this
humble form was employed. This, however, is certainly a mistake, the same designa-
tion having been frequently used by bishops before the time of Gregory. Gregory was
probably the first of the Inshops of" Rome to adopt it as a distinctive title. It is found
in all the letters of Gregory which Venerable Bede has presevered in his history.

SES'AME GRASS (Tripsacum dactytoides), a species of gn ? of large size found on the
Atlantic coast of the United States and in the gulf states. The stem is thick, and the
leaves broad, somewhat resembling the sugar cane. It is generally considered too coarse
for fodder.

SESAMOID BONES are small bones met with in the substance of the tendons of mus-
cles in the neighborhood of certain joints. They derive their name from the Gr. sesame, a
land of Indian grain, wh : ch they were supposed to resemble. In the human subject,
the patella is the best example; and besides it they are commonly met with only on the
palmar aspect of the joint vhich unites the metacarpal bone with the first phalanx, and
in the corresponding position in the toe, there being two in each position, and their
object being to increase the leverage of the short flexor muscles of the Mmmb and toe.
They arc much more abundart in the great majority of mammals than they are in man.

SES AMTJM, a genus of plants of the natural order bif/noniactce, suborder -pedaliacece, a
suborder characterized by wingless seeds, and placentae with woody lobes attached to
the inner wall of the fruit. The calyx of sesamum is five-parted; the corolla btll-chaped
and five-parted, the lowest lobe prolonged; the stamens four, two longer than thi others,
and a rudimentary fifth stamen; the capsule is oblong, almost four-celled, two-vulved,
many-seeded. The species are nxtives of India and Africa, and are annual plants,
covered with hairs, their flowers solitary in the axils of the leaves, on very short sth'kss.
They Are so similar as to be sometimes reckoned mere varieties of one species, S. Indi-
cum. The sweet oleaginous seeds an used in some countries, as in Central Africa, for
making a kind of hasty-pudding. It Egypt they are eaten strewed on cakes. The
bland fixed oil of sesamum, obtained from the seeds by expression, is used as an article
of food, and for medicinal purposes, like olive oil. *It keeps long without becoming
rancid. It is much used by the women or' Egypt as a cosmetic. For the sake chiefly o<
its oil, sesnmum is much cultivated in Indiu. China, Japan, and in many tropical and sub
tropical countries, and has been cultivated from very ancient times. It is too tender for
the climate of England. The oil-cake, mixel with honey and preserved citron, is a
oriental luxury. The leaves < f sesamum abound in a gummy substance, which they
readily impart, to water, making a rich bland mucilage, which is used in the southern
parts of the United Suites as a demulcent drink. Sesamum is sometimes called tilseed.


SESHA is, in Hindu mythology, the great king of the serpent race, on which Vishn'
reclines on the primeval waters. He has a thousand iieads, which also serve as a canopy
toVishn'u; and he upholds the world, which rests on one of his heads. His crest ia
ornamented with jewels. Coiled up, Sesha is the emblem of eternity. He is often also
called Vdmiki or Anauta, the eternal.

SESOS'TRIS, the Greek name of a celebrated Egyptian monarch, who is supposed to
have conquered all Asia and Ethiopia. His name lias passed into the series of those con-
querors who have almost achieved universal empire. According to the Greek legendary
history, when Sesostris mounted the throne of Egypt, he began his scheme of conquest,
first dividing Egypt itself into 36 nomes, placing his brother as regent, and laying on
'him injunctions not to assume the diadem, or interfere with the royal harem. Sesostria

tiii tea.

then marched at the head of a large army, and invaded Libya, Arabia, Asia, penetrating
further e. than Darius. Advancing through Asia Minor, he invaded Europe, and sub-
dued Thrace and Scythia, leaving a colony at Colchis on his return. In the s. he sub-
dued Ethiopia, and placing a fleet ou the lied sea, conquered the adjacent isles, aud
extended his dominions to India itself. On his. return to Egypt from his northern cam-
paigns, his brother, who had disobeyed his instructions, endeavored to destroy him by
inviting him to a banquet at Daplmse, and treacherously attempting to burn him aud
his whol family by tiring the house. Sesostris threw two of his children into the lire,
and making a bridge of their burning bodies, escaped. Sesostris, in his triumphs,
dragged his captives attached to the wheels of his chariot. The captives were employed
on the public works, the enlargement of the Ilephajsteum at Memphis (q.v.), and other
temples, and in the construction of canals and mounds. Memorials of his reign, it was
said, were left as steles or tablets in the conquered countries: and Herodotus saw some in
Palestine, which are supposed to be the tablets of Harnesses II. (see RAMESSES), still exist-
ing in the pass of Nuhr-el-Kelb, or the Lycus, and the sculptured rock at Nymphi, near
Smyrna. Sesostris is said to have grown infirm and blind after a reign of 08 years, and
to have endc'd his days by his own hand.

Not only does the greatest confusion aud difficulty about identifying this monarch
exist among modern, but also in the classical authors. Herodotus places his reign long
before that of Cheops of the 4th dynasty. Dicyearchus makes him rule 3112 B.C., aud
is followed by Aristotle aud other authors. Bunsen supposes that there were more than

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 84 of 203)