Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 85 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 85 of 203)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

one monarch of this name, and that one was Tosorthos, of the 3d dynasty; another,
Sesortesen II., of the 12th dynasty. Lepsius conjectures that he is the Sethos I. and Harn-
esses II. of the 19th dynasty. But the exploits of Sesostris seem to be a conglomeration
of the conquests of the kings of the 18lh and 19th dynasties, especially the Thothmes aud
Harnesses (q.v.), who extended the empire of Egypt far to the w. aud east. No one
monarch of the Egyptian monarchy can represent 'Sesostris. Herodotus, ii. c. 102; Dio-
dorus, i. c. 55-57; Val. Flaccus, v. 419; Strabo, xvi. ; Wilkinson, Mann, and Uuat. i.
99-106; ii. 70; iii. 190; Lepsius, Einleit. s. 273; .Bunsen, Aegyptens Stdle, book ii. 85,
86, 312-324.

SESftUTAL TERA, one of the compound stops of the organ, composed of either five,
four, three, or two ranks of open metal-pipes tuned in thirds,, fifths, aud octaves to the


SESSA, a city of southern Italy, province of Cascrta, about 38m. n.n.w. of Naples.
Pop, '72, 6, 138. It has a line cathedral, a theological seminary and colleges. There are
manufactories of woolen cloth. The neighboring soil is fertile. Sessa is a very ancient
city; it was the capital city of the Aruncii, was afterward colonized by the Romans in
314 A.U.C., and was very flourishing under the Roman empire. It was raised to a duchy
iu the middle ages.



SESTER'TIUS, a Roman coin, was the fourth part of the denariu* (q.v.), and thus con-
tained at tirst 2.} asses or librae. The name is an abbreviation of the Latin semw-tertius,
which was their mode of expressing 2.V; and their custom was, to derive the names of
all their coins from the foundation of their money-system, the as (q.v.). The symbols
for it were indifferently HS or IIS, the former being only a modification of the latter,
which expresses two units, and S for the additional half- unit (semis). In tin; Latin
classics the phrase se&ttrtiut-nummu*, or merely nummus, is frequently employed to de-
note this coin. Wlren the denarius (q.v.) was made to contain 16 a*se.s, the relation be-
tween it and the sestertius was preserved, and the latter from that time contained 4 asses,
though the uame, which was now no longer significant, was preserved. Up till the time
of Augustus, when the relation of the denarius to the as was changed, the sestertius
was worth 2 pence | farthing sterling, but after this period it was reduced to 1 penny
8 farthings sterling. The sum of 1000 sestertii was called sestertnim (after Augustus,
= 7 16s. 3d.), which was the "money of account" (never a "coin") used in the reck-
oning of large sums of money.

SESTO FIORENTI'NO, a t. in Italy, province of Florence, containing several
parishes; the largest with a pop. of 6,000. Within its limits is the parish of Colonnata,
containing a celebrated manufactory of porcelain.

SESTRI LEVANTE', a sea-port of n. Italy, 2P> m. e.s.e. of Genoa. It is situated on a
little bay near the mouth of the Gromolo, and has five foreign consulates. Its church
of the nativity has some valuable paintings. Pop. 2,300.

SESTEI PONEN'TE, a t. of n. Italy, 4 m. w. of Genoa, stands on the high-road which
runs along the sea-coast. There is a large government factory of tobacco. Pop. 9,500.



SETHTTES, the name given to an obscure Gnostic sect of the 2d c., allied to the
Ophites, or worshipers of the serpent; they belonged to that class of religionists who,
in evolving what they regarded as their system, approached paganism. Accepting tho


Christian mode of thought and its terminology, they utterly disregarded the great facts
of Scripture history, maintaining that Seth reappeared in the person of the Messiah, Jvnd
affirming that they possessed books written by him. See Neander's Kirchengeschichte
(Bonn's translation, vol. ii. p. 115).

SET-OFF, in law, the amount of debt due to a defendant from a plaintiff which the
former is allowed to interpose as a defense to all or part of the plaintiff's demand. No
such right existed at common law, but the statutes of 2 and 8 George II. applied to the
colonies and have been re-enacted with some changes in all the states. The plea of set-
off must describe the debt with as much precision as if it were a declaration. An un-
liquidated or indefinite claim for damages cannot be put forward as set-off, and there
must be mutuality between the two claims. Thus if A sues B for a debt, B cannot
introduce as set-off a debt due him by A, C, and D, jointly. But an exception exists in
the case of a trustee or cestui que trust. At common law where there are continued
dealings or accounts, debit and credit, only the balance may be sued for; and hence set-
off applies only to independent, disconnected debts. Where the defendant's claim
exceeds that of the plaintiff he may recover the excess; but where the plaintiff is the
assignee of him against whom the defendant has a claim, this does not hold. Equitable
Bet-off is in- many respects broader than that at law.

SETON, in surgery, is an artificially produced sinus or channel, through which some
substance e.g., a skein of cotton or silk, or a long flat piece of india-rubber or gutta-
percha is passed so as to excite suppuration, and to keep the artificially formed open-
ings patent. (The term is, however, very often employed to designate the inserted
material.) Setons are established in the subcutaneous tissue of the body (1) as counter-
irritants, or (2) to act as a drain on the system at large, or (3) to exqite inflammation and
adhesion. For the purposes of counter-irritation, setons are usually inserted in the
neighborhood of the affected parts ; but when intended to act as a drain on the system
at large e.g., in threatened head-affections the nape of the neck is the part always
selected. The operation is very simple. A longitudinal fold of skin over the spines of
the cervical vertebrae is raised by the fingers from the deeper structures, and is trans-
fixed by the seton-needle rather obliquely, so that one of the openings shall be rather
more dependent than the other. The needle must pass somewhat deeply through the
subcutaneous tissue, as, if it passed immediately beneath the skin, the latter would
probably slough over the whole track of the wound. The inserted material should be
smeared with oil, and may be allowed to remain undisturbed for four or five day?, till
there is a free discharge of matter, after which a fresh portion should be drawn daily
through the wound.

For the purpose of exciting local inflammation and adhesion (which is a result of the
inflammation), setons are employed in the treatment of hydrocele, enlarged burs;e,
ranula, bronchocele, ununited fractures, etc. In the two last-named cases, their use is,
however, not unattended by danger.

The word seton is derived from the Latin seta, a hair, because hairs were originally
employed as the inserted material. Indeed, at the present day, it is the custom of many
of the nomadic tribes of Central Asia to insert a hair into the heels of their prisoners,
ivhich lames them to such an extent as to prevent their escape.

SETON, ELIZABETH ANN (BAYLEY), 1774-1821; b. New York; accompanied her
Husband to Italy in 1803. and on his death at Pisa, returned to New York; became a
^jman Catholic in 1805; taught a school in Baltimore, 1805-08. Having received a
forge amount from the rev. Samuel Cooper, and being joined by her sisters-in-law,
Harriet and Cecilia Seton, she established- the sisters of charity, the first in the United
States. They assumed the religious habit and opened a convent at Emmittsburg, Md.,
in 1809. In 1812 the sisterhood numbered 20 members, and mother Seton was chosen
superior-general. In 1817 the institution was incorporated by the legislature of Mary-
land. At the death of the superior there were 50 members. She was a woman of great
zeal and efficiency.

SETON HALL COLLEGE, South Orange, Essex co., N. J., a Roman Catholic
institution; organized in 1856. Its course of study extends through a term of seven
years. It has a fine situation, excellent buildings, and a library of 6,000 volumes,
rrofcssors, '78, 11; students, 82. Rev. James H. Corrigan, A. M., president.

SETT, in Scotch law, was used to denote the constitution of a burgh, whether
founded on immemorial usage or modeled by the convention of royal burghs (q.v.).

SE'TTE COMMMTTNI DI VICEN'ZA, a district consisting of seven communes or
parishes in the neighborhood of Vicenza, the language and population of which are
plainly Teutonic, and have maintained themselves'pure and unmixed in the midst of a
Latin people from the days of the Roman republic. The inhabitants are believed by
antiquaries to be descendants of the remnant of the Cimbrian army which was defeated
with great slaughter by Marius, and are supposed to have escaped to the mountains, and
there fixed a permanent settlement. Their language is perfectly intelligible to any Ger-
man scholar. Specimens of this dialect, and of a similarly isolated Teutonic dialect
which is found near Verona, are given by Adclung in the Mithridates, ii. p. 215.

o f\ fir Set-off.


SETTEE, a kind of dog which derives its name from its habit of setting or crouching
when it perceives the scent of game, instead of standing, like the pointer. Setters, how-
ever, are now trained to adopt the pointer's mode of standing while marking game.
The setter was originally used to assist in the capture of game by the net. It is sup-
posed to derive its origin from a mixture of the pointer and the spaniel. It is larger
than the spaniel; its hair is less smooth than that of the pointer, and has more of the
waved character of that of the spaniel, to which there is a resemblance also in the ears.
The tail is bushy. There are several breeds of the setter. The general color of the
English setter is a white ground, with large spots or blotches of liver-color or red. Tie
Irixh setter has larger legs in proportion to the size of the body. The Scotch or Gordor*
tetter is of a rioli black-aud-tau color. The Russian setter is covered with wooly fur,
much matted together Each of these breeds has its peculiar merits. All setters have
the soles of the feet well covered with hair, so that they can bear hard work on rough
ground. The} 1 soon become exhausted, however, unless they have access to water.
The setter is much employed by sportsmen. It is one of the most affectionate, gentle,
and intelligent of dogs.

SETTLE, ELKANAH, was b. at Dunstable, in the year 1648. He completed his edu-
cation at Trinity college, Oxford, which he left without taking a degree, and repaired
to London, to seek his subsistence by literature. In 1671 he made something of a hit
by the production of his tragedy of Cambyses; and the earl of Rochester and others,
wishing to annoy and insult the great Dryden, loudly hailed in him the superior genius
of the two. Through the influence of Rochester, to his next tragedy, The Empress of
Morocco, the unwonted honor was accorded of being played at Whitehall by the lords
nnd ladies of the court, and in this way a great run was secured for it when it came
before the general public. In the insolence of success, the author printed along with it
a preface, in which Dryden was severely assailed. Solely in virtue of the quarrel thus
engendered is Settle now remembered. In his great satire, Absalom and AcJiitopJiel,
Dryden scourged him with his scorn, so that in some sort he survives for us, if only as
a shrieking ghost. Having no real strength of talent, he speedily relapsed into obscurity.
The post of poet-laureate for the city he had obtained, and he continued to retain. By
willing in this capacity verses for city pageants and festivities, and producing pieces to
be acted in the booths of Bartholomew fair, the some-time rival of Dryden was fain to
eke out a wretched subsistence. In his destitute age, he was admitted to the Charter-
house, where in 1723 he died, his works having predeceased him.

SETTLED ESTATE, in English law, means an estate held by some tenant for life, under
conditions more or less strict,, defined by the deed.

SETTLEMENT, in English law, is used in two 'senses. In one case it means the mode
of securing property on married parties, so as to regulate the succession iu the event of
the death of either, or it may regulate the succession of parties not married. In poor-law
matters it means that kind of right which a pauper has to support by the parish by rea-
son of his being born there, or of his renting a tenement or acquiring estate, etc. It often
happens that a person becomes chargeable, that is, is entitled to be relieved by a parish
in which he has no settlement, and the relieving parish can forthwith remove him to his
parish of settlement. See REMOVAL OF PATJP;;KS. In Scotland, settlement, besides the
above meanings, also means the general will or disposition by which one regulates the
disposition of his property after death.

SETTLEMENT, in law (ante). As to settlement of paupers, see POOR LAWS (ante).
Marriage settlements may be made before and in consideration of the marriage, or after
it. They vest the property in trustees, generally for the use of the husband and wife
during their joint lives, then for the use of the survivor of them, and then for the chil-
dren by the marriage. Marriage is a valuable consideration at law, and will support an
agreement by a third person, though a stranger, to make a settlement upon the husband
and wife and their issue. A marriage settlement made without consideration, after mar-
riage, settling the husband's property upon the wife and children, is good against subse-
quent creditors, but void as to creditors at the time of settlement. The ordinary powers
in marriage settlements of real estate, are powers of sale and exchange, of leasing and
managing, and of raising portions and jointuring.

SETU'BAL (frequently and erroneously called by the English ST. UBE'S) is an impor-
tant sea-port city of Portugal, in the province of Estremadura, 20 m. s.e. of Lisbon. It
lands on the n. side of the bay of Setubal, which forms a magnificent harbor, though the
entrance to it is obstructed by sandbanks. The harbor is furnished with a light-house
and with broad and handsome quays, and is protected by five forts; but the valley in
which the town itself stands is completely commanded by the heights in the vicinity.
The town owes its importance chiefly to its trade in the muscadel and white wines, in
sea-salt, oranges, lemons, and cork bark, but fishing is also carried on with considerable
activity. Setubal is the old Roman Cetobriga. In 1755 it was visited by an earthquake,
from which it suffered severely. Pop. 17,000.

SEVASTOPOL, or, as it is sometimes written, SEBASTOPOI, (Sebastopolis, the "august
city"), a Russian sea-port, fortress, and arsenal in the Crimea, in the government of Tau-
rida. It is situated near the s.w. extremity of the Crimea, on the southern side of th


magnificent harbor or roadstead of Sevastopol, one of the finest natural harbors in the
world. This harbor is an iulet of the Black sea, stretching inland for about 44 in. from
w. to e., about half a mile wide at the entrance, but immediately opening out to the
width of a mile, with an average width of about half a miiu up to the eastern end. It is
sheltered on the n. and s. by lofty limestone ridges shutting it completely in, with a depth
of water varying from 3 to 11 fathoms, and sufficient in several places to allow ships of
the largest size to lie close to the shore. At the eastern end, under the heights of Inker-
mann, the river Tchernaya enters the harbor through low marshy ground. The South
bay. or Dockyard harbor, as it is also called, extending about one and a half miles from
n. to s., forms the harbor proper of Sevastopol; and between it and Quarantine bay,
occupying rather more than half the peninsula thus formed, is built the chief portion of
the town of Sevastopol, on ground sloping irregularly upward. The town, previous to
its destruction in the siege of 1854-55, was well and substantially built of stone, with lines
of streets running from n. to s.. and smaller ones intersecting them at right angles, con-
taining several handsome public edifices. The docks, constructed for the Russian gov-
ernment by col. Upton, an English civil engineer, were among the most important works
at Sevastopol ; the dock-basin, docks, and quays were formed in the most substantial way,
being partly cut in the solid rock, and lined with cement, partly built of limestone and
granite. From the dockyard creek, ships were admitted into the dock basin by means
of three locks, the bottom of the docks being above the sea level, and the basin was sup-
plied with water by a canal some 12 m. in length from the Tchernaya above Inkermann
itself a work of no inconsiderable magnitude. For the defense of town and harbor
from attack by sea, several forts were erected. These forts were works of immense
strength, built of limestone faced with granite, on which artillery was found to make but
little impression; they mounted a very large number of guns, and by their cross-fire com-
pletely protected every spot accessible to a hostile fleet. On the land side, with the
exception of a slight loop-holed wall extending partially round the western side, the town,
previous to the siege, was entirely undefended; but the earthworks and fortifications
then successively extemporized by the genius of gen. Todleben, which for so many months
kept the armies of France and England at bay, and of which the Malakoff and the Redan
were the most foimidable, are now of historic fame.

The siege of Sevastopol by the allied English and French armies will rank among the
most famous sieges in history; it lasted for 11 months, from Oct., 1854, to Sept.. 1855;
the place sustained repeated bombardments, the first of which took place Oct. 17, 1854;
and the capture of the Malakoff and Redan, on Sept. 8, 1855, at length forced the Rus-
sians to evacuate it, and retire to the n. side. The town was completely ruined; the docks
and forts still standing were blown up by French and English engineers, and by the
treaty of Paris (1856) were not to be restored; but the restrictions were removed by the
abrogation of the neutrality of the Black sea by the conference of London (1871). Before
the siege the population of Sevastopol, including the garrison, amounted to about 40.000.
Since, the town has been partially rebuilt, but the population in 1875 was only 20,000.
Sevastopol was intended to be the station of the Russian Black sea fleet, and as such to
form a standing menace to Turkey; during the siege the fleet was almost entirely
destroyed, many of the ships having been sunk by the Russians across the entrance of the
harbor by way of defense. The great disadvantage of Sevastopol as a naval station arises
from the ravages of the teredo namlis, which soon render wooden vessels un sea worthy.
Sevastopol was founded on the site of a small Tartar village called Akhtvir, immediately
after the Russian conquest of the Crimea in 1783, under the orders of the empress Cath-
arine II. The promontory on which Sevastopol stands is a spot of considerable classical
and historical interest. Here, perhaps on the site now occupied by the Greek convent of
St. George, w. of Bnlnklnva, stood the temple of the Tauric Artemis, in which, according
to the legend, Iphigenia, daughter of Agamemnon, was priestess. It later times the prom-
ontory was colonized by Greeks from Heraclea, in Asia Minor, and became known as
the Heraclcotic Chersonese. Two cities, successively built a few miles apart on the sea-
coast to the w. of Sevastopol, have left remains existing to the present day. In after
times the Chersonesus fell into the power of the Genoese, who established their head-
quarters at Balaklava, where the remains of the "Genoese castles" on the heights still
bear witness to their rule. See History of the Russian War (W. and R. Chambers).

SEVEN, frequently used as a mystical and symbolical number in the Bible, as well a*
among the principal nations of antiquity (the Persians, Indians, Egyptians, Greeks,
Romans, etc.). The reason for the preference of this number for sacred use has been
found in its consisting of three the number of the sides of a triangle and four tha
sides of a square, these being the simplest rectilineal figures; or in other equally vague
circumstances. The real reason, however, seems to be astronomical, or rather astro-
logical, viz., the observation of the seven planets and the phases of the moon chang-
ing every seventh day. (See WEEK.) As instances of the use of this number in the
Old Testament, we find the creation completed in seven days, wherefore the seventh
day was kept sacred; every seventh year was sabbatical, and the seven times seventh
year ushered in the jobel-year. The three regalim, or pilgrim festivals (passah, festival
of weeks, and tabernacles), lasted seven days; and between tbe first and second of
these feasts were counted seven weeks. The first day of the seventh month was a


"holy convocation." The Levitical purifications lasted seven days, and the same
space of time was allotted to the celebration of weddings and the mourning for the
dead. In innumerable instances in the Old Testament and later Jewish writings,
the number is used as a kind of round number. In the New Testament we have the
churches, candlesticks, stars, trumpets, spirits, all to the number of seven: and the
seven horns, and seven eyes of the Lamb. The same number appears again either
divided into half (3$ years, Kev. xiii. 5, xi. 3, xii. 6, etc.), or multiplied by ten seventy
Israelites go to Egypt, the exile lasts seventy years, there are seventy eiders, and at a;
later period there are supposed to be seventy languages and seventy nations upon earth.
To go back to the earlier documents, we find in a similar way the dove sent out the
second time seven days after her tirst mission. Pharaoh's dream shows him twice
seven kine, twice seven ears of corn, etc. Among the Greeks the seven was sacred to
Apollo and to Dionysos, who, according to Orphic legends, was torn into seven pieces;
and it was particularly sacred in Euboea, where the number was found to pervade, as
it were, almost every sacred, private, or domestic relation. On the many ancient spec-
ulations which connected the number seven with the human body and the phases of its
gradual development and formation, its critical periods of sicknesses partly still extant
as superstitious notions we cannot here dwell. The Pythagoreans made much of this
number, giving it the name of Athene, Hermes. Hephaistos, Heracles, the virgin unbe-
gotten and unbegettiug (i.e., not to be obtained by multiplication), Dionysos, Hex, etc.
The "seven sacraments, "the " seven free arts," the " seven wise men," and many more
instances, prove the importance attached to this number in the eyes not only of ancient
but even of our own times. That it played an immense part in the superstitions of the
middle ages need hardly be added.

of the Rorn^n Catholic church, which, although bearing the name of devotion to the
virgin Mary, in reality regards those incidents in the life and passion of Christ with
which his mother is most closely associated. This festival is celebrated on the Friday
preceding Palm Sunday (q.v.). The " dolors" or sorrows of the blessed virgin have
long been a favorite theme of Roman Catholic devotion, of which the pathetic Sbtbat
Mater Dulorosa is the best known and most popular expression; and the festival of the
seven dolors is intended to individualize the incidents of her sorrows, and. to preseat
them for meditation. The seven incidents referred to under the title of " dolors" are:
1. The prediction of Simeon (Luke ii. 34); 2. The flight into Egypt; 3. The loss of
Jesus in Jerusalem; 4. The sight of Jesus bearing his cross toward Calvary; 5. The
sight of Jesus upon the cross; 6. The piercing of his side with the lance; 7. His burial.
This festival was instituted by pope Benedict XIII. in 1725.


SEVEN SLEEPERS, the heroes of a celebrated legend, which is first related by
Gregory of Tours in the close of the 6th c. (De Gloria, Martyrum, c. 95). but the date
of which is assigned to the 3d c., and to the persecution of the Christians under
Decius. According to the narrative, during the flight of the Christians from the perse-

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 85 of 203)