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cution, seven Christians of Ephesus took refuge in a cave near the city, where they were
discovered by their pursuers, who walled up the entrance, in order to starve them to
death. A miracle, however, was interposed in their behalf; they fell into a preter-
natural sleep, in which they lay for nearly 200 years. The concealment is supposed to
have taken place in 250 or 251 ; and it was not till the reign of Theodosius, 447. that
they were reanimated. On awakening, they imagined that their sleep had been but of
a single night; and on one of the party (supposing the persecution still in progress)
going into the city to purchase provisions privately, he was amazed to find erected in
triumph on the churches and other buildings, across, which, as it seemed, but a few
hours before, he had seen the object of contempt and blasphemy. When their won-
derful history became known, they were conducted in triumphant procession into
the city of Ephesus; but they all died at the same moment, as if by one common and
mysterious destiny. The same legend reappears with variations at later periods of
Christian history.

SEVENTEEN- YEAR LOCUST, Cicada septendccim, Linn., a hemipterous insect
which is generally supposed to make its appearance every 17 years, and has been popu-
larly regarded in this country in localities not visited by the Rocky-mountain locust as
the true Egyptian locust. They sometimes come in such immense swarms as to bend
the branches of the trees upon which they alight, and the rattling, shrill music which
they make with peculiar abdominal organs fills the air. They make their appearance in
the early summer, and when the ovaries are sufficiently developed the females select
small branches, and by means of lateral saws and a sharp and strong grooved ovipositor
the eggs are laid in fissures, deposited in pairs, but separated from each other by woody
fiber, and placed so that one end points upward. When one fissure is filled another fs
made in close proximity, until 400 or 500 eggs are deposited. The female soon after this
dies. Authorities do not agree about the time required for hatching, the accounts rang-
ing from 15 to 50 days. Alter hatching the larvae fall to the ground, and, by the use of
their strong fore feet, immediately commence burrowing, following the roots of plants,
upon which they feed. When their time of transformation approaches they make cir-
U. K. XIII. 24

Seventh. 0*7 .

Seven Years' War.

cuitous cylindrical passages about f in. in diameter, and in time emerge from the soil
and crawl up the trees. Soon the insect makes its way through a longitudinal fissure
in the back of the cast skin, which is left attached to the tree. See CICADA, HARVEST

peculiar views of prophecy were developed in 1845, just after the great Advent excite-
ment of 1840-44. Elder James White and wife, and elder J. N. Andrews, of Maine,
with elder Joseph Bates, of Mass., were the pioneers of this denomination. The first)
church was formed in Washington, N. H. In 1849 elder James White commenced pub-
lishing in connection with this movement. In 1855 this publishing work was removed
to its present location, Battle Creek, Mich. ; and in 1861 a legally incorporated associa-
tion was formed tinder the title of the Seventh-day Adventist publishing association.
Four buildings, the central one a large brick structure, are used in printing, electrotype
ing, binding, and other branches of the work. Nine power-presses and 100 hands are
regularly employed in the publishing house, from which are issued 2 weeklies and 2
monthlies in English, 1 semi-monthly in Danish, 1 monthly in German, 1 in Swedish,
and a quarterly in the Holland language. Their denominational literature embraces 18
bound books, and numerous tracts and pamphlets, many in the foreign languages above
named. They had issued before the autumn of 1880, '230,000,000 pp. of books, pam-
phlets, and tracts. They also have a large and equally well-equipped publishing house
at Oakland, Cal., from which is issued weekly The Signs of the Times. They publish a
monthly in French at Bale, Switzerland, and a semi-monthly in Danish at Christiania,
Norway. The aggregate monthly circulation of their periodicals is about 85,000 copies.

The government of" the denomination is administered by a general conference and
24 state conferences, having under their charge 640 churches with 15,570 members,
besides whom several thousands living in many parts of the country have as yet no
organized church near them with which they can unite. There are 144 ordained minis-
ters and 116 licentiates. The churches being without settled pastors and maintaining
religious services with only occasional ministerial help, the preachers are free ta devote
themselves chiefly to missionary work. During the summer months they hold meet-
ings in large tents, 70 of which were used in 1879. They have a college and sanitarium
at Battle Creek.

Seventh-day Adventists are distinguished from the denominations known as evan-
gelical principally on the three following points : First, the Sabbath, which they hold to
be still the seventh day of the week, as ordained in Eden; secondly, the prophecies,
which they believe to teach that the second coming of Christ, personally and premillen-
nially, is near at hand; and, thirdly, the nature of man, which they hold to be such as
to show that he has no immortality out of Christ. The founders of the denomination
were strenuous opposers of the use of alcoholic liquors as a beverage, and of tobacco
and other narcotics; and, as the fruit of efforts then begun, the whole denomination are
abstainers from the use of alcoholic drinks of all kinds. Tobacco, in all its forms, is
also discarded, none addicted to the use of it being received into the churches unless
they promise to abandon it immediately. Besides abstinence from these things, which
is made a condition of fellowship, other useful reforms are strongly advocated. A'rticles
of diet which experience shows to be unwholesome are little used. Meat is seldom
eaten; grains, vegetables, and fruits are the staple articles of food. The reform aimed
at is not limited to diet and drink. As the health of the body is greatly affected by the
manner in which it is clothed, the subject of dress receives much attention. See


SEVEN WISE MASTERS is the title of a medieval collection of novels, important
both from its contents and its widespread popularity. The idea of the work is as fol-
lows: A certain prince's son, instructed in all kinds of wisdom by seven sages, finds,
from an examination of the stars, on his return to his father's court, that he is in
dangerof losing his life, if he speaks a word within seven days. His stepmother, whose
allurements he had repelled, endeavored in revenge to persuade his father to put him to
death, and each day related an artfully constructed story, with the view of furthering
her wicked purpose, but its effect was daily neutralized by a rival narrative told by
each of the sages. At last, on the expiry of the seven days, the prince himself was
enabled to disclose the base designs of his stepmother. The work is undoubtedly of
,oriental origin, yet neither the period when it was composed, nor how far it spread
through the east, can be ascertained with sufficient accuracy. According to Masudi, it
existed in Arabic as a translation from Indian sources before the 10th c., but none of
the extant Arabic versions go back so far. Nearest to the original form appears to
stand the Eight bights of Nakhschebi, a Persian adaptation of the Indian Tutiname
(Brockhaus, Leip. 1845). It passed into the literature of western Europe in the llth or
12th c. , through the medium of two redactions, a Hebrew and a Greek, the latter by
Andreopulos, under the title of ft/ntipas (see Das Buck wn den sielwn iceinen Meistern,
translated from the Hebrew and Greek by H. Sengelmann, Halle, 1842; Syntipas being
republished by Boissonade, Paris, 1828). The work was disseminated through Chris
tendorn; sometimes in a complete form; sometimes only particular novels were repro-

obi Seventh.

O I J- Seven Years' War.

duced, under all sorts of names, and with all sorts of modifications; sometimes in verse,
sometimes in prose. Latin versions began to appear about the beginning of the 13th c.,
and Keller has published a French metrical one, from a MS. of 1284 (Li Romans de
Sept Sages, Tub. 1836), and Henry Weber an English metrical one (third vol. of the
Metrical Romances, Ediu. 1810). There are several German versions, dating from the
14th century. In the 15th c. a popular German chapbook, Von den sieben weisen Meut-
tern, was frequently reprinted (the first edition is dated Augsb. 1473), and is included by
Simrock in his collection of German Volksbfichcr.

SEVEN WISE MEN, the collective designation of a number of Greek sages, who
lived about 620-548 B.C., and devoted themselves to the cultivation of practical wisdom.
Their moral and social experience was embodied in brief aphorisms, sometimes ex-
pressed in verse, sometimes in prose. The names of the seven, as usually given, are Solon
(q.v.), Thales(q.v.), Pittacus(q.v.).Bias(q.v.),Chilon, Cleobulus, and Periander of Corinth;
but there is not absolute unanimity among the ancients either as regards the names, the
number, the history, or the sayings of these famous sages. The 1'ragmeuts of wisdom
attributed to them which have come down to us are to be found in Orelli's Opuscula
GroKcorum Veterum, Santentiosa et Moralui (Leip. 1819), and have been translated into
German by Dilthey in his Fragmente der sieben Weisen (Darmstadt, 1835).

SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD were, in ancient times, reckoned to be the Pyra-
mids of Egypt, the hanging gardens of Semiramis at Babylon, the temple of Diana at
Ephesus, the statue of Jupiter at Athens by Phidias, the Mausoleum (q.v.), the Colossus
(q.v.) at Rhodes, and the Pharos of Alexandria. This cycle of seven wonders origi-
nated among- the Greeks after the time of Alexander the great, and they were described
in a special work by Philo of Byzantium, which has been edited by Orelli.

SEVEN YEARS' WAR, THE, was the third, last, and by far the longest (1756-63) and
most terrible of the contests for the possession of Silesia (q.v.). During the two former
wars, the empress Maria Theresa had plenty of other work on hand in maintaining her
claims to the Austrian dominions (see SUCCESSION, WAR OF AUSTRIAN) to offer any very
effective resistance to the aggression of Frederick the great of Prussia; but after emerg-
ing triumphantly from this contest she took advantage of the circumstance that the kin^
of Prussia was on bad terms with all the chief continental powers except Turkey and
Spain, to renew the struggle for Silesia, which had been snatched from her at the
moment of her greatest straits. She found the czarina Elizabeth, the king of Poland
and elector of Saxony, and Louis XV. of France (or rather madame de Pompadour),
ready to enter into an offensive and defensive treaty with her. On the other hand,
Britain (then at war with France) engaged to assist Prussia with an army in Hanover,
and with subsidies when necessary. Resolving to anticipate his enemies, and secure a
safe basis for future operations, Frederick made a sudden advance (Aug., 1756) on Dres-
den with 60.000 men, took possession of the country, which he governed from this time
with slight intervals to the end of the war, and cooped up the Saxon army, 18,000
strong, between Pirna and Kouigstein. On the Austrians under Browne advancing to
relieve their allies, they were met by Frederick at Lobositz (Oct. 1), and after an inde-
cisive contest were obliged to retreat. The Saxons then surrendered (Oct. 14), and
were mostly incorporated with the Prussian army, which went into winter-quarters in
Saxony and Silesia. The second campaign (1757) began under more favorable auspices
for the Austrian coalition, as the rapid action of Frederick had taken it somewhat by
surprise in the preceding autumn ; besides, Sweden (subsidized by France) became a
fourth in the coalition, in order to recover Pomerania, and the German reich or empire
raised an army, 33,000 strong, to assist Austria. A combined attack was now made by
a French army (100,000) on Hanover; another French army (30,000) on Hesse-Cassel
(an ally of Prussia), with a view to reach Saxony; an Austrian army from Bohemia on
Saxony and another on Silesia, both of them at first united under marshal Daun, but lat-
terly (1760) separated, under Daun and Loudou; the Russians (100.000) on the e. and
n.e. ; and the Swedes (22,000) in Pomerania; while the imperial army sometimes joined
the southern French, and sometimes the w. Austrian armies. To oppose these armies,
numbering in all 430,000, Frederick had the combined British-Hanoverian-Hessian
army (60,000) in Hanover, and a Prussian army of 200.000 strong, which was distributed,
as need required, over the various points attacked; but he relied much on the
rapidity of his movements and the harmonious completeness of his plans. In April,
Frederick, leaving a corps of 24,000 under Lcwald to resist the Swedes and Russians,
invaded Bohemia, drov.e in the advanced corps of the Austriaus upon their main army,
which he then completely routed at Prague (May 6). with a loss on his side of 18,000,
and of 19,000 on the part of the Austrians. Marshals Schwerin (Prussian) and Browne
(Austrian) fell in this conflict. Frederick immediately invested Prague, to which prince
Charles of Lorraine, with 46,000 men, had retreated; but Daun, who advanced from
Moravia to its relief, inflicted on the Prussians a crushing defeat at Kolin (June 18), and
forced them to retire from Bohemia. The n. French army had meanwhile, under mar-
shal d'Estrees, advanced into Hanover, defeated the incapable duke of Cumberland at
Ilastenbeck (July 26), and compelled him to capitulate, on condition that the whole of
his army, excepting the Hanoverians, should be disbanded. But the British government
refused to ratify this shameful treaty, and speedily raised another army of similar com-

Severally. ^'T*'

Severus. ' w

position, which was placed under the command of duke Ferdinand of Brunswick. .IK
able leader, who again drove back the French, and proved himself so capable to hold
them in check, that Frederick ceased to have any apprehensions from this quarter. The
s. French army under Soubise had also advanced in conjunction with the imperialism
under the prince of Hildburghausen in the direction of Saxony, but Frederick was not pre-
pared to lose this valuable vantage-ground, and falling upon them at Hossbach (q.v.) (>. v.
5), he put them completely to rout. During his absence, however, the Austria us had
broken into Silesia, routed his armies, and compelled them to retire; so, compelled to ui
the utmost expedition in returning, he collected a small army, defeated a thrice as numer-
ous force of Austrians under prince Charles of Lorraine at Leutheu (Dec. 5), and n cov-
ered Silesia. On thee. the Russians had appeared in great force, captured Memel, commit-
ting the most horrible devastations, and had routed Lewald at Grossjilgerudorf (Aug. 30),
when the change of Russian policy due to the illness and apparently impending demise
of the czarina, caused them to relinquish almost all their conquests; Lewald tiien
attacked and defeated the Swedes, driving thereunder the walls of Stralsund. Thus clo.-ed
the second campaign, leaving matters very much as they were at the commencemeM. -
Duke Ferdinand opened the third campaign (1758) by driving the French from lower
Saxony, pursued them across the Rhine, and defeated them near Krefeld (June 23); but
Contades, the new French commander, having obtained the co-operation of Souhisc,
compelled him to retrace his steps, till, receiving a re-enforcement of 12,000 British,
Ferdinand again advanced, throwing Contades between the Rhine and Meuse, and
Soubise between the Rhine and Main. Meanwhile Frederick had not been iule, for
after being driven out of Moravia (which he had invaded in spring) by Daun, he
marched northward with a portion of his army to meet the Russians, who, the czarina
having recovered, had again invaded Brandenburg, and defeated them in a desperate
battle at Zorndorf (Aug. 25), compelling them to retreat into Poland. Frederick's pres-
ence was next needed in Saxony, where his brother, prince Henry, was being hard
pressed by Daun with superior forces; but on his arrival the Auslrians retreated east
ward till Oct. 14, when Daun turned, took Frederick completely by surprise, and gave
him a severe defeat at Hochkirch (q.v.), though before the end of the year the Prussians
were again in possession of Saxony. Thus passed another campaign with a slight
advantage to the Prussians. The fourth campaign (1759) (preceded by fruitless attempts
at negotiation with France, on the part of Frederick), though signalized by only two
great Actions, was more unfortunate for Prussia. The French under Soubise had cap-
lured Frankfurt during the winter, and the duke of Brunswick, in attempting to recover
it, was defeated at Bergen (April 13), by Broglie (the successor of Soubise), nnd com-
pelled to resign the whole of Hesse to the French; but later in the year, his signal vic-
tory at Minden (Aug. 1) over Contades and Broglie, and that of his relative, the heredi-
tary prince of Brunswick, at Gohfeld on the same day, recovered most of Westphalia,
and drove the southern French beyond the Lahn and Rhine. But in the Saxon dis-
trict, although prince Henry invaded Bohemia (April), capturing immense supplies, and
cleared Franconia (May) of Austrians and imperialists, he subsequently evacuated
Saxony, which was then occupied by the imperialists, and London's Austrians advanced
Into Lusatia. In Silesia Fouque gallantly kept the Austrians at bay; and Dohna con-
tinued to coop up the Swedes about Stralsund, keeping at the same time an eye on the
Russians; but the latter soon gathered in such force that he was compelled to retreat.
His successor, Wedel. in attempting to bar their advance, was routed near Ziillichau
(July 23), and though Frederick hastened to his assistance, attacked them at Kunersdorf
(q.v.) (Aug. 12), and had almosT gained the day, the arrival of Marshal London with an
Austrian force turned the tide, and converted this almost victory into the most signal
defeat suffered by the .Prussians during the whole war. On the following morning he
could hardly muster 5,000 men; but, luckily, the Russians showed no inclination to
follow up their victory, and by untiring perseverance, the Prussian monarch succeeded
in raising another army 28,000 strong. Though it seemed almost impossible for him
to prevent the meditated junction of the Russians and Austrians in Brandenburg; yet, by
dint of skillful maneuvering, he succeeded in compelling the Russians to retire to P'oland;
and prince Henry, by cutting off their supplies, forced the Austrians into Saxony. On
Nov. 21, however, he suffered a severe blow in the capture of Finck with 11,000 Prus-
sians, at Maxen in Saxony. With greatly diminished strength, an exhausted treasury
(chiefly supplied by the English subsidy, the taxes of Saxony, and forced contributions
on Meoklenburg, Saxtny, and Anhalt), a desolated territory incapable of affording either
men or supplies, and gloomy forebodings of the final issue, though with unfaltering
resolution never to yield, Frederick prepared for hisffth campaign (1760). His army in
Prussia, now reduced to 90,000 men, mostly foreigners and raw recruits, was still further
diminished by the capture of Fouque with 8,000 men in Silesia, followed by Marshal
London's conquest of that province, though the brilliant victory of Liegnitz (Aug. 15)
subsequently restored him the north-western division of it; he then joined his brother,
prince Henry, drove the Russians across the Oder, and Dnun into Bohemia; but his
strength was now becoming glaringly insufficient for the task to which he had set him-
self; the Russians and Austrians captured and plundered Berlin (Oct. .'}); the Swedes
came down from the north, and London's Austrians upward through S;le>ia. so that he
was now fairly in the toils. But, like a lion in the midst of the hunters, he turned upon

O *" O Severally.

P Severus.

his most able and pertinacious adversary, Datin, terribly routed him at Torgau (Nov. 3)
in Saxony, then drove Loudon into Glatz, and frightened away the Russians to Poland,
and the Swedes to Stralsuud. In the w. the fortune of Prussia was in the ascendant,
und the French, defeated by prince Charles of Brunswick at Einsdorf (July 13), and by
duke Ferdinand at Marburg (July 31), were again confined to Hesse. The sixth cam-
ruiff/t. (1701) on the Rhine commenced still more auspiciously for Frederick, as the
French were driven in detail from their strongholds, had their supplies captured, suffered
defeat by the Hanoverians at Laugeusalza (Feb. 14), and by duke Ferdinand at Villings-
hausen (July 15), though in the end Broglie and Soubise again gained possession of
Hesse. In Silesia Frederick attempted to bar the progress of the Austrians, so as to
prevent their junction with the Russians, and so opposing 130,000 men to his poor
remnant of 50,000; but in vain; however, the union was productive of no ill results to him,
for scarcity of provisions speedily compelled the Russians to retreat to Poland, after
which London retired to upper Silesia, capturing Schweidnitz with 3,700 men on his
way. lu Saxony, prince Henry had to retreat betore Daun, and the Prussians were
ejected from Pomerania by the Russians and Swedes, all subsidies from Britain stopped
hy the earl of Bute after George II. 's death, and the country ravaged in all directions, so
that things were now in a desperate condition, and Prussia almost at its last gasp. Fred-
crick's assailants had cooped him up within southern Brandenburg and north-western
feilesia, and though as resolute as ever to fight on, it seemed as if another campaign must
bring him to final ruin. But the death of the czarina (Jan 5, 1762) converted the most
powerful of his enemies into a fast friend; Sweden, which had suffered uninterrupted
n- verses during the whole war, also retired from the alliance and the seventh campaign
(1763) commenced on equal terms, as Austria and France were almost as much exhausted.
;:B Prussia. On the refusal of Austria to submit her cause to arbitration, the czar Peter
111. joined Ms army to that of Frederick; but his successor, Catharine II., ordered the
return of the army, though her strict neutrality was of itself an immense benefit.
Frederick had now no fears for the result. Nor had he any reason, as subsequent events
showed, for on July 21 he drove an Austrian force from its intrenchments at Burkera-
dorf, and following up his success, routed Daun at Reichenbach (Aug. 16), and took
Schweidnitz (Oct. 9); while prince Henry, by a series of fortunate maneuvers, possessed
himself of the passes of the Erzgebirge, and with the valuable aid of Seidlitz, completely
overthrew the other Austrian army at Freiberg (Oct. 22); and the two Brunswicks
robly sustained the glory of 'Prussia at Wilhelmsthsil (June 24) and Luternberg (July
28), capturing Cassel, and recovering the whole of Hesse. France now gave up a con-
test from which she had gathered nothing but military disgrace, and concluded treaties
with Britain and Prussia; while Prussia and Austria agreed to an armistice with regard
to Saxony and Silesia, of which the astute Frederick took advantage to send Kleist on a
raid through Franconia and Bavaria, which had the effect of withdrawing the minor Ger-
man states from the coalition. Maria Theresa was now left alone, and sorely against
her will, was compelled to conclude the peace of Hubertsburg, Feb. 15, 1763, which
finally acknowledged Frederick as the lord of Silesia. This long and desperate conflict
made no change in the territorial distribution of Europe, but increased tenfold the moral
power of Prussia, and gave its army a prestige which it retained till the battle of Jena.
It cost Europe a million lives, and prostrated the strength of almost all the powers who
had engaged in it. See, for a complete account, Carlyle's History of Frederick the Great.

SEVERALLY, in English law, is the enjoyment by an individual of an estate in con-
tradistinction to joint (q.v.).

SEVERN, one of the most important and beautiful, and, after the Thames, the largest

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 86 of 203)