Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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OQ Saint Peter's.

Suiuts.

but has grown to a size, exceeding that of Calais itself. It is famous for its manufac-
tures of tulle (q v.). Other branches of industry are also actively prosecuted, as the
manufactures of leather and beet-root sugar. Pop. '76, 22,349.

SAINT POLTEN, is a fortified I. of lower Austria, 35 m. w. of Vienna. It is the
seat of a cathedral, and has manufactures of cotton, paper, glass, and stone-ware goods.

Pop. '09, 7,779.

SAINT QUENTIN, a thriving manufacturing t. in the n. of France, department of
Aisue, is situated on the Somme, about 80 in. n.e. of Paris. Its population has more
than doubled in 25 years, ami in 1870 was 37,980. St. Quentin has a celebrated church
"one of tin; tiuest, boldest, and purest Gothic buildings in this part of Belgic Gaul." St.
Quentin is the center of a manufacture of linen, muslin, lace, and gauze. The canal of
N. Qi/t'Hti/i, connecting the basin of the Soinme with lhat of the Scheldt, was finished
by isapoleou in 1810. It is carried through the intervening hills by tunnels. At St.

Quentin a battle was fought,-." ' ~ () ' 1057, between the Spaniards, assisted by a body of
English troops, and the French, iu which the latter were defeated.

SAINT REGIS, a village in n. New York and s. Canada, province of Quebec, on the
s. bank of the river St. Lawrence; pup. '70, 1,400. It is inhalrted by the St. Regis
family of the Iroquois tribe of Indians, by whom it was seitlcd in 1760. They speak the
Mohawk language, ami are generally of the Roman Catholic faith. They are divided,
like the town, into British and American; the former numbering 800, and the latter 683,
the allegiance due either government being transmitted through the female line. The
reservation in Canada is rather larger than that on this bide the line, which is 14,000
acres. The national boundary passing through it places it partly in Franklin co., N.
Y., and partly in Huntingdon co., Quebec. It is connected with Cornwall on the
opposite bank by a ferry. It has two post-offices; one at St. Regis, Quebec, and one at
HoguuJnirg, I\. Y.

SAII7T3, a name applied in the New Testament to the members of the Christian com-
munity generally, but restricted by ecclesiastical usage from very early times to those
who, whether under the old or under the new dispensation, have been specially remark-
able for their personal virtues and their eminent services to the cause of religion. Of
the old dispensation, the "patriarchs ;.uJ prophets" are commonly designated as saints.
But the word is used much more of the Christian church. In the ages of persecution
the quality which most of ail challenged the admiration and reverence of the faithful
was naturally courage and constancy ia the profession ;;nd the defense of the Christian
faith; and thus the earliest of those "whom the cluuvh reverences for sanctity of life,
are also, for the most part, reverenced as champions of the faith. In general, how. vcr,
the saints are distribute, 1 into several classes, ciiieiiy in relation to the special services
which the church has appropriated to their honor. Thus we find enumerated: 1.
Apostles an:l evangelists; 2. Martyrs; 3. Confessors, a name applied primi'.ively to
those who hade\';i')i el 'crea' constancy in professing the faith, although without ihe
final crown of martyrdom, but in later ti:ne- understood of all who, without being
martyrs, were eminent for sanctity of life; 4, Doctors or men eminent for sacred learn-
ing; 5. Virgins; 6 Matrons and widows distinguished for holiness of life. Anciently
the character and appellation of saint were bestowed upon individuals, as it were, by
acclamation, and by the common voice of the members of the particular Christian com-
munity to which the individual belonged, or to which his merits were most familiar.
The earliest examples, as may be seen in the letter of the church of Smyrna on the mar-
tyrdom of 'Polycarp, of such judgments as lo individuals were in the case of martyrs.
Altars were erected at their tombs, and the people assembled for worship on the anni-
versary of their martyrdom. Even then, however, the letters of St. Cyprian (Epp. 37
and 39) show that caution was observed by the bishops to guard against the recognition
of undeserving individuals. The honors of the martyrs, even before the age of perseeu-
tion had passed, were extended to confessors of the faith, and eventually to all who
were eminent for holiness of life, and e>p"cially to those who obtained the reputation of
performing miracles. The names of those who were so honored were placed in the
register (or diptych) of each church. It was not, however, till a comparatively late
period that a regular form of procedure was established in the Roman chun-h for the
purpose of testing the claim of individuals to the authentic reputation of sanctity. From
the 4th c. downward, examples of reference to Rome as. for instance, in the Act* of
Virgilius, Lishop of Trent are cited by Catholic writers. But the first recorded
example of a solemn and public decree is in the case of Udulric or Ulric. bishop of
Augsburg, to whom the honors of sanctity were adjudged by pope John XVI. (see Har-
ddqni, Council. VI. P. I., p. 727) in the end of the 10th c. (993). Since that time the
procedure of the church of Rome as to the public recognition of the saints ha< been
matured and methodized. It consists of two stages, that are called respectively "beati-
fication" and " canonization." The former is but a preliminary process, and consists in
a declaration by the pope that the " beatified '' person is entitled, by rea.-on of his (or
her) eminent virtues, attested by miracles, to be regarded as a saint, and as such honored
and invoked. This authorization, however, is not in beatification extended to the entire
church, but is always limited to a particular church, or province, or religious order; and



faints' Days. A A

Saiiit Simon.

the nature of the honors permitted to be paid to the beatified person is strictly defined either
by the terms of the decree, or by local usage, if such have already existed. But although
the effect of a decree of beatification is less comprehensive than that of the subsequent
and final declaration in canonization, the preparatory inquiry is in all substantial par-
ticulars the same. The details of both are explained at great length and with curious
minuteness by the learned pope Benedict XIV. (Lambruschini) in a special work on the
subject, which has the further interest of containing, as an appendix, the minutes of
the entire proceedings in the canonization which took place during his own official con-
nection with that department. The inquiry in both procedures is conducted by the con-
gregation of cardinals, called the congregation of rites, and consists first in an exami-
nation of the writings (if there be any) of the individual, then of the holiness of his life
and conversation, and finally of the miracles alleged to have been performed by him in
life, or obtained through his relics, and intercession after death- Two such miracles at
least must be established by what is considered satisfactory evidence. Upon all these
points sworn depositions are required, and all are subjected Jo a most rigorous scrutiny;
in which the office of inipuguant is discharged by an advocate called prompter fidei,
and popularly nicknamed the devil's advocate, his duty being to raise every pos.-ible
difficulty in the way of the acceptance of the evidence of sanctity. This inquiry is gen-
erally a very protracted one; and after it has been completed, and its results recorded
in writing, the acts, are submitted to the cardinals, who meet three times in private con-
gregations, and finally, if all appears satisfactorily established, in a public congregation,
by which the decision is made known to the pope. Should the decision be approved
by the pope the solemnization is proceeded with. The solemnity lakes place in the
Vatican church. The cardinal prefect of the congregation of rites hands the pope's brief
to the cardinal, arch-priest of the Vatican, by whom it is read; the Te Deum is in-
toned; the image of the beatified individual is uncovered to receive the veneration of
the assembly; high mass, with the collect, in his honor, is sung; and in the afternoon
the pope goes solemnly to the church to pay reverence to the image. The procedure, in
case of a martyr, is somewhat different. In both, however, the process is but prelimi-
nary to the solemn canonization. The effect of the latter comprises: 1. A declaration
that the canonized person is to be recognized as a saint throughout the entire church:
2. That he is to be invoked in the public prayers; 3. That churches and altars may be
erected in 1 is honor; 4. That he may be invoked in the mass and public service; 5. That
;-. festival may be celebrated in honor of him; 6, That his image ir.ay be set up in public:
: nd lastly, that his relics may be preserved and publicly honored The solemnity of
canonization, which is preceded by a new inquiry similar to that of the beatification..
j'.nd a new judgment of the congregation of rites confirmed by the pope, ( is one of tine
most gorgeous in the entire ceremonial of the Roman church. It takes place in the
Vatican church (St. Peter's), and is generally attended by a large assembly of bishops
from various parts of the church. In many respects it resembles that of the beatifica-
tion, but its distinctive characteristic is the solemn publication, by order of the pope in
person, after the hymn of invocation of the Holy Ghost hrs been sung, of the decree
of canonization. This is followed 1 y mass, also celebrated by the pope in person, and
sometimes by a homily of the pope in honor of the newly canonized. The church of
St. Peter's is specially decorated j;t a vast cost for (he ceremonial, nnd the entire expen-
diture on such occasions has been estimated at not less than iSO.COO. Roman Catholics
hold that in such decrees the judgment of their church is infallible; and to deny that
any particular canonized individual is really a saint is held to involve, if not actual
heresy, at least a grievous act of contumacy against the faith of the church. On the
doctrine of saint worship, see INVOCATION OF SAINTS; and on that regarding the
honor paid to relics of saints and martyrs, see RELICS.

SAINTS' DAYS, days set apart in honor of particular saints and martyrs. The prac-
tice dates from the times of persecution, when the people were wont to "assemble at the
tombs of martyrs on the anniversary of the martyrdom. In Hie multiplication of such
celebrations, a record of the days fixed for each saint or martyr became necessary. This
was called calendarium. The days so appointed were celebrated with more or less
solemnity, according to the dignity of the saint, or the degree of devotion with which he
was regarded. In some cases the saint's day was kept as a holiday of obligation, in
which no servile work was permitted to be done. Other days are of various minor
degrees of solemnity, and are called double (greater or lesser), semi-double, and simple.
from the peculiar form of the office set apart for each. In particular countries, prov-
inces, dioceses, or parishes, the day of the patron saint is specially celebrated; and in all
churches the festival of the saint to whom the church is dedicated.

SAINT SERVAN, a sea-port of France, in the dep. of Ille-et-Vilaine, stands at the
mouth of the Ranee, opposite St. Malo(q.v.), to which there is communication by land
at low-water. The harbor, called port Solidor, is secure. Saint Servan, which is fre-
quently spoken of as a suburb of St. Malo, is much frequented as a watering-place, and
curries' on ship-building and considerable commerce, especially in timber. Pop. '76,
9,912,

SAINT SIMON, CLAUDE ANNE, Marquis de, 1743-1819; b. France; educated in the
Strasbourg military school. After serving in Flanders and Poland, he was sent to Mar-



4-\ Saints' Days.

Saint Simon.

tinique and fought with Rodney, the English admiral. In 1780 he entered the Spanish
area}' and was made field-marshal. He had a commund in the Yorktown campaign in
America; afterward returned to the Spanish service and took the patriot side at the
elevation of Jerome- to the throne in 1808. For this he was condemned to death, hut
was pardoned and af upward became capt.gen. and a grandee of Spain.

SAINT SIMON, Louis DE HOUVROI, Due de, whose family claimed to be descended
from Charlemagne, was born in Jan., 1675. After receiving a careful education under
the superintendence of his mother, he entered the army in 1093, but considering his pro-
motion not equal to his deserts, he resigned his commission in 1702, and devoted the
remainder of his life to a sort of court statesmanship. Saint Simon's position was as
singula.- and as anomalous as his character. Profoundly ambitious, his pride was yet
greater than his ambition. His ideas of aristocratic rights and privileges were perhaps
inoiv oiitrag ,-o;i.-ly fanatical than any ever entertained in modern ages; and the whole
aim of his life was to nullify the influence of the parliament, and to place the government
of France in the hands of the grands seigneurs the great territorial lords. The middle
class lie abhorred; and the rise to distinction of any one belonging to that order any
nocus homo, tortured his patrician soul almost beyond endurance. We have not space
(nor would it be worth our while, if we had) to recount his career of haughty and inso-
lent conspiracy against the political rights of commoners, which marks him out as the
most thoroughgoing oligarch in principle of whom we have any record. During the lat-
ter part of Louis XI V.'s reign, and the regency of the duke of Orleans, he enjoyed much
consideration, and his aristocratic policy more than once enjoyed a temporary triumph;
but with the accession to the regency ot" the duke of Bourbon he fell into disgrace, and
withdrew from public life. He died at Pans, Mar. 2, 1755. Saint Simon's last years were
occupied chiefly in the composition of his famous Memoires, a work of incalculable histo-
rical value. Though the style is far from faultless, it so admirably expresses the meaning
of the auihor. that one would not wish it other than it is. The (Euvres Completes de Louis
de Saint Simon appeared'at Strasburg in 1791, in 13 vols., but the best edition is that of
MM. Cheruel and Regnier (20 vols. Paris, 1856, et seq.). See A. Lelevre Pontalis, Dis-
cours stir la Vie et les (Euvres de Saint Simon (Paris, 1855).

SAINT SIMON and SAINT SIMONIANISM. CLAUDE HENRI, Comte de SAINT SIMON,
a French social philosopher, founder of the sect named after him, Saint Simonians,
belonged to a different branch of the same family as the preceding, and was born at
Paris, Oct. 17. 176). Although destined to become the propagator of the most revolu-
tionary and democratic ideas of modern times, he was reared in a perfect hot-bed of aris-
tocratic: prejudice. Nevertheless, from his earliest years, Saint Simon exhibited a
decided hostility to the established system of things, mainly, however, it would seem
(according to the anecdotes in vogue) from a certain puerile vehemence and obstinacy of
nature. He was cursed, moreover, with a precocious vanity. What are we to think of a
lad scarcely 16 giving his servant orders to rouse him every morning with such a flattering
stirum >:is as Lsw2~vous, .]f>/i*!i'>ir le Comte, vow avez de yrandes chases a fnire, especially
when, in point of fact, he had nothing to do? Saint Simon was pretty well educated in
philosophy, like most of the young nobles of his time, and had D'Alembert among others
for his tutor. At 18 he entered the army, served in America, and distinguished himself on
the day when lord Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown (Sept. 17, 1781), with all his forces.
Captured by the British on his return home, he was taken to Jamaica, where he remained
till the peace in 1783 restored him to liberty and France. But the monotony of garrison
life did not suit his restless and impatient spirit, and in 1785 he quitted the service, and
traveled in Holland and Spain, busying himself with various industrial schemes, such as
connecting Madrid with the sea by means of a canal, and introducing dtlifffnces into
Andalusia the latter of which, proved successful. The great revolution found in him
noble though he was an enthusiastic disciple, and he voted in his patrimonial canton
for the abolition of titles of nobility, but did not take any part in the political events that
followed. His energies were devoted to matters more profitable than patriotic viz., the
purchase of confiscated property and it is unhappily not at all doubtful that when
France was laboring in the agony of a mighty struggle after UCAV life, Saint Simon was
consumed by an ignoble passiou for enriching himself. But then, as his disciples have
naively observed, it was necessary that he should acquire a fortune in order that he '
might be able to devote himself satisfactorily to ideas. It was during the revolution,
and while suffering a temporary imprisonment in the Luxembourg, that' visions of a new
social system, based on scientific principles, and not on political conventionalities, first
unfolded themselves before his ardent imagination. His ancestor Charlemagne appeared
to him one night in a dream, and said: Depuis que le monde e.nste aucunefnnnUe ria j<il
del'honnenr de prodttire un hi'ros et un philosoplie de premiere lif/ne. Ct-t hoimetir ctait
reserve d ma, maison. Mon fils, tes suwes comme phUosophe egateront ccux qu' j'ai dbtenu
comme m/!ihtin> et comme politifjuc. Saint -Simon, though now 38 years of age, com-
menced to study "science," of which he was as yet quite ignorant. The plan he adopted
vras pleasant and ingenious. He took a house opposite the ecolc polyttchnique, and
invited to his table the professors of mathematics, of physics, and of astronomy, from
whose lips in the intervals of their feeding he acquired the necessary information.
Then he changed his lodgings, and fixed himself near the acolede medicine, where, pu^-



Saint Sophia. A C)

Saiut .Stephen.

suing tlie suine method with the physiologists, he learned from them something of the
structure of organized bodies. lu 1801 he married, and threw open his s<ilo/,x to all the
savants -ana .mists of Paris; but his lavish hospitalities prodigalities, perhaps, they
ought rather to be called soon dissipated the fortune he nau amassed during me revo-
lution. .Meanwhile a notable social idea seized him. Hearing that the husband of
Mailu.ne de Stael had just died, he resolved to marry the widow, whom lie considered to
be tin. oiijy woman fit to associate with him in his great project for the regeneration of
society. To be sure there was a little impediment in the way vi/.. his being already
iiiarr; d; but in France there is never any difficulty in getting a divorce: m.d Saiut
feimo.i was soon as good as a bachelor again. Betaking himself to Coppet. he unfolded
his p. an to the lady, and begged her concurrence, urging his suit (it is said) by the most
impix>sive considerations; Madame, torn etes la fernme lu filue emtraordtnairv cki moitde;
aniline fen sain l'/toinnie le plus extraordinaire; d nous deux nous min'mm, wmx doute, un
e ufa ict j. I us extraordinaire encore. Mad;ime de Stael, however, declined to further the
philanthropic projects of Saint Simon in the way he wanted, and the reformer now
beginning to be in straits published at Geneva a Lettre d''ii.n Habitant (/< Geneve n H-S
CoidKinporaiiiS (1803), in which lie proposes (among other things) that there should be an
annual subscription for the benefit of men of genius mathematicians, physicians, chem-
ists, physiologists, litterateurs, painters, and musicians that spiritual power should be
in tlie hands, not of the clergy, but of savants, and temporal power in the hands oi' the
landed proprietors, while the privilege of cnoosing "chiefs of humanity" should belong
to everybody: dually, lie asserts that religion is only a human invention. Saint Simon's
proposal (so obstinately prejudiced are men against what is right) .vas not adopted w;;s
not even notice^, either by " men of genius" or others, and in the course of a t'ew months
he was glad to accept tlie office of copyist at the Mont-de-Piete. Even this humble
means of making a livelihood he had to resign from ill health, and he would probably
have died of starvation had he not fallen in by chance with an old revolutionary friend
called Diard, who took him into his house and furnished him with means to publish one
of his most important works, the Introduction aux Travaux Scientifiijues da Dix-neuviemt .
Stick (Par. 1807). The death of Diard. i:i 1810, once more plunged Saint Simon into
misery. Soon after, we rind him writing to Lacepede, Cuvier, Degeraudo, Cambiicercs,
etc., in this style: " Monsieur," scryez inon, tSauKeui^jemeursde fatiu .... Dcpuix qninze
jo urn, je tnaiige dn pain et je boin de Fmu; je truwiille sans feu ct fat rendu jnsqn'd mes
Jtabit* pour fournii 1 aux fruits des copies de inon travail. There is nothing ludicrous here
it is ihe pl.iin unaffected agony of utter want. In 1812 his wretchedness came lo a crisis;
he left Paris, betook himself to Peronne, where he fell dangerously ill, but recovered
through Ihe attentions of his family, who now settled a small pension on him: he then
returned to Pans. After the restoration, he began in spite of his extravagant vanity
to reap the never-failing reward of enthusiasm and perseverance n crop of disciple;?.
Of these 'he most distinguished was August! n Thierry, who assisted him i;i the redaction
of his Jleorgii.nmit.ion, de la Soctete Juroj:eenne a work intended to demonstrate the inu-
tility of the congress of Vienna, and the incapacity of all mere political congresses to
establish a durable peace. He proposes the institution of a European parliament, having
the right to arbitrate in cases of difference among the various nations, and adds that the
first step toward the reorganization of Europe is the union of France and England. In
1817-18, he published D Industrie, ou Dixeusxums Politiques. Mwah*. <t PhildaopJiiquee*
partly written by himself and partly by his disciples. The third volume is the work of
the celebrated Auguste Conite (q.v.). By this and other literary enterprises Saint Simon
had exhausted all his funds, and as he saw no prospect of gelling any more he resolved
to commit suicide, and actually discharged a loaded pistol at his own head (Mar. 9. 1828),
which, however, only deprived him of an eye, and not of life. The last, and by far the
most remarkable work of Saint Simon, is his Nouveau Cliristianixme (Par. 1825). which
contains his final and matured convictions. According to him, Christianity h;:s been
diverted from its original design. Progressive by nature, and meant to be modified by
the changing circumstances of times and countries, jt has been stiffened into unalierable
dogmas by ecclesiastical conclaves. The clergy, whose mission is to instruct, are igno-
rant of the thoughts and manners of modern times, and have exhibited a complete and
deplorable incapacity. Protestantism is no wiser than Catholicism. It, has set its face
against the fine arts, and has shown a cruel and fatal indifference to the physical amelio-
ration of the poor. But genuine Christianity embraces in its consideration all the needs
of humanity. From its grand principle, "love one another," it derives the proposition,
that " religion ought to direct all the social forces toward the moral and physical ameli-
oration of the class which is at once the most numerous and the most poor." From this
premise is deduced the idea of a social hierarchy based on capacity and labor the new
spiritual church comprising all functions and professions, sanctifying science and indus-
try, regulating vocations, fixing salaries, dividing heritages, and taking the best measures
to make the labors of each conduce to the good of !11. Saint Simon did not live to carry
out his principles in detail as far as they would have logically carried him, dying on
May 19, 1825; but in the writings of Comte we find the legitimate terminus and result
of his sweeping speculations. Much in the character and system of Saint Simon is
unquestionably false, exaggerated, and even laughable; but the man who reckoned
among his disciples names like MM. Augustin Thierry, Auguste Comte, Oliude Rod-



A q Saint Sophia,

S..1I.I >l-i-l. It.

rigucs, Bailly (de Blois), Leon Halevy, Du vernier, Bazard, Enfant in, Cerciet, line-bet,
Caruot, Michel Chevalier, Henri Fouruel, Dugied, Barraull, Charles Duveyrie-r. TaiuLot,



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 9 of 203)