Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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ing there. They are very like herrings in form and appearance, and on (his account,
and their large size, the British species receive from Scottish fishermen the name ol
king of the herrings. The herrings of extraordinary size, of which the capture is some-
times reported, are probably always shad. The COMMON SHAD, or AM.ICK SHAD (A com-
mitnin), is rather thicker and deeper in proportion to its length than the herring. It is
found on the British coasts, and in the lower part of some of the large rivers, more
abundantly in the Severn than in any other British river. It attains a length of two or
even three feet, and a weight of from four to eight pounds. It has no teeth. There is

OQ1 Sforzato.

* Shaiiitcs.

a single black spot behind the gills. Its flesh is of good flavor. The TWAITE SHAD (.1.
jinta) is more plentiful on tlie British coasts, and is the common Bliad of the Thames. ! i
the foul state of the river has now made it of very rare occurrence above London. It
is smaller than the Allice shad, seldom exceeding 16 in. in length; there r.rc small teeth
in both jaws, and a row of dusky spots along each side of the body. The flesh is courser,
and less esteemed than that of the Aliice shad, but much used for food -wherever the f:sh
is plentiful. This species spawns later in the year than the last, and in order t.> permit ii
to deposit its spawn, its capture in the Thames is prohibited after the end of June. It
abounds in many of the rivers of France, aud oilier parts of Europe. A fpeeics < f shad,
generally weighing about four or live pounds, but sometimes twelve pounds, u very
abundant during some months of the year in some of the North American rivers, as the,
Hudson, Delaware. Chesapeake, and St. Lawrence, and forms an important source of
wealth. U is hig.dy esteemed for i'ood. Great quantities arc salted.

SHAD (<tntt). The most esteemed species of shad are the alow vulfftirfe &n(\ alo#Q
finta of western Europe, the alotn tupiditHsinm of the eastern United States, and the riloart
r<fri."ti of the Yang tse-Kiang in China. The American and Chinese species ere held in
the highest regard, the shad of the Connecticut river being the finest in America. They
attain to the best condition, aud sometimes weigh rive or six pounds, the i.vcnige being
about four. The Jvorth river shad is somewhat smaller, and those of the Delaware,
and rivers further south beiug rather smaller still. While in the sea shad arc said
to live chiefly on small crustaceans, but when ascending rivers they eat but little.
.For several years until recently the supply of shad decreased in most of our rivers,
especially the Hudson; but they are said to have become more plentiful, owing to the
efforts of the fish commissioners. They have been introduced into the Pacific rivers,
and increased in the Mexican gulf waters. It been attempted to introduce Amer-
ican shad into Germany, but not successfully, on account, it is said, of the shortness of
the huti-hiii" 1 period there.

SHADDOCK. 'Citrus dffiimamts (see CITKUS), a tree, which, like the other species of
the same genus, is a native of the East Indies, aiid which has been long cultivated in the
8. r,f Europe. .U is said to derive its English name from a capt. Shaddock, by whom it
was introduced into the AVest Indies. It is readily distinguished from most" of its eon-
peners by its large leaves and broad-winged leaf-stalk; it has very large white flowers,
and the fruit is also very large, sometimes weighing 10, or even 14 pounds, rourdisb,
pale yellow; the rind thick, white and spongy within, bitter; the pulp greenish and
watery, subacid, and sub-aromatic. It is a pleasant, cooling fruit, and much used for
preserves. The tree is rather more tender than the orange, but with proper care is often
made to produce line fruit in orangeries in Britain.

SHADOW is a portion of space from which light is debarred by the interposition of
an opaque body. If the luminous body be too near, or too large to be considered as a
mere point, then each atom of the light-giving surface throws i:s own shadow indepen-
dent of the others. "\Vc have thus in reality a multiplicity of shadows overlapping each
other, and forming what in common parlance is " ;;" shadow of the opaque body, which
is darkest at those places where all the separate shadows overlap each other, and becomes
lighter as it gradually frills beyond the limits of more and more of these separate
shadows. See PENUMBRA. The depth of a shadow depends from mere force of con-
trast on the intensity of the light around it; it also depends much on the nearness of the
object, as compared with its rize. to the surface upon which the shadow is thrown; for
the rays of light, by their properties of reflection, refraction, and dispersion, tend to bend
"round "the opaque object, and the increase of distance between an object and its
shadow allows more scope for this action.


SHADWELL, THOMAS, a dramatic writer of some note in his day, though now only
remembered as the " Mac-Fleeknoe" of Dryden's satire, was b. in 1640 in Norfolk. He
was educated for the law, but not finding it a pursuit to his mind, he deserted it. and.
after an interval of foreign travel, betook himself seriously to literature. His fi v st com-
edy of lite Sullen Is>rr-rx (1668) had great success, and he continued from year to year to
entertain the town with a succession of similar pieces, a complete edition of which was
published after his death in 4 vols 12mo. The immortality which these must have
failed to achieve for him, he was fated to attain in a way somewhat less desirable. With
Dryden he seems, in the earlier portion of his career, to have been on terms of friendly
intimacy; but literary jealousies divided them, and the quondam friend became a favor-
ite butt for the shafts of Dryden's deathless ridicule. Though his work- hasty and
careless as they are exhibit lively talent and considerable comic force, all that the lit-
erary world now knows of Shadwell is that " Shadwell never deviates into sense. " It
might a little console him. under the satire of his enemy, that he succeeded him in
the post of poet-laureate, which in 1688 it became necessary for Dryden to resign. lie
did not long survive to enjoy it. however, as in 1692 he died, it is said of an overdoso
of laudanum, a drug in which he was wont to indulge himself.

SHAF IITES. the name of one of the four principal sects of the Snrmifes (q.v.). or
"orthodox" Moslems. Its name it received from its founder, Abu Abdallah Moham.


med Tbn Idris, called Al-Shafei, from one of his ancestors who descended from Moham-
med's grandfather.

SHAFT, the body of a column, extending between the base and capital. In Gothic
architecture ihu term is applied to the small columns clustered round piers, or in the
jambs of doors and windows. In the early styles the shafts are frequently of finer
material than the pier,, such as Purbeck marble, and polished and banded. In later
examples the shaft is generally attached, and of the same piece as the pier. For illustra-
tion see COLUMN".

8HAFTE3BITBY, commonly called SHASTON, a very ancient town of England, a
municipal and p.irliumentary borough in Dorsetshire, 27m. n.n.e. of Dorchester. It
stands on the narrow ridge of a chalk hill, and commands extensive and beautiful views
of the counties of Dorset. Somerset, and Wilts. The date of its foundation is unknown,
but it seem.-} to h.ive been a Roman station. In the reign of Athelstan (924-940) it con-
tained two mints and an abbey of Benedictine nuns. Here Canute the great died in 1036.
Pop '71, of municipal borough, 2,472.

SHAFTESBURY, ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPER, Earl of, English statesman and philan-
thropist, is descended from a family intimately associated with the political history and
literature of England. Sir John "Cooper of Rockbourne, Hampshire, married Anne,
daughter and sole heiress of sir Anthony Ashley of Wimborue, St. Giles, Dorsetshire,
secretary-lit- war in the reign of queen Elizabeth. Their eldest son, sir Anthony Ashley
Cooper (born 1621), was actively engaged in public affairs during the civil wars. He
first espoused the cause of royalty; he then became one of the most eminent of the par-
liamentary leaders in the council, and not the least active in the field. When he saw
that the restoration was inevitable, he took so prominent a part in bringing back Charles
II. that he was raised to the peerage as baron Ashley. He was a member of the justly
infamous " Cabal" ministry, and was afterward appointed to be lord chancellor, with
the earldom of Shaftesbury. He was the "Achitophel" of Dryden,by whom his character
is drawn with as much truth as power. He hated a calm, lived all his life in intrigues,
and in his 62d year his " fiery soul " wore out his small and fragile body. He will bo
honored for all time by men of English race and descent as the author of the habeas
corpus act. He also first introduced a bill rendering the judges independent of the
crown. His grandson, ANTHONY COOPEU. third earl (born 1671, died 1713), author of
the Cluiracteriisticx, the friend of Pope, and the other celebrities of the Augustan age,
'obtained from Voltaire the questionable praise of being the boldest of the English phi-
losophers. The sixth earl was for many years chairman of committees of the house of

His son, ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPER, seventh earl of Shaftesbury, was b. in Gros-
venor square, London, April 28, 1801. He was sent to Harrow, and thence to Christ
Church, Oxford, where he obtained a first-class degree in classics in 1822. He repre-
sented the borough of Woodstock from 1823 to 1830; the county of Dorset (in which the
family estates are situated) from 1831 to 1846; and the city of Bath from 1847 to 1851,
when he succeeded to the earldom. During his long career in the lower house he held
one or two subordinate posts. He is better known by his attempts to improve the social
condition of the laboring classes. As he belonged to the conservative party, and repre-
sented an agricultural county, the manufacturers, and their organs in the press, received
his allegations respecting the condition of their operatives in a hostile and antagonistic
spirit, and retorted that the wages of families engaged in factories amounted to twice
and three times the sum paid to the Dorsetshire laborers. Yet lord Ashley returned
again and again to the charge; and on the death of Mr. Sadler, M.P., took charge of the
ten hours' bill. The manufacturers declared with alarm that any reduction in the hourg
of labor would be fatal to our manufacturing supremacy. Successive governments
naturally believed these prophecies, and almost all the leading statesmen of the day
opposed the ten hours' bill. But public opinion declared in favor of a limitation of the
hours of labor. Lord Ashley carried his bill through parliament, and has the. satisfac-
tion of knowing that the opponents of the measure admit, without an exception, that it
was an act of wise and beneficent legislation, and that their alarms were groundless.
When he visited the manufacturing districts, he was honored with an enthusiastic ova-
tion. He refused to join sir R. Peel's administration in 1841 because that statesman
refused to countenance the ten hours' bill. In 1846 he supported sir R. Peel in his pro-
posal to repeal the corn laws, an act which cost him his seat for Dorsetshire. When he
successfully contested Bath against Mr. Roebuck in 1847 he appeared on the field of
politics as a "liberal conservative." After his accession to the earldom. Shaftesbnry
took a more prominent part in connection with various religious, social, and philan-
thropic societies. These are so numerous that a list of the associations with which he is
in some way officially concerned, would include almost every scheme having for its
object the physical, moral, and spiritual improvement of society. He belongs to
the evangelical party in the church of England, and is a prominent member of the chief
church societies. He is married to a daughter of the fifth earl Cowper, and being thus
a connection by marriage of the late viscount Palmerston (whose government he steadily
supported), many of the ecclesiastical appointments and promotions of evangelical
clergymen made by that minister were attributed to his influence. He has followed up

OQO Shaft.


the ten hours' bill by obtaining the assent of parliament to other measures regulating
defective workshops and factories, night-work, ar.d the treatment of children by their
rnployers. Among honors that have been conferred on Siiat'tesbury are the Oxford
4 'gree of D.C.L. in 1841, and the honorary citizenship of Edinburgh in lb?y.


SHAGREEN' is generally understood to mean shark skin dressed and rubbed down
imooth or not; but the oriental shagreen, formely in so much repute, consists of por-
lions of tlie skins of horses, asses, camels, and oxen, the part used being strips taken
from head to tail, along the center of the back. These strips are prepared by soaking
in water, and currying; and when in the proper condition, they are laid on the ground,
and the seeds of clteitvjjodium album are sprinkled over them; a board or piece of felt is
then placed on the seeds, and by pressure the hard seeds are forced deeply into the skin,
which is then hang-to dry. When dry, the seeds are removed by shaking, and the
skin pared down with a proper knife nearly, but not quite as low, as the bottom of the
depressions caused by the seeds. After this the skin is again soaked, and the parts com-
pressed by the seeds now rise up and form elevations, which are increased by washing
in a sola; ion of salt. The last operation is dyeing them of various colors, green being
the favorite one. Owing to the difference of texture produced by the operations of com-
pressing by the seeds, paring, etc., the color is taken irregularly; and when dyed green,
the material somewhat resembles malachite in appearance when dried and polished. It
AVIIS at one time a very favorite material in Britain for covering small cases and caskets
of various kinds, especially spectacle-cases.

SHAH (Persian, prince, king), the general title of the supreme ruler in Persia, Afghan-
istan, and other countries of southern and central Asia. The sovereign, however, may,
and frequently does, decline the title, assuming in its place that of khan (q. v.), an
inferior and more common appellation. The same title can also be assumed by any of
the shah's sons, and upon ail the princes of the blood the cognomen ahah-zadeii is

SHAH-JEHAN, or "king of the world, "the title assumed on his accession to the
throne by Khorrum Shah, the third son of Selim Jehan-Ghir. and the fifth of the Mogul
fmpcrors of Delhi. He was during his father's reign employed in military expeditions
Ugainst the Rajputs, the independent Mohammedan states of the Deccan, and the Afghan
tribes around Camlahar, in which he greatly distinguished himself by bravery and mili-
tary skill ; but on his return he was forced into rebellion (1623) by the intrigues of his
i-nemies at court, and was still unreconciled to his father at the hitter's death in 1627,
when he was at once saluted as emperor by the nobles. At his accession the empire
had reached the summit of its greatness, but the causes which lead to its rapid decline at
the same time unmistakably showed themselves; the territory was too extensive for the
system of government which was generally pursued by the Moguls; the discordant parts
were unconnected by any bond of union; the supreme ruler was looked upon in many
provinces as a mere tax-collector; and with the thus necessary absence of any spirit of
loyalty, insurrections were frequent in all the provinces. The chief events of Shah-
Jehan's reign were the war against the Deccan sovereignties, which resulted in the
complete destruction of the kingdom of Ahmed nuggur (1681), and the subjugation (1636)
of those of Becjapur and Golconda; an indecisive contest against the U/.beks of Balkh
(1644-47); two unsuccessful attempts to recover Candahar from the Persians: and a
second successful war, conducted by his third son, Aurungzebc. against the Deccan
princes (1650). But in 16~>7 the emperor fell dangerously ill, and his four sons, who
were ambitious of attaining supreme power, immediately commenced to dispute regard-
ing the succession. See AUUUNGZKBE. Ultimately Shah-Jehan was taken prisoner,
and confined in the citadel of Agra till his death, Dec., 1666. Shah-Jehan united
the voluptuous profligacy so common in eastern monarchs with great sagacity, and the
strict administration of justice to Moslem and Hindu alike. In his later years he became
avaricious, increased the taxes, and confiscated the property of his wealthier subjects on
the slightest pretexts. The magnificence of his court was uncqualed; the splendid " pea-
cock throne" was constructed by his orders at a cost of about 7,000.000, and many
magnificent public buildings executed under his direction remain as monuments of his
greatness. Chief of these are the city of Shah-Jehanabad, and the superb mausoleum of
Taj mall Al (see AGRA). Yet so strict was his financial management that he left a well
appointed army of 200,000, and a treasury containing 24,000,000, to his son Aurung-

SHAHJEHANPORE', a t. of British India, the principal place of a district of the same
name, u.w. provinces. It stands on the Gurrah, a feeder of the Ramgunga, 94 m. n.w.
from Luck now. Pop. '72, 72.140.

SHAH N AMEH, Book of Kings, the title of several eastern works, the most celebrated
of which is the Persian poem of this name, by Firdusi (q.v.), containing the history of
the ancient Persian kings in about 60.000 dis'tichs. and written by the order of sultan
Mahmud of Ghi/.ni, in the space of thirty years. Another work, in Turkish, under the
Saras name, comprises the history of all tlie ancient kings of the east, and was written by
Firdusi Al-Thauil. Bajazet II., to whom the book was dedicated, ordered the author

Shairp. OQ l


to reduce it from its original bulk of 300 vols. to 80. Firdnsi, however, felt so mortified
at this proposal that he preferred leaving the country altogether, and cmiguittd to
Khorassau, iu Persia.

SHAIRP. JOHN CAMPBELT,, LI,.D. ; b. Scotland, 1830: educated at Glasgow univer-
sity and Balliol college, Oxford; was assistant master ( f Rugby school; prolessor at St.
Andrews in 1801, and principal iu 1868. He has published Jiiiiiiahve, a li,(jl<l<u,d 1'its-
toral; Studies in Poetry and Philosophy; Lectures on Culture and litli^ioii; and tout rib-
uted largely to periodicals.

SHAKE, iu music, an embellishment produced by the continued and rapid repetition
of one note alternately with another either a whole lone or semitone above it. Ils sign
is tr (the iirst two letters of the Italian trilio), placed over or under the principal note.

r -yi ^ i

For example: fpn ;j, is played thus: [ifc^Lp.L.^L=^ti^ -3 < tn

^ ^ BmBE&.^KaK.MOKjemK.tK^E.K-M^Ba

exact nuniber of repetitious being indefinite. A shake is often preceded by r an r.ppogia-

fzifc~i^^r[:~ z:3

tura (q.v.), and is very generally finished with a turn, asf/lg f- ^ -j. played:


- - - * - -F ^~"t ^ e may have shakes on two notes at

ouce; and a series of shakes on several notes is called a chain of shakes.

SHAKERS, the name commonly given to a small religious sect existing in the United
States. 1 he proper or official description of this sect is the united society of believers
in Christ's second appearing; but its members seem to have accepted the designation
Of Shakers, though it was originally applied to them in ridicule, on account of certain
rhythmical movements of the hands and arms which form part of the ceremonial of their
worship. Though the Shaker societies are found only in the United States, their creed
had an English origin. The founder of the sect, fn whose person they believe that
Christ lias appeared a second time, was an Englishwoman, named Ann Lee, a native of
Manchester, who emigrated to ]New York with a small band of disciples, shortly before
the outbreak of the revolutionary war.

Ann Lee was the daughter of a blacksmith, who lived in Toad lane in Manchester; a
very poor man, who gave her no education, and sent her while a mere child to work in
a cotton mill. She seems to have been a violent, hysterical girl, ambitions of notice,
and fond of power, and to have always possessed, in virtue of her strong will and vehe-
ment temper, a great deal of influence over the people around her. She married while
very young a blacksmith named Stanley. She had four children, all of whom died in
infancy to this, perhaps, may be ascribed the preference of the celibate to the married
life, which she ultimately raised into a part of her religious system. She became one
of the earliest believers in a prophetess, who appeared about ]QO years ago. in the
town of Bolton-on-the-Moors. in Lancashire a poor woman, named Jane \Vardlaw, the
wife of a tailor, who believed she had " received a call " to go forth ard testify for the
truth. The burden of Jane Wardlaw's message was. that the end of all things was at
hand, that Christ was coming to reign upon the earth, and that his second appearance
would be in the form of awoman,.as prefigured in the Psalms. In subordination to
this, she took up several of the tenets of the society of Friends, to which she and her
husband originally belonged; especially, she raised her voice against war and agiiinst
profane swearing. Her followers believed that she was filled with the Holy Spirit; they
received her utterances as the voice of God; and she acted as if all the powers of earth
and heaven had been given into her hands. Ann Lee on her conversion, began to preach
the same message in Toad lane and the adjacent streets of Manchester: but she soon
went beyond her teacher* and gained the leadership of her co-believers for herself. It
liappeneVl that she was brought before a magistrate, charged with an obstruction of the
streets, caused by the crowd collected to hear her preach, and she was sent to the Old
Bailey prison in Manchester. When she came out of prison, she gave forth, that one
night, a light had shone upon her in her cell; that the Lord Jesus stood before her; and
that he became one vith her in form and spirit. Her pretension was. that Christ was
come to rtHgn in her person. It was favorably entertained by the followers of Jane
Wardlaw; and they acknowledged her as their head or mother, in place of Jane, whose

Eretensions had never gone so far. She found, however, that among her neighbors and
jllow-workers, her claim to be the bride of the Lamb, the queen described by David in
the Psalms, excited only jeering and ridicule, and she received a revelation that sho
should seek in America a home for herse'.f and her few disciples that it was in America
that the foundations of Christ's kingdom were to be laid. So she wont to New York,
accompanied by seven disciples five males and two females. Her husband also
went with her: but he seems to have had no faith in her, and he left her soon
after their arrival, in consequence of one of the features then inrodnced into her
system. This was the practice of celibacy, which she had not previously enforced
upon her followers, though she had enjoined it as a duty. Her teaching was, that men



called into grace must live as the angels do, among whom there is no marrying
or giving in marriage, that no form of earthly love could be allowed in- the Re-
deemer's kingdom. Finding a populous city unfavorable to her d< signs, t-lie uinovcd,
with her followers, first to Albany, then far into the wilderness to Ni.-kei:n:i. and there
founded the settlement which still exists, of Water Vliet. It was in the spring of ITbO
when she had been three years and a half at Niskenua, looking tor new believers
to come in, but making no attempt to win them that the tirst American converts joined
her society. A revival had taken place at AlLany, and had spread through ihe surround-
ing districts; and from Hancock and New Lebanon a deputation was sent to Niskemm,
to see what light its inhabitants enjoyed as to the way of salvation. The deputation
consisted of Joseph Meacham and Lucy Wright subsequently the heads of the Shaker
society. These persons became believers in Ann Lee; and through their agency oUier
converts were won, aiul a Shaker society established at New Lebanon. Toward the
close of 1780, the revolutionary war being then in progress, notoriety was given to Ann

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 91 of 203)