Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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as poet (abstracting the differential forms), there are but one or two names in literature
even to be named beside his; and dismissing his claims in either kind, we have in his
works such a treasury of gnomic wisdom on all matters of human conferment as no
other writer has ever bequeathed to the world. If we add, that this greatest of writers
is one of the most unequal that his works contain more than might be wished of what,
as the product of such a mind, we need not scruple to call rubbish and that nearly
every vice in writing might be illustrated from them almost at will, we say simply what
is patent to every reader not blinded by the stupid and mindless idolatry which loo often
of late in many quarters has displaced a rational admiration.

The only works of Shakespeare certainly published under his own hand were the two
poems Venus and Adonis and The Rape cf Lucn-ee, which appeared in 1593-94 respec-
tively. As was naturally to be looked for in the case of pieces on the stage so popular,
certain of his dramas found their way from time to time into print, but no authoritative
edition of any of them was issued during his lifetime. The first collected edition of his
dramas was issued in 1623, by Heminge and Condell, his friends and co- proprietors in
the Blackfriars and Globe theaters. 'A second edition followed in 1632; a third, in
1664; and a fourth in 1685. In 1709 appeared the edition of Rowe, with a prefatory
sketch of the poet's life. Of the "Shakespearian literature" which followed, and the
various re-issues of the dramas, with such masses of critical commentary and emenda-
tion as no other writer has ever perhaps been made the subject of, it would be hopeless
to attempt an account. It must suffice to mention as successive editors Pope, Theobald,
sir Thomas Ilanmer, Warburton, Capcll. Stevens, Malone, and Dr. Johnson, whose
elaborate introductory essay- whatever may be thought of the insolence of much of his
criticism of the plays in detail is perhaps on the whole, as an estimate of the genius of
the poet, as satisfactory as any that has since been written. Down to our own time,
there has been no remission of activity in this field of literary labor. More recently, the
intelligent industry of Mr. Charles Knight specially deserves mention: and along with
his may be given the names of Mr. Dyce. Mr. John Payne Collier, and Mr. Singer all
of whom have put forth elaborate and' valuable editions of the dramas. An important
edition was issued from Cambridge in 1863-66. under the superintendence of two gen-
tlemen of unquestioned scholarly competence, W. G. Clark and W. Aldis Wright.

In Germany, Shakespeare has long been thoroughly naturalized; and the German
enthusiasm in regard of him is, if possible, even greater than ot:r own. It was the cele-
brated Lessing who first decisively introduced him to notice in a series of essays, exhibit-
ing the immeasurable superiority of his art to that of the p c eudo-classical models of the
French stage. Since his time, many of the most gifted of his countrymen have devoted
themselves to the work of Shakespearian criticism and elucidation. From Goethe we
have some exquisite fragments, most notably the criticism of Hamlet; occurring in his
W:lhf1in If'-f^f^r; and after his. the names of Tieck, A. W. Schlegel (whose Lectures, of
date 1809-1*11. almost constitute an era in this special department of literature). Franz
Horn, and Gervinus (an English translation of whose elaborate commentaries has been
published), occur as the most illustrious in connection with the present topic. By Tieck
and Scldegel together, the work of translation was undertaken; and the result of their
joint labors, which takes rank as the standard German Shakespeare, ranks also, in the
opinion of competent judges, as a consummate and almost unique specimen of excellence
in the translator's art. It has not unfrcquently bet-n alleged that, till the Germans made
the discovery for them, the English people knew nothing of the greatness of Shakespeare.
This is on the face of it ridiculous. The single sentence we have cited from Dryden,
and the practical acceptance of it implied in the unexampled attention and industry



Shale. A_C\Cl

Shamanism.

which never ceased to be directed to the subject, sufficiently of themselves confute so
idle a notion. What the Germans really did (and along with their services in the matter,
must be included those of our countrymen Coleridge, "w hose impulse and point of view,
at least, if not something considerably more, were derived from German sources) was
somewhat to methodize and enlighten for us an admiration never deficient, but always,
like Jonsou's regard for the memory of his friend, "only on this side idolatry." The
old notion of Shakespeare was ihal of a genius in power and plenitude unrivaled, but
licentious in its modes of operation, and more or less chaotic in its results; "wild above
rule or art. enormous bliss." The. new German criticism exhibited in the chaos the
.orderly outlines of a world; co-ordinated the confusion under rules till then unsuspected,
and showed in what before had seemed irregular exercise of power admitted to lie mag-
nificent, obedience not less magnificent to a law of artistic evolution. It mj.de calcul-
able, in a word, the orbit of a luminary which luid somewhat uncomfortably seemed to
be sweeping at nmdom through space. But the English people did not need it to renal,
the luminary to them; throughout and from the first, they hao seen and devoutly
worshiped it. Also, to a great extent, it is due to the German enthusiasm of exposition,
that over tne whole continent, and wherever literature is intelligently studied some
little lingering, dying remnjint of French prejudice except the poet par excellence of
England is now finally enthroned as the poet par cxcelUiict of our'whole modern world
and civilization. A household edition ol the works of Shakespeare, freed fix-m objec-
tionable passages, has been published by W. and li. Chambers, in 10 volumes.

SHALE, or SLATE-CLAY, an indurated clay, which often forms beds in the coal meas-
ures. It is chiefly composed of silica and alumina, in variable proportions, but also fre-
quently contains a considerable amount of carbonate of lime and of oxide of iron. It is
of a gray or grayish-black color, or brownish-red when containing much iron. Its struc-
ture is more or less slaty. It is soft, and easily reduced to powder. It is usid for
making slate-pencils. When free from lime and iron, it is reduced to powder, and used
for milking fire-bricks, for which u affords an excellent material. hale very often con-
tains a notable quantity of bitumen, ar.d wlii-n this is so much the case that 'the mineral
has a shining resinous streak, and crackles and blazes in the fire, emitting ;i black smoke
and a bituminous odor, it is known as bitinin'ttoiis xfiale. This variety sometimes p;isses
on the one hand into common shale, and on the other into coal. Impressions of ferns
and other plants are very frequently found in shale.

Slate, Schist, and Shale sire names employed to denote those kinds of rock which are
]aminattd or fissile that is, which possess a structure readily splitting into thin layers.
Shale and schist are almost synonymous, although the latter should be restricted to rocks
with their layers irregular or foliated. True slate differs from them in not having its
lamination produced by bedding. See SLATE. Nevertheless, all three names are often
applied to the same substance.

Shale varies much in its composition. Clay, sand, lime, bitumen, and other bodies,
either singly or any mixture of them, are included under the name, if tlie'y form rocks
which split into layers in the direction of their bedding; clay, however, being an ingre-
dient in most shales. Strange as it may seem, the line between even coal and some kinds
of shale is not well defined; and in the case of the Torbanehill mineral, found near Bath-
gate, the question by which of the two names it should be called led to a lengthened and
costly litigation.

The importance of certain decomposing shales through which sulphurct of iron is
disseminated, for the manufacture of alum, lias been long known, and the quantity raised
for that purpose from the carboniferous beds of Lancashire and Lanarkshire anel the lias
beds of Yorkshire is very considerable, yielding about 16,000 tons of manufactured :ilum
annually. Shales of a similar kind "are worked in Fiance, Germany, and North
America.

Bituminous shales that is, shales more or less rich in carbon and hyelrogen form
another class of these bodies which have, in recent years, attracted much notice as
sources of oil for illuminating purposes. It is now more than thirty years since a French-
man, named Du Buisson. introduced a method of distilling certain bituminous shales in
France, at a comparatively low temperature, so as to obtain burning-oil and other prod-
ucts. The process was afterward tried in England, being used for a time in distilling
a Dorsetshire bituminous shale, sometimes called " Kimmeridgc coal." From this min-
eral a burning oil. a lubricating oil, and a naphtha for dissolving caoutchouc, were
obtained. But neither in France nor in England did the attempt to make a profitable
manufacture succeed: in the former country the poverty of the shales was the chief
drawback; in the latter, the disagreeable smell of the oil. which could not be effectually
removed, prevented it from obtaining favor in the market

On account of these failures the process fell into abeyance, until it was revived again
l>y the success of the well-known p;itnt of Mr. James \oung (see NAPHTHA), secured in
1850 for the production of paraffinc and paniffine oil from coal. With the exception of
the soli 1 paraffinc, which Mr. Young was the first to obtain on the large scale, and the
employment of coal instead of shale, the processes of I)u Buisson and Young are cssen
tially the same. This process ha* created a new and rapidly-increasing branch of indus-
try, paraffiue oil andparaffine being economically obtained by it from either coal or shale



AM Shale.

Shamanism,

of certain kinds. Those who have paid any attention to the various beds of minerals
which go to form what is geologically called the coal measures are aware that it is only
the ;;e.uus of coal, ironstone, fire-clay, samlsioue, and limestone which until very lately
have been looked upon as of any industrial importance. Inieistratified between thewi
and the other minerals of the series are numerous beds of carbonaceous or bituminous
shale, until recently considered useless. Many of these shales were found upon trial to
yield from 30 to 50 gallons of crude oil per ton; and works several of them of great
size have accordingly been started in many places over the entire area of the coal for-
mation in Scotland, and also at various localities in England and Wales, for the manu-
facture of mineral oil, pa rath' ne, etc., from this material.

Owing partly to the comparative cheapness of shale, and partly also to the fact that
these products are obtained from it in a state more easily purified than when Ihey are
got from coal, the use of the latter as a source of UK m is now almost entirely given up.
In Scotland, where the manufacture of parafh'ne oil is chiefly carried on, the shalea
used are railed "oil shales," and it is estimated that there are now 800,000 tons of
this material annually distilled. Such a quantity yields the following products:

Crude oil .............................................. 25,000 gallons.

Paraffine ......................................... - - - 5,800 tons.

Lubricating oil ....... ................................ 9,800

Sulphate of ammonia .................................. 2,350

In the refining process the crude oil is reduced to about one-half of its bulk before
it is fit for burning. Besides the above, there is also a considerable quantity of
"coal seas," unavoidably produced, and p.irtly wasted. But for the distance or' the
oil works, this would 'be consumed iu. soms of the larger Scottish towns. Shalea
found in the Lias and some other formations, likewise yield mineral oil.

SHALER, ALEXANDER, b Conn., 1827; in 181") entered the New York state militia
and at the beginning of the rebellion wa-i nvij. of the 7th regiment N. G. 8. N. Y. In
1861 he became lieutcol of volunteers; he served in the Peninsular campaign, with Pops
and McCle'.lan, at Fredericksburg, Marye's height-*, Gettysburg, and Uappahannock;
wa? captured in the haul'; of thcT Wilde'rness, and exchanged, Aug. 186-1. At the end
of the war he received the brevet rank of maj.'j;en., and in 1857 was made inaj.gou. of
the 1st division of the New York state national guard.

SHALER, NATHANIEL, SOUTHGATE, b. Ky., 1841; graduate of Lawrence scientific
school, Cambridge, 1862; director of the geological survey of the state of Kentucky.
professor of paleontogy at Harvard university, and assistant at the museum of com-
parative zoology. lie published reports of the Kentucky survey, and has written
numerous artiebs on geological and other scientific subjects.

SHALLOON", a light worsted cloth, said to have been first made at Chalons in France,
and to have derived its now corrupted name from that place.

SHAL'LOP(Fr. chaloupe). a large, open, old-fashioned boat, carrying two masts. rigged
as in a schooner. Its principal use was in the fisheries, but it has now nearly given
place to luggers and yawls.

SHAL'LOT, Al'inm Ascalonicum, a species of alii urn (q.v.), a native of the enst. intro-
duced into Earope by the crusaders from Ascalon. it is said and much cultivated for
its bulbs, which are used like those of the onion, and sometimes for its leaves, which aro
used like those of the chive. The leaves grow in tufts like those of the chive, but are
larger. The shallot is generally propagated by the cloves, which are planted just
beneath the surface of the ground, or only partially beneath it. in spring, and the crop
is ready for gathering in July or August. The flavor resembles that of garlic, but
is much milder. In the vineyards of Italy theshallot is naturalized.

SHAMA'KA, a t. in the government of Transcaucasia, Russia, containing two
villages 15 m. apart. The old town was razed to the ground in 1737 by Nadir Sliah,
but has been rebuilt, and now has about 25,000 inhabitants. The place is noted for its
extensive silk manufactures.



SHAMANISM is the ancient religion of the Tartar, and some of the other
tribes. It is a belief in sorcery, and a propitiation of evil demons by sacrifices find fran! o
gestures. The following account of it is extracted from the Axiatif- Journal. The prics.i
are men or women, married or single. The character is acquired by pretending tint the
soul of a deceased priest has appeared to the individual in a dream, appointing him or
her hi-; successor. If the priests are in function, they wear a long robe of elk-skin, hung
with small and large brass and iron bells; moreover, they carry staves carved at the top
into the shape of horses' heads, also 1 ing with bells; and with the assistance of these
staves they leap to an extraordinary height. The followers of the Shaman religion have
neither altars nor ido's, but perform their sacrifices in a hut raised on an open spaoe. in a
forest or on a hill. Nor are there fixed periods for the performance of their ceremonies;
births, marriages, and sickness, uncommon appearances in the atmosphere, or public
calamities, are generally the occasions which call for them. The animal to be sacrificed
U. K. XIII. 26



Khammai.



J.AO



is generally fixed upon by the shaman or the donor; and after the persons uniting in
the ceremony have assembled, the shamau enters the hut, chanting certain words,
sprinkles on all the sides of the hut, and over the tire, spirits and milk, and then orders
the animal to be killed, which is done by its heart being torn out. The skin of ihe victim
is then stripped off, and its flesh, with the exception of a few pieces which are thrown
into the fire, is consumed by the persons assembled. See also LAMAISM.

SHAMMAI (not, as has often been done, to be confounded with Sammeas), an emi-
nent doctor of the Jewish law at the time of Herod, head of a most important school,
and supreme judge of the sanhedrim (ab-beth-din) during the presidency of Hillel
(q.v.), along with whom he is, indeed, generally mentioned, and of whom he was, as it
were, the very counterpart. Very little is known of the history of his life. He most
probably was born in Palestine, and most energetically participated in all the political
and religious complications of the country. There was a harshness and rigidity in his
character which contrasts most strikingly with Hillel's proverbial patience. His religious
views were painfully strict, and he even tried to extend the rigor which he imposed upon
himself, to the youngest children; but the zealotism with which later times have charged
him is not his, hut his school's, "the House of Shammai," as it was called. This
seems, under the adverse circumstances of the commonwealth sedition within, and the
approaching enemy without to have developed a fanatical zeal that at times surpassed
all bounds, and chiefly tended to foster that exceptional exclusiveness whicii proved bolh
the bane and the saving of Judaism. The discussions of the two rival schools, of which
that of Shummai preponderated long after the master's death, turned exclusively upon
points of positive law. There is only one curious metaphysical debate recorded, viz.,
whether, as one school held, "it was better for man to have been created or not;" or, as
the other asserted, " it would have been better if he never had" been created." Finally,
they both agreed in the latter axiom, but with the addition " but since he is now in this
world, let him be careful in his actions. We need hardly point to the strange light
which this discussion and final decision throw upon the times of uuequaled national
misery that begot them.

SHAMMY. See LEATHER.

SHAMO, or GOBI, the Chinese and Mongol names respectively for a wide region of
steppe and desert in the eastern part of central Asia. It extends from the Thian-Shan
mountains to the Kuen-Lun and Nan-Shan mountains, bordering on eastern Turkestan
to the w. , and occupying great part of the area between 40" and 45 n. lat., and 90 to
118' e. long. The "desert" is by no means sterile throughout. On the n. and on the
s. is a wide belt of firm steppe, consisting for the most part of vast green levels covered
with abundance of pasture, but broken by numerous ridges of hills. Between these two
belts, each at a height of from 4,500 to 5,500 ft. above the sen, lies a depressed tract,
not more than 2,500 to 3,000 ft. above sea level, and varying in breadth from 2oO to 460
miles. This alone is properly called Shamo, or " sea of sand;" it is a perfect wilderness
of sand and stones, and is probably the bed of an ancient sea. The salt Band of which
its soil is mainly composed produces nothing but a few scrubby plan rs. The fauna of
the Shamo, even in the wider sense, is limited, including little save h.nmsters, dziggetais,
a few wild sheep, and antelopes. There arc no fixed habitations even in the steppe
country; the inhabitants, chiefly Mongols, are all nomads. Yet in various places there
are traces of ancient cities buried in the shifting sand (see Ocean HiyJi'irni/s for 1873).
The winter here is intensely cold and stormy, and the summer excessively hot. Yet the
wandering hordes of Mongols have no difficulty in keeping large herds, which find
plenty of rich pasture on the steppes, and even in winter contrive to pick sufficient food
from beneath the snow. From want of wood the nomadic tribes have to use dried dung
as fuel. Little is known of the Shamo save in the neighborhood of the main tracks
across it, of which the chief is from Maimatchin to Pekin.

8HAMOKIN, a borough in e. Pennsylvania, on a branch of the Philadelphia and
Readinir railroad; pop. '75, 7,500. It is in Coal township, on Shamokin creek, 95 m.
from Philadelphia, and 19 m. s.e. of Sunbury, with which it is connected by a branch
of the Northern Central railroad. It is in the anthracite coal region, and has several
valuable mines which furnish material for the principal industry. In one year the
product of the mines was 1,250,000 tons. It is well laid out. Many of its buildings are
built of brick. It is lighted by gas, has 10 churches, is supplied with water carried 4 m.j
has 2 newspapers, public schools, 2 private schools, several hotels, and manufactures of
iron and machinery.

SHAMROCK, a national emblem of Ireland, a leaf with three leaflets, or plant having
such leaves, sometimes supposed to be the wood sorrel, but more generally believed to
be some species of clover, or perhaps some common plant of some of the nearly allied
genera, as the bird's-foot trefoil, or the black medick. It is not improbable that the
name lias a sort of general reference to plants with trifoliolate leaves, and that a more
eract determination of the species may be as difficult as the attainment of botanical
accuracy in regard to the emblematic thistle of Scotland.

The small-leaved clover (trifoliirm repcnx) has had a superstitious respect attached to
it from early times. According to the elder Pliny no serpent will touch it. It is said



At)'\



Sham mat.



ttr have been first assumed as the badge of Ireland from the circumstance that St. Patrick
made use of it to illustrate the doctrine of the Trinity. See TREFOIL.

SHAMYL, or SCHAMYL (Eng. "Samuel''), the celebrated lender of the independent
tribes in the Caucasus, was born at Aul-IIimry, in northern Daghcstan, and belonged
to a wealthy Lesghian family of rank. He was one of the zealous disciples of Kasi-
Mollah, the great apostle of Muridism, and ably seconded his endeavors to compose the
numerous feuds of the various Caucasian tribes and unite them in a bond of antagonism
to their common enemy, the heretical Russians. He was one of the foremost in the
defense of Himry against the Russians, Oct. 80, 1882, and, after the fall of his chief
Kasi-Mollah and most of his adherents, fought his way alone and severely wounded
through the besiegers' ranks. After the assassination of Hamzad-Bey, the successor <<f
Kasi-.uollah, in the end of 1834, Shamyl was unanimously elected "imanm,'' and being
absolute temporal and spiritual chief of the tribes who acknowledged his authority, he
made numerous changes in the religious creed and political administration lor the pur-
pose of more fully concentrating in himself the whole power. These changes were
certainly the chief cause of the great successes which subsequently attended the moun-
taineers. but it is none the less certain that they produced that sudden collapse of the
spirit of independence which took place when the great leader was removed, fchamyl's
change of military tactics from open warfare to surprises, amluscr.des, etc., brought
numerous and sometimes great successes to the arms of the mountaineers. Gen. Ivelilch
was severely defeated in 18b7, the worst reverse the Russians Lad yet sustained, and his
coadjutor Huti was forced to make a disastrous retreat. They succeeded, however
(18^), in hemming Sharnyl into Akulgo, in Daghestjai, took the 'fortress by storm, and
put every one of the deienders to the sword, in crder to Le quite certain thai Shamyl
should not escape. How he did so is not known, his own followers and the Russians
tclieved him to be dead, when, to the joy of the one, and the bitter confusion of the
other, he suddenly appealed, preaching with n:ore vigor than ever the " holy war against
the heretics." In 1848 Le conquered all Avares, besieged Mozdok, foiled the Russians
In their subsequent campaign, !.nd gi.ined over to tits side the Caucasian tribes which
l.ad hitherto lavored Russia. This accession of power rendered necessaiy some change
in the government; a chil and a crimir.al ( ode "were promulgated, a regular system of
taxation established, and Dargo was made the capital of this Caucasian monarchy, the
population of which KOAV (1844) exceeded 1,COO,COU. But the Russians, under prince
\\cronzoff, having changed their tidies, assailed the ce untry on various points at
<hc :rn!C time, and the r.dvance gained was secured by chains of forts. The fortune
ff wnr, however, steadily alternated till 1852, when Bariatinsky compelled Shamyl to
conii! T himself to the defensive, and deprived him of his victi rious prestige. Some of
the tribes now returned under Russian ;.utl:oiity, and f-Lamyl (probably owing to his
diminished power and resources) was unable te> lake advantage of the diversion in his



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 93 of 203)