Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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favor afforded bv the Crimean Mar, after the conclusion of v hich the Russians resumed
their j.ttacks with more energy, opened a road over the mountains, thus cutting off one
portion of the ] atriots and compelling their frulmission. The following year was ttill
more disastrous; 100 villages were destroyed, the inhabitants transplanted to Russian
districts, and Shamyl himself defeated, Aug. 11. On April 12, 1859, his chief strong-
hold, AYeelen, was taken after a seven weeks' siege, and Jiis authority, except over the
small band of followers who still devotedly julhcred to him, was wholly destroyed. For
several months he was a me-re guerrilla e-hi( f, l.untcd from fastness to fastness, till at last
(Sept. G, 1S59) he was surprised on the plateau of Gounib, and Jifter a desperate resist-
ance, in which his 400 followers were reduced to 47, he was captured. His wives anei
treasure were spared to him. and he was sent to St. Petersburg, where he experit need a
generous reception fre>m the czar. A few d.-ys afterward lie was assigned a residence at
Kaluga, with a pension of 10.000 rubles. Thence he went in 1870 to Mecca, remaining
a parole prisoner of the Russian government; ai.d died at Medina in Mar., 1871, in the
74th year of his age.

SHANGHAI , the most important maritime city of China, situated on the Mt bank of
tho Ilwangpoo orWoosung river, 12m. from where it debouches into the southern portion
of the mouth of theYnng -tse-Kiang, in hit. 31 14' n., and long. 121 30' e. Though it is now
one of the first emporiums of commerc'c in the east, only a quarter of a century ago it wa
but a third-rate Chinese town. It is a Jict-nor district city, having a wall 3 m. in eircuit,
through which 6 gate's open into extensive suburbs. The low alluvial p'ffin on which it
is situated is of gre-at extent, and intersected by innumerable creeks, which environ the
walls, and permeate the city in various directions. It is a dirty, poorly-built town, the
houses arc brick, the streets are very narrow, anel constantly crowded with people. Few
of the buildings rise above the low walls of the city; the only conspicuous objects are the
the Roman Catholic cathedral, a massive edifice, auel the lofty spire of the Baptist chapcL
The temples present the same general appearance met with in all Chinese cities. Every city
has its e-hing-liwnng, or temple of the tutelary goels: that of Shanghai is in a picturesque
position on a rocky islet, surroundeel by a serpentine sheet of water, which is crossed by
zigzag bridges. A little further down the river stand the foreign settlements, Erglisli,
French, anel American. The whole of the mercantile honyx are built upoi. the English
concession; while the French concession is mainly occupied by go-downs, wharves, and



Chinese houses. There are no French merchants iu Shanghai. The river in front of
the Chinese town is thronged with junks, lushed side by side for a couple of miles. The
reach iu front of the foreign settlement was formerly crowded with sailing-vessels; but
since tlie opening of the Suez canal, the steamers of the P. and O. steam nn\igalion com-
pany and of private companies have largely taken their place. Lower down aie the
ship-yards, machine-shops, and dry-docks, which foreign commerce has called iulo
existence; and here the Chinese government has at work an arsenal where war-vc-sci-t
of the largest tonnage are built and equipped. Under the arrangement by which the
foreign custom-house dues arc collected by foreigners, facilities have been created for
the navigation of the Yang-tse by stationing a light-ship, buoys, and signals, rendering
safer the approach to this important mart. One or two light-houses have also been
recently erected, giving additional security to vessels entering and leaving the port.
There area chamber of commerce, reading-room, library, and literary institution noth-
ing being wanting to render the port of Shanghai the metropolis of eastern commerce.
The municipal government of the foreign settlement is highly creditable to the mercan-
tile traders. Several gentlemen are elected annually by the land-holders, for the pur-
poses of local government police, public improvements, and repairs requiring much.
management, and entailing much expense, the funds for which are obtained by taxation.
Shanghai H also the seat of various missions for converting the natives the schools,
dispensaries, and other benevolent objects meeting with generous support from foreign
merchants. The products of Shanghai itself are not of much value, but the city is a
most important entrepot for goods passing between the n. and s. provinces of China, as
well as for the imports and exports from and to foreign countries. It was iu the pos-
session of the Tae-pkig rebels from 185 ! to 1855, and The prosperity both of the nalivo
town And the foreign settlements was in peril fora time; but it enormously advanced
after their expulsion the English quarter in particular becoming a refuge for the Chi-
nese from all parts of the provincj of Kiang-3J, which the Tae-pings continued to deso-
late up to 1882. The trade; of the port increased threefold between the years 1860 and
18i53; and tlrs incrcass was d;i in a great measure to the large and increasing trada
from the ports opened on the Yang-tsj in Chinese pro luce of all descriptions. In 1S?.>
the entrances an.l clearances at the port werj 3,851: vessels, of 2,594.171 tons; the
Imports, foreign and coastwise, amounted to 1:3,99 J,2J8; and the exports to 10.y<30.340.
The articles of import and export are of a moU miscellaneous description; the chief
articles of import being opium. English cotton and woolen goods, and metals; and of,
exports, tea and silk. Great quantities of the opium imported into Shanghai are re-ex-
ported to the other parts of China. The mercantile importance of Shanghai has increased
greatly through the opening of the Yang-tse river to coaimerce. In 1876 the first railway
in China was opened from Shanghai to Kangwang, b:it it has since been bought up b/
the government and closed. The population is estimated at 250,000.

SHANNON, the largest of the rivers of Ireland, rises in (he Cuileagh mountains,
county of Cavan, anil after a course of 200 m. falls into the Atlantic ocean between the
headlands of Loop and Kerry Head. It is commonly divi led in'o two portions, tho
upper Shannon from its source to Limerick, and the lower Shannon from Limerick to
the sea, a distance of 5i> mik's. In its upper course it passes from i!s source in Cavan
to lough Allen in the county of Leitrim; thenco through a difficult channel, where the
navigation is in part transferred to a can il. to a small extension called Corry lough, and
with alternations of river and lake, to lough Forbes, in the county of Longford, on leaving
which the river for a time attains an average, width of 250 yards as far as Lanesbor-
ough. Here il is again merged in a lake called lough Re. which stretches 10 m. south-
ward to within 2 in. of Atldonc. At this point great natural difficulties have been over-
come, and the course of the river, by Shannon harbor and Portumna, an 1 through tho
picturesque lough Derg to Kill doe, has bsen eo deepened and improved that a regular
passenger anfl goods truffle "is maintained. From Killaloe to Limerick the navigation.
owing to the rapid fall, is again in part transferred to a canal. On approaching Limerick
the river diviJes into two branches, and on the island thus formed stands what is known
as the Irish town, in contradistinction to the English town, of Limerick. From tho
city, where an extensive and commodious range of quays hr.a been built to the sea, tho
Shannon is navigable to sea-going vessels; mid though near the city very shallow nt low
water, the navigation for the lost 40 m, is free at all times of the tide." The entrance
between Kerry Head and Loop is 7 in. across. Al>out 10 m. from the entrance the river
narrows to about a mile and a half in width. At present, however, the outward navi-
gation commences at Foynes. whHi is connected by railway with Limerick, and from
which steamboats daily ply to Kilrush, Tarbert, and the intermediate stations. Sev-
eral rivers of considerable size-fall into the Shannon during its course, as the Suck, iho
Brosna. the Fergus, tho Maigue, nnd the Fealc. The improvement of the Shannon was
commenced under the Irish parliament. In 1887 the work was placed under a board of
commissioners, by whom a sum of more than half a million was expended. It has since
teen transferred to the board of works or local government board. The navigation is
open from the head of lough Allen to Limerick, a distance of 143 m. in a direct course,
but by the addition of the Boyle branch of 9 m . and the Strokestown branch of (5 m., n
total length of river and canal navigation of 158 m. is now open, over 129 m. of which

A(~\~\ Shannon.


large river steamers freely ply. This important system of navigation, which occupies a
position almost midway between the e. and w. coasts of Ireland, is connected with Dub-
lin by means of the Grand and Hoval canals. The amount of tolls, etc., received in
lar9 x\us 2,71)1; and in 1875-6, 3,809; expenditure in 1875-6, 3,274.

SHANNON, a co. in s. Missouri, drained by the Current river and Jack's fork; about
1000 sq.' m. ; pop. '80, 3,441 3,430 of American birth. The surface is hilly and heavily
wooded. The soil is fertile. The principal productions are hay and corn. Co. seat

SHANNY, a species of acanthopterous fish belonging to the family blcnnidceor blen-
iiies. See BI.KNNY, ante. The shauny is bleu mutt p/wim. In this species all the rays of
the dorsal tin are of nearly equal length except the eleventh and twelfth, wljich are short
There are 31 dorsal rays, 13 pectoral, 2 ventral, 19 anal, and 11 caudal. The color is
very variable, of shades of brown. They are distinguished from other species by the
absence of appendages of the head.

SHAN-SE (West of the Hills), a province of n.w. China, is of rugged surface, and lies
on the western limits of the plain, lu the n. are imperial hunting-grounds. It supplies
the purest iron ore and the best coal in China, besides cinnabar, copper, marble, and
other minerals.

SHAN STATES, a number of tributary states in Indo-China, lying between Munnipur
.on the w. and Yun nan on the e.. and from the parallel of 24 n. lat. s. to Buukok and
Cambodia. Of these the northern states are tributary to Bunnah (q.v )aud thesouthern
to Siarn (q.v.). A great portion of the mountainous region of these states is called the
Laos country. The Laos races are divided into two curiously distinct subdivisions.
The northern race, beyond the uorthei n frontier of Siain, are called black-beilicx, from
the circumstance that they tattoo themselves with figures in ink, printed on their bodies
with sharp needle-like points; the southern race, mostly on ami within the eastern fron-
tier of Siam and tributary to that kingdom, are called wlute-beltteis, and do not tattoo.
Xieug Mai. the capital of Laos, stands on a wide plain on the right bank of UieMeinain,
600 m. n. of Bankok, and is said to contain 50,000 inhabitants. The number of Laoci-
ans included in Siam alone is estimated at 1,000, 000. They are meek, gentle, unwarlike,
and superstitious. Their chief employment is agriculture; and the principal crops
raised by them are rice, maize, the sweet potato, calabashas, red pepper, melons, and
other fruits. In religion they are Buddhists.

SIIAN-TOONG, a province in n.e. China, on the Yellow sea; 65,100 sq.m. ;pop. 41,-
700,621. The surface is very mountainous and not very fertile. The principal river is
the Hoang-Ho, emptying info the gulf of Pe-chi-li; the province is traversed also from
e. to n. by the great canal. The products are millet, wheat, indigo, silk, and hemp.
The chief towns are Tsi-nan, the capital, Yen-chow, Tsing-chow, Sai-chow, and Woo-

SHA'PINSHAY, one of the Orkney islands, about 5 m. n.e. of Kirkwall. It is 5 in.
long and 4 m. in extreme breadth. The fine natural harbor of Elwick bay on the s.
side is overlooked by a pleasant modern village. Pop. '71, 949.

SHARI, (i. e., river), the principal feeder of lake Tsad or Tchad (q.v.).

SIIARJA.'a t., capital of the province of Sharja, Arabia: on the Persian gulf, about
215m. n.w. of Muscat; pop. estimated at 25,000. The harbor is poor, but the port is
the chief import city for Persia. Weaving is the main occupation of the inhabitants,
and quantities of the oriental tapestries, cloaks, curtains, carpets, etc., are made. The
principal building is the government treasury.

SHARK, Squuhift, a Linna?an genus of cartilaginous fishes, now forming in Mllllcr's
system a suborder of playioxtomi (q.v.). and divided into a number of families and many
genera. The sharks have generally an elongated form, tapering gradually to the tail/
and not much thickened in the middle. The muzzle projects over the mouth; the
nostril-; are situated on the under-side of the muzzle. The males have claspers. The
gill-openings are lateral. There is no cartilage between the snout and the pectoral fin,
as in the rays. Some of the sharks are ovoviviparous; others la) 7 eggs, generally a pair
at a time, more being produced in succession. The eggs are large in comparison with
those of osseous fishes, and are of a square or oblong form, with a tough horny coat,
each corner prolonged into a tendril, the tendrils being apparently of use for their
entanglement among sea-weeds. These eggs, or at least their empty cases, are very
freqifcntly cast up by the waves on the sea-beach, and are popularly known as tea
piirse* or mermaids' purses. Near the head of the inclosed embryo there is a slit in the
case through which water enters for respiration, and there is another at the opposite end,
by which it is discharged. The young fish ruptures the case at the head, where it is
weaker than at any other part, and on issuing from it, carries a yolk bag attached to its
belly for its nourishment until it is able to seek food. At this stage of its existence, its
respiration is also aided by filaments projecting from the gills through the gill-opening's,
which are absorbed as it grows older. The teeth are generally large, sharp, and formed
for cutting, with the edge often serrated; but in the genus ceatracion (q.v.) the teeth are

Sharon. Aftfi


pavement-like; and in some genera they are small and numerous. The angel-fish (q.v.|

ranked among the sharks, but differs" from tiie rest in its flattened form. "Some of the

In ll.c
some of

ly remains here to notice a few of the more interesting
of those which do not come under any of these heads.

The WHITE SHARK, Carcharia vulgaris, is the most dreaded of all the monsters of
the deep. The family carcharidcE, to which it belongs, have two dorsal fins, the first
dorsal placed over the space between the pectoral and ventral fins; they have a nicti-
tating membrane; and have no spout-holes. In the genus caretmrins the snout ia
flattened. The white shark attains a great size; one has been caught of 37 ft. m length.
The body is covered with a hard skin, and is grayish-brown above and whitish In low.
It is a very rare visitant of the British coasts, if 'indeed another species has not been
mistaken for it; but is found in the Mediterranean, and is plentiful in the seas of many
of the warmer parts of the world, often following ships to feed on any animal substance
that may be thrown or ma)' fall overboard, aiid often in its indiscriminate voracity
swallowing things which are indigestible. A lady's work-box has been found in a
shark's stomach; and the papers of a slave-ship, which had bein thrown overboard, in
that of another. Human beings are not unfrequently its prey, and a large shark is not
only capable of biting off the limb of a man, but of snapping" the body in two, and has
even been known to swallow a man entire. Its head is largeTthe mouth large and wide;
furnished with a terrible apparatus of teeth, of which there are six rows in the upper
jaw and four in the lower; the teeth are triangular, sometimes 2 in. in breadth, tharp-
edged, and serrated; when not in use they are laid back in the mouth, nearly flat, but
when the shark bites they are brought up oral least those of the outer rows by mc-ima
of muscles with which each tooth is independently provided. The tail, as in all the
sharks, is heterocercal, but its lobes are more nearly equal than in most of them. The
shark is often captured by sailors, by means of a great hook baited with a piece of meat,
and attached to a chain, as the shark's teeth readily bile through any rope. When the
shark is hooked and hauled on board, great care is requisite to avoid danger both from
the mouth and from the tail, the powerful action of the latter being generally interrupted
by a sailor springing forward and cutting it above the fin with a hatchet. A cunous
method of catching the shark is practiced in the South Sea Islands; a log of wood is set
afloat with a strong rope attached to it. at the end of which is a noose, and the sharks
gathering about it as if from curiosity, one of them may be expected soon to get its
head into the noose, and is at last wearied out by the log. Formidable as the si. ark is,
Vnen have sometimes successfully braved it in its own element, watching its turning
as from the posiiion of its mouth it must do to seize its prey, and stabbing it in the

The BLUE SHARK, Carcliarias glavcus, is much smaller than the white shark, seldom
exceeding 8 ft. in length. It is also of a more slender form. The upper parts are of a
blue color, the belly white. This species is common in the Mediterranean and in the
warmer parts of the Atlantic. It is not unfrequent on the south-western coasts of
England in summer, apparently coming in pursuit of pilchards, and often doing great
mischief to the nets and lines of fishermen, its sharp teeth biting through a net or line
with the utmost ease.

The BASKING SHARK. Selache maxima, belongs to the family lamnida, having two
dorsal fins, spout-holes, and no nictitating membrane. The snout of the basking shark
is short and blunt; the teeth are small, numerous, conical, and curved backward. The
skin is much rougher than in the white shark and blue shark. This species attains a
great size, being sometimes 36 ft. long, but it is not so thick in proportion as the white
shark. It is of a blackish-brown color, glossed with blue. It does not exhibit a fero-
cious character, and is supposed to feed on medusae, crustaceans, and the like. It is
often seen swimming slowly with its dorsal fin above the surface of the water, whence
it has obtained the name of sail-fish. It permits itself to be quite closely approached by
a boat, but on being struck with a harpoon it plunges suddenly down, and swims off
with great rapidity, so that its capture is attended with danger. It is not uncommon ou
the northern and "western coasts of Britain.

The GREENLAND SHARK, Scymmist bmeali*, is of the family scymm'dce. It Las large
spout-holes, two dorsal fins, no anal fin, and no nictitating membrane. It inhabits tl.e
northern seas, and is rarely seen so far south as even the northern Scottish islands. It
attains a length of 14 feet or more, is thick, and tapers suddenly at the toil; the fins very
small; the teeth in both jaws so arranged as to diverge from a center. It bites a: d
annoys whales, but feeds also on small fishes and crustaceans. When a whale has been
killed, a shark will often come even whilst men are occupied in cutting off the bh'b! c-r,
and scoop out one great lump after another, and will return to its repast after Laving
been severely wounded.

The rough skin of sharks is employed by joiners for polishing fine-grained wood, r.i d
for covering the hilts of swords to make them firmer in the grasp. The flesh is corne,
but is sometimes eaten. The fins abound in gelatine, and are much used by the Chi' '. ro
for making a rich gelatinous soup. Dried sharks' fins are a considerable jirtirl^ < f
import into China. The liver yields a large quantity of oil, which is now also, in srrr.e

A A H Sharon.

* U Sharp.

par's of the world, nn article of commerce. For the sake of this oil a shark fishery is
prosecuted on the coast of Ceylon.

Foxxil, xiturL* make their first appearance in the oolitic rocks, from which eight
species have been described. They become more numerous in the cretaceous deposits,
iu \vl!k'!i no less than GO species have been found. In the tertiary strata, their remains
are still more abundant. But as the determination of fossil species depends entirely on
the teetii, whuli, whh the exception of the spines and vertebra 1 , are the only portions
preserved, u is probable that the species and genera are too greatly multiplied.

SHARON, a borough in w. Pennsylvania, in Mercer co on the Sheuaugo river; pop.
6 500 It is on the Erie and Pittsburg railroad, at the s.e. terminus of The Mahoning
division nf tlu; Atlantic and Great Western railroad, connecting it with Cleveland. It
contains churches, 4 hotels, a lire department, a masonic hall 4 banks, a national and
a savings bank, public schools, a daily newspaper and 2 weeklies. It is in the vicinity
of rich coal mines, and contains manufactories of iron, lumber, and nails, blast fur-
naces, 2 extensive foundries, and niachiue-shops.

SHARON", WILLIAM, 1>. Smithfield, Ohio; studied law, went into the banking busi-
ness in Nevada, was trustee of the bank of California in San Francisco, ;:ma>sed a large
fortune in Nevada silver mining, and was elected U. S. senator from Nevada in 1876.

SHARON" SPRINGS, a village of Sharon township, Schoharie co., N. Y., about 60
m. n.w. of Albany, on a branch of the Albany andJSusquehanna railroad; pop. '70, 520.
The place is noted as having several mineral springs of medicinal value. It lies in a
beautiful valley and is a pleasant resort.

SHARP, a sign % in music, which, when prefixod to a note, elevates it by a semitone

in the scale, raising, for example, F e-v-' - to F sharp h/Jryr : . When placed at

the beginning of a piece of music, it denotes that all the notes on the line or space on
which it is placed, and their octaves above and below, are to be played sharp. A double
sharp X raises a note two semitones.

SHARP, GKANVILLE. 1734-1813; b. England; abandoned the study of law for a
place in the ordnance oilice. He soon became interested in behalf of the slave. West
India planters being accustomed, after bringing slaves to England, to carry them back
or sell them to others for that destination, great hardship resulted. Sharp rescued
several individuals, and in 1772 he obtained the decision of the English judges in the
famous case of the negro Somerset, that as soon as a slave sets his foot on English
ground he becomes free. From that time he devoted himself to the destruction of
slavery and the slave trade, writing and publishing many pamphlets and books. He
wa> chairman of the meeting in 178" / which formed the "association for the abolition of
negro slavery;" was one of the founders of the colony of Sierra Leone; opposed impress-
ment of seamen, and advocated parliamentary reform.

SHARP. JAMES, Archbishop of St. Andrews, vras the son of William Sharp, sheriff-
clerk of BanlTshire. and was born in the castle of Banff, May, 1618. Educated for the
church at the university of Aberdeen, where he attained distinction as a student, and
where he is said (on the authority of a tract, entitled A True and Impartial Account of
the Life of the Moxt lieccrcnd Father in God, Dr. James S/uirp, Archbishop of St. Andrew*,
published in 1719) to have protested against the "Solemn League and Covenant;" he
afterward visited England, and became acquainted with several eminent English
divines, such as Hammond, Sanderson, and Taylor. Returning to Scotland, he 'was
appointed a professor of philosophy at St. Andrews, through the influence of the earl
of Rothes, and soon after minister of the parish of Crail. an" office which he held during
the ascendency of Cromwell. In Aug., 1651, v.-hen Monk was reducing Scotland to
obedience, he was carri-ed off, along with several other ministers, to England. Sharp
quickly regained his liberty, and he possessed, for some years, the confidence of the
more moderate party in' the church. In 1656 he was chosen by them to plead their
cause in London before the protector against the rev. James Guthrie, a leader of the
extreme section (the protestors or remonstrators), which he did with so much dexterity
that Cromwell is reported to have said: "That gentleman, alter the Scotch way, ought
to be termed Sharp of that ilk." When the restoration was on the eve of happening,

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 94 of 203)