Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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Sharp was appointed by the moderate party to act as its representative in the negotia-
tions opened up wirli Monk and the king. This is the crucial period of his career, and
on the view v-3 take of his motives depends our whole estimate of his character. Was
he sincere, or did he mean to betray the church to which he owed allegiance? Presby-
terian writers are nearly unanimous in affirming his perfidy, although the evidence is
doubtful. Among the first things the Scottish parliament that met Jan. 1, 1661,
did, was to repeal or rescind every act passed since 1638, in consequence of which
Episcopacy remained the church of Scotland, as "settled by law" a dishonorable eva-
sion of a promise made by Charles in a letter written -to the presbytery of Edinburgh
in Aug., 1660. Soon after, at a council held in Whitehall, Sharp was nominated
archbishop of St. Andrews, and having gone up to London, he was there formally con-


Becrated by the bisKop of London and three other prelates. Tlis government of the
Scottish church was tyrannical and oppressive; and iu consequence he became an object
of hatred to most of his coimtryrm u. AVhen one Mitchell, a convenlicle preacher,
tired a pistol at him in the streets of Edinburgh, the populace allowed the intending
assassin to walk quietly off, without making a single effort to arrest him. Finally
fcharp was assassinated on Magus moor, near St. Andrews, May 3, 1679, by a band of
fanatical covenanters. In defense of bharp, the utmost that can be said is that l:e vvr.s
simply sin ambitious ecclesiastic (of plausible and courtly manners), who had uo belief
3i the "divine right" of presbytery, and who thought that if England were resolved to
1 main Episcopalian, it would be very much better if Scotland were to adopt the same
jjrmof church government, and that if there must be an archbishop of St. Andrews,
there was no reason why lie should not be the person. This theory is certainly a more
t-ober one than the usual melodramatic covenanting view, which makes him out to be
" a conscious villain," who persecuted his old friends the more fiercely that he knew
they were in the right and he in the wrong.

SHARP, JOHN, D.D., 1644-1713; b. England; graduated at Cambridge in 1G60;
ordained in 1667; became domestic-chaplain to sir Heneage Finch, attorney-general;
archdeacon of Berkshire, 1672; prebendary in the cathedral church of .Norwich, 1075;
rector of bt. Bartholomew, London, 1676; dean of Norwich, 1681; chaplain to Charles
II., and court-chaplain at the coronation of .lames,ll. in 1688; was suspended by the
king for preaching iu 1686 against the claim of the Roman Catholic church to be called
" the only visible Catholic church; " dean of Canterbury, 1689, and bishop of York, 1G91.
In 1702 he preached at the coronation of queen Anne, and was made lord-almoner to her
majesty. His sermons were published iu 7 volumes after his death.

SHARPS, a co. in n.e. Arkansas, having the state line of Missouri for its extreme
n. boundary; 500 sq.m.; pop. 't'O, 9,047 9,023 of American birth, 176 colored. It is
drained by Spring river, and Strawberry creek, tributaries of the Black river. Its sur-
face is hilly, largely covered with timber, and the soil produces cotton, corn, and outs.
Live stock is raised. Iron, lead, and zinc are found in the high ridges of hills which
cross it. Co. seat, Evening Shades.

SHARPS, CHRISTIAN, 1811-74; b. N. J. ; became a scientific machinist, and was the
inventor of the Sharps rifle for military and sporting uses, and of other improvements in
fire-arms. The manufacture of the rifle was begun i.t Hartford in 1G54.

8HAE? SHOOTEES, an old term applied in the army to riflemen. It is now appropri-
ated .o naval use, to the men stationed in the top to annoy those on the deck of an
enemy's vessel.

SHASTA, a co. in n. California, having tlio Shasta mountains of the Coast ranre for
its w. boundary; drained by the headwaters < f the Sacramento and Pitt rivers; 4,200 sq.
m.; pop. '80. 9,492 7,238 of American birth, 2,426 colored. It is intersected by the
Oregon division of the Central Pacific, railroad. In the s.e. are Lassen's peak, altitude
10,577ft. above the level of the sea; Magee's peak, and Crater mountain belonging to
the Sierra Nevada range. The climate in the valleys is pieasant. The hill's are covered
ivith fir, pine, and redwood, and cottonwood trees grow by the rivers. The soil of the
bottom lands is fertile, yielding large crops of barley, wheat, fruit, and dairy products.
The vine is largely cultivated, and in one year 19.287 gallons of wine wer. 1 mad'-. Gold,
B'lver, and copper are mined, and there are underlying strata of granite and limestone.
Ii contains hot springs, and has Hour, saw, and quartz mills. Co. scat, Shasta.

SHASTRA. or SHASTER, but more correctly written S'fistra (from the Sanskrit s'di, to
teach), means literally a book; but the term is especially applied to the autJioritotive,
religious, and legal, books of the Hindus. See SANSKRIT LITERATURE.


8IIATTUCK, GEORGE CHEYNE, LL.D., 1783-1854; b. Mass., graduated at Dartmouth
college. 1803; became an eminent physician of Boston, president of the Massachusetts
medical society, and author of several professional works; built an observatory for Dart-
mouth college, and contributed liberally toils library; aided largely in the establishment
of the Shattuck collegiate boarding-school at Faribault. Minn., under the direction of
t'.ie Protestant Episcopal church; and at his death left $60,000 to charitable objects.


SHAW, HENRY W., b. Mass., 1818. When fifteen yeors old he went to the west and
there engaged in farming and as an auctioneer. In 1858 he settled at Pouch keepsie. N.
Y., where he has since lived. Under the nom deplume of "Josh Billings" lie has
printed many popular comic sketches, and collections of proverbs embodying much
practical wisdom in quaint speech. He has :\]<o had some success as a comic lecturer.

SHAW, LEMUEL, LL.D., 1781-1861 ; b. Mass. ; educated at Harvard, and admitted to
the bar. lie was a member of the state legislature, 1811-16, and a<rain in 1819; of the
state constitutional convention in 1820, and' of the state senate, 1821-22. 1828, si ml 1829.
lie was chief-justice of Massachusetts, 1830-60. He is usually considered the ablest
judge that ever sat in a New England court; and his decisions (particularly in the

4.0Q Sharp.


department of real property) have had much effect on the growth of thn iaw, and are still
quoted as authority.

SHAW, ROBEIIT GOULD, 177G-185C; b. Maine; engaged in business in Boston, and
acquired a large fortune. He bequeathed i; 10, CIO to bo accumulated r.slhe "Shaw
fund" till it amounts to 400,000, \viien, it is to Le, applied to the endowment <;f an insti-
tution lor mariners' children. .

SHAW, KOBEUT GOULD, 1837-03; b. Boston; grandson of Robert Gould, the phi-
lanthropist ; graduate of Harvard university, 1800. In the war of the rebellion lie enlisted
as a private in the New York 7th regiment April, ISol; transferred i:i May to the Mas-
eachuseUs 2d., witli the rank of 2d lieut.; capt. Aug. 10; col. 54th Mass.. 1FGO; com-
mander of the first colored regiment from the north; killed at fort W:>.gner while
gallantly leading his colored troops in the assault.

SHAVv'. SAMUEL, 1754-94; b. Boston; in early life a clerk, but at the beginning of
the revolution became a lieut. of artillery and served with great credit at Yorktown
smd elsewhere. After the peace he made a voyage to China, returned and was in tide
lirst-secH'tary of the war department, lii 1780 he was made consul at Canton. His
journal vviiu a memoir by Josiah Quincy was printed, 1847.

SHAW, THOMAS, D.D., 1692-1751 ; b. England ; educated at Queen's college, Oxford.
After acting for several years s;s chaplain to the English factory at Algieiv. he traveled in
northern Airica. Palestine, and Asia Minor, returning to England in 1734. In 1740 he
became priin.-ip.:! <;f St. Edmund's hall, Oxford, regius professor of Greek, and vicar of
Bramley, Hampshire.

SHAWA'. N xO, a co. in n.e. Wisconsin; drained by Wolf, Oconto, Tied, and Embarras
rivers; about 1500 sq.m.; pop. 'bO, 10,3716,354 of American Lirih. The surface is
mostly woodland. The principal productions are wheat, oats, and lumber. Co. seat,

SHAV/I-HAI'nJFACTTTRE. Perhaps no garment is of higher antiquity than the f-hawl;
indeed, its s-iaipliciiy of form would lead us to infer that it was the earliest in use. But
of its manufacture we have no distinct account until the reign of the emperor Jelal-cd-din-
Mohamimd Akliar, in 1556, when the celebrated Cashmere shawls were among the most
important manufactures of the world. :ind were thought worthy to be minutely described
in the Ayin-i-S.kbKri, or the "institutes of the emperor." In that work four distinct
classes of shawls, all of goat's wool, are described. The first were of remarkable light-
ness and softness, ; nd were usually self-colored, and made of the wool undyed; the sec-
ond were woven of wool in the natural colors viz., while, black, and gray these were
probably arranged so as to form a plaid pattern similar to the shepherd's plaid of Scot-
land, which is of oriental origin; the third were called gold-leaved, probably from being
embroidered with that material; and the fourth were long shawl-pieces large enough to
inwrap (he whole body. So carefully was this manufacture fostered that it received the
chief attention < f the emperor, and every shawl manufactured was carefully described
and regi>tered, and the number of manulacturers was so great that in Lahore alone it is
stated there wre upward of 1000. The manufacture, in later times, passed through
many vicissitudes, and during last century it declined greatly; but in lbC9it had again
risen, and there were then about 16,000 looms at work. From 2,000 to 3 000 of these
beautiful fabrics are annually imported into Gr<at Britain; but the admirable imitations
now produced by our Paisley manufacturers, and by the French, arc exerting great
i:i!lueiu-e ov-.-r the trade. The true Cashmere shawls are woven in many pieces, and
joined together with great artistic skill; those of Britain and France are, however, woven
in one piece, the loom being worked by hand, and of course furnished with a Jacquard
machine for the production 'of the pattern. Besides the Cashmere shawls and their Euro-
pean imiialions there is an infinite variety of shawls made of various materials r.s silk
plain, embroidered, and in the form of crape; thread, cotton, and silk lace; and wool in
a great variety of styles.

SHAWNEE'. a co. in n.e. Kansas, traversed by the Kansas river; 600 sq.m.; pop. '80,
29,092 6,124 of American birth, 5.441 colored. It is drained by the Wakarusa river,
and Soldier and Cross creeks. It is intersected by the Kansas Pacific, and the Atchison,
Topeka and Santa Fe railroad. Its surface is nearly level, the streams flowing through
prairies of great fertility, producing corn, oats, potatoes, and dairy products, its min-
eral products are hitv.minous coal, and limestone. It has book-binderies, and manu-
factures of carriages, and wagons, furniture, machinery, metallic- wares, etc. Co. seat,

SHAWNEES. The name of a tribe belonging to the Algonquin family, which
extended about the middle of the 17th c. from lake Erie s. as far as Florida, and n portion
of which was in Pennsylvania at the time of tlie Penn settlement. In Carolina they
were known as the Savannahs, or Semassees. Early in the 18th e. they allied them-
selves with the French, though formerly friendly with the English, and assisted them
in the war with the latter. In 1758, however, they renewed their friendship with the
English, and were engaged in opposition to the Virginians in 1774. who, however,
defeated them. After the peace of 1786, being still influenced by the English, they took

Shays's. 41


part in the Miami war, fought Harmar and St. Clair, and were finally reduced by gen.
"\Vavne, and made peace in 1795. They were now located on the Scioto, though a por-
tion of them were in Missouri on lands obtained from the Spaniards. During the war
of ic$12 some of them were again won over by the English, and joined with Tecumseh
in endeavoring to bring about a general Indian uprising against the Americans. The
number of the Shawueesis about 800, on agencies in Indian territory.

SHAYS'S REBELLION, under Ihe leadership of Daniel Shays, in w. Massachusetts
in 1786-87, involving nearly 2,000 men on the side of the insurgents. The outbreak \va
occasioned by general popular dissatisfaction at the pressure of taxation, the burdensome
salaries of state officials, and the scarcity of money at the close of the revolutionary war.
A p:iper currency issue was demanded, riotous action took place in several counties, and
Shays himself, with a considerable of followers, endeavored to gain possession of
the arsenal at Springfield, but was driven off by the militia and a force under com-
mand of gen. Lincoln. Of 150 who were captured, 14 were tried and sentenced to
death, but afterward pardoned. Shays was also pardoned, after being hidden away
for a considerable period, and retired to Sparta, N. Y., where he died in 1825. He was
born in Massachusetts in 1747, was a sergeant at Bunker Hill, and rose to be capt. during
the revolution.


SHEA, JOHN D. GILMARY, LL.D., b. New York, 1824; educated at the grammar-
school of Columbia college, and admitted to the bar, but gave himself chiefly to his-
torical subjects. He has written numerous works, mainly on American history; tho
most important of which are The Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi Valley;
History of the Catholic Missions among the In Han Tribes of th-3 United States; The Fallen
Brave; Early Voyages up and down t/ie Mississippi; Tlie Operations of the French Fleet
under Count de Grasse; Washington's Private Diary; translation of Cbarlevoix's History
of Nsw France. He has published Roman Catholic prayer-books and school histories,
prepared the Catholic Almanac, edited the Historical Magazine, and written much for the
publications of historical societies. In his department of history he bolda high rank for
accuracy ajid research.

SHEAFER, PETER WENRICK, b. Penn., 1819; son of Henry Sheafer; pursued his
early studies at Oxford academy, N. Y. His father introduced the Lykens Valley coal
into the market in 1834, ami employed him in iiis mining operations until in 1838 he par-
ticipated in the first geological survey of Pennsylvania, fed by prof. H. D. Rogers, being
especially useful in the vicinity of the Second mountain. In 1848 he took up his resi-
dence in Pottsville. He managed the Philadelphia and Reading coal and iron company,
and the Girard mines of the city of Philadelphia. He has visited the British provinces and.
the Deep River coal lands of North Carolina, has given lectures at Lafayette college and
other institutions. He was the originator of the first state survey of Pennsylvania in
1849, and the succeeding one in 1873 owed its organization to him.

SHEAFFE, Sir ROGER HALE, 1763-18TI; b. Boston; entered the British army in
1778. He served through the war of 1812, commanding the British at the battle of
Queenstown after the death of gen. Brock, and conducting the defense of York (now
Toronto). He was made gen. in 1828.

SHEARING-MACHINE, a machine used in the preparation of woven woolen fabrics.

SHEARS of various kinds are among the implements used in gardening. They are
scissors on a large scale, variously modified to suit their various purposes, such as prun-
ing trees, hedges, box-edgings, the verges of grass plots, etc. They arc often furnished
with long wooden handles, and a spring is sometimes fixed between the handles. A
kind used for removing small branches of fruit-trees has one blade made to slide along the
other while they are brought together, so that it makes a cut as clean and smooth as that
of a knife.


, SHEARWATER, Puffinus, a genus of proceVarida (see PETREL), differing from petrels
in having the tip of the lower mandible curved downward, and the nostrils opening
separately and not by a common tube. The bill is as long as the head, or longer, the
upper mandible compressed and curved at the point. The legs are of moderate length,
the tarsi compressed, the hind-toe rudimentary. The wings are long and pointed. Tho
shearwaters spend their lives mostly on the ocean, rarely visiting the shore except for
the purpose of incubation. The GREATER, WANDERING, or CINEREOUS SHEARWATER
(P. cinereu* or major) is about 18 inches long, the upper parts blackish brown ; the
throat, breast, and belly gray. Young birds are entirely brown, the upper parts darkest.
This species is frequently seen on the s.w. coasts of Britain. It is very abundant on
those of Newfoundland. The MANX SHEARWATER (P. Anglnrwni) is much more common
on the Britisli coasts, and is found a'so in more northern regions. It is about 14 inches
long, grayish black, the neck mottled with gray, the throat and all the under parts
white. It breeds on islets, in rabbit burrows, or in crevices of the rocks. There are


several other species in warmer climates. The name shearwater is sometimes also given
to the skimmers.

SHEATH-BILL, CJiionis, a genus of birds of the family chionid-E, placed by many
naturalists among the grallce, but by others regarded as belonging to the yalunacevus
order, aud ranked by Mr. Swuinson among coi,umbid(3. The legs are stout and mod-
erately long, the toes much resemble those of the common fowl, but the fore-toes ;;re
united at the base. The bill is thick and conical, and the base is covered by a horny
sheath, which the bird has the power of raising and depressing. The WHITE SHEATII-
BILL (0. alba) irhabits the shores of Australia, New Zealand, aud neighboring islands,
and feeds on mollusks, crustaceans, and whatever animal substance is thrown up by the
waves. It is about the size of a partridge.

SHEATHING is a protection for the wooden planking of the immersed portion of
a ship from the attacks of the teredo and other worms, mollusks, and marine animals,
which, especially in hot climates, adhere to the bottom and eat into the timber, while
they retard the vessel's progress. As early as the time of Trajan sheets of lead were used
as sheathing. Thin deal boards, about half an inch thick, were in more modern times
nailed on and frequently changed; but about the commencement of the present cen-
tury plates of copper were introduced, which have been found most effectual, though
expensive. The gradual oxidation of the copper by the action of the sea-water pro-
duces a sort of poison, which prevents any marine auimal from adhering, and keeps a
clean bottom. The copper, however, slowly wears away in this oxidation, and requires
renewing after a few years. To prevent this loss various methods have been devised.
Sir H. Davy applied what he called protectors, consisting of pieces of iron and zinc
on different parts of the copper; the aetion of the water on the two metals produced
a small galvanic current, which prevented the copper from oxidizing; but it became
forthwith encased in barnacles and weeds. For ships stationary in harbor, as hulks,
ships-iu-ordinary, etc., this system of protection answers well; but it fajls for sea-going
vessels, together with many other protecting mixtures which have been tried, from
the fact that in proportion as the copper is saved from oxidation, by so much does
it cease to repel the incrustations which always threaten it.



SHEBOY'GAN, a co. in e. Wisconsin, on the w. shore of lake Michigan; drained
by the Onion, Mullet, and Sheboygan rivers; traversed by the Wisconsin Central, the
Milwaukee, Lake Shore and Western, and the Sheboygan and Fond du Lac railroads;
about 500 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 34.20623,274 of American birth. The surface is about one-
third woodland, and the rest fertile prairie; wheat, oats, hay, wool, and lUiiry products
are the staples. Co. seat, Sheboygan.

SHEBOYGAW, a t. and port of Wisconsin, on the \v. bank of lake Michigan,
at the mouth of the Sheboygan river, 52 m. n. of Milwaukee. It was settled in 1836,
has a good harbor, with mills at Shebovgan falls, 6 m. above, and a large trade in
wheat and timber. Pop. '70, 5,310; '75, '6. 828.

SHECHEM, n city in central Palestine on mount Ephraim, about Co m. n. of Jeru-
salem. It was one of the cities of refuge, and the first capital of the kingdom of Israel.
It is called Sychar in the New Testament. After being destroyed in the war with the
Romans it was rebuilt in the reign of Vespasian and called Neapolis. On coins still
found it is called Flavia Neapolis. Its present name is Nabliis. Its situation is exceed-
ingly beautiful. Present population 5,000, mostly Mohammedans.

SHECHI NAH (from dinclmn. to reside, rest), a word used in post-biblical times by
the Jews, nnd adopted by early Christian writers: expressive of the presence of the
divine, majesty in heaven, among the people of Israel, or in the sanctuary. It is first
found used in the Chaldce versions (Targums) as a kind of periphrasis for the person of
God, wherever it is mentioned in the Bible as corporeal: thus being a kind of spiritual
interpretation of anthropomorphism. The shcchinah is not supposed to have dwelt in
the second temple, but it is to return with the Messiah. The particular place where 'the
shechinah was supposed to dwell was the " mercy-seat between the cherubim." The
cherubim or other angels were always more or less connected with the shcchinah itself,
as in the! phrases " the heavenly hosts." " hosts of saints." etc., accompanying the divine
presence. The first mention ol the word is found in the Targum Jerughalmi, Gen. iii.
24 "And He expelled Adam, and caused to reside the splendor of his shechinah from
the beginning at the e. of the garden of Eden, above the two cherubim." (Second
recension: "between the two cherubim.") Another characteristic instance of its use is
found in the version of Onkelos, Deut. iii. 24 ' Thou art God, thy divine shechinah is
in heaven above, and rules on earth below."

SHEDD, WILLIAM GHEKNOUGIT THAYKU, D.D., LL.D., b. Mass., 1820: graduated at
the university of Vermont, 1839, nnd at Andover seminary, 1843; pastor of a Congresra-
tional church at Brandon, Vt., 1H44 45 ; professor of English literature in the university
of Vermont, 1845-52; of sacred rhetoric and pastoral theology. Auburn seminary (Pres-
byterian), 1852-53; and of ecclesiastical histoy, Andover theological seminary, 1853-62;



pastor of the Brick Presbyterian church, New York. 1SG2-G3; professor of l;iblical liter-
ature, Union seminary (Presbyterian), New Yonc, lbtio-74, atidiiow p anchor of theology
there. Among other works he has published fysiciii of lli;tioric; Pltilvxvfrhj if liiHtory;
JJtscowrises and h*.w!/x; History of Qtii'ixtiqn iJocttine; and HomUetica and 1 axivral jT/'.col-
ocjy. His hisiory of doctrine has been highly appreciated. As a theologian l.e i.i regarded
as developing tue sterner elements more 1' than io eoinmou iu recent years.

S1IEE, Sir MARTIN ARCHER, D.C.L., 1770-1850; b. Dutlin. He ehu'.ied art under
F. li. West in Dublin, and in London under sir Joshua Reynolds, to whom he was intro-
duced by Edmund Burke, lu 171/8 lie was made an associate of tLc Roy;.l art academy.
He became president of the academy in 1S30, and in the same year \v;.'s Liurhtcd. Ho
was a portrait painter of great popularity, though inferior in genius to Lawrence, lie
published, in ISOo, Rhymes on Art, a poem praised in Eyrou's Engti&h Lards (ind Scotch
J&vieicerx. His tragedy ALaaco, 1'6'2-i, refused a license us trcaeonable, was printed, but
has little or no merit.

SHEEP, Om, a genus of ruminant quadrupeds of the family rapridce, so nearly allied
to goals tiiat the propriety of generic distinction is very doubtful. They differ from
goats in having the of the face more or less arched and convex; the herns spiral,
sometimes very large in the males in domestication, however, often wanting in the
females, and t.lso in the males of some breeds; the chin destitute of a beard; a sac or
pit between tie toes of each foot, lined with hair, iir.d secreting a fatty matter. It is
supposed by some that all the wild sheep existing in different parts of the world are
mere varieties of one species, but of this there is no sufficient proof, nor is there any-
thing more than unsupported conjecture in any of the opinions advanced concerning the

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 95 of 203)