Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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width. Farming is the principal occupation. Berkshire soda springs and delightful
scenery attract visitors, invalids, and tourists. Its mineral resources are limestone,
gneiss, and white marble; the latter, of excellent quality, supplied the columns of Girard
college, Philadelphia, and was used in the new court-house at New York city. Trout-
fishing and wood-cock shooting attract sportsmen.

SHEFFIELD, an important manufacturing t. and parliamentary borough, in the "West
Riding of Yorkshire, and capital of an independent district, called Hallarnshire (see
SHIRE); it is picturesquely situated on several hills that slope toward the confluence of
the rivers Sheaf and Don, 140 m. n.n.w. of London, with which it is connected by tho
Great Northern and Midland railways, and 43 m. s.s.w. of York. The town, geni rally,
is well built. It possesses many fine public buildings, such ns the original parish church,
supposed!) have been erected in the reign of Henry I., 240 ft. long by 11-30 ft. broad; St.
Mary's Catholic church, surmounted by a tower 200 ft. high; the town-hall, cutlers' hall,
cora exchange; the new market-hall, or Norfolk market, with a roof of glass and iron,
erected by tbo duke of Norfolk at a cost of about 40,000; music-hall, assembly rooms,
theaters, etc. Tlrjre are extensive botanic gardens, and a fine cemetery about a mile
from the town; many churches; numerous educational establishments, such as the free
grammar school, the collegiate school, the Wesley cojlege, a Lancaster! ui and many
national schools, free writing-schools, school of art, besides denominational schools, etc.;
also a mechanic.*' institution, established in 1832. The mechanics' library (1828) is now
merged inio the free library, which contains upward of 11,000 volumes. "There are like-
wise many charitable institutions. As far buck as the time of Chaucer. Sheffield was
noted for the manufacture of cutlery; and at the present day an endless variety of articles
in brass, iron, and steel is produced at the many manufactories with which the town
abounds; such as knives of every description, silver and plated articles, britannia-metal
goods, coach-springs, spades, spindles, hammers, files, saws, boilers, stoves, grates, but-
tons, etc. In March, 186-1, a new embankment, constructed for the Sheffield water com-
pany, at Br.idfield, gave way, and let out a body of water 93 ft. high from a reservoir 78
acres in extent. The destruction of life and property by this flood was unprecedented in
England: 230 persons perished; mills, houses, and hamlets were swept away from their
foundations, and, apart from the ruin of the Bradlield dam, damage was done to private
property to the extent of close upon 300,000. In 1866 trade outrages, in the form of
"rattening" a local name for the stealing of tools and wheel-bands and of unscrupu-
lous treatment of the lives and limbs of non-union men, which had*for more than twenty
years beeu a disgrace to Sheffield, were brought to a prompt check by a royal commissicn,

A-\>7 Sheerness.


procured, among other influences, by the loyal outspokenness of the local pros?. Two
line churches have been recently erected All Saints, a cruciform, early second pointed
edifice, in 1867; and Sharrow church, of the late first French pointed period, in 1868.
Since 1871 the introduction of the manufacture of armor-plates, railway-springs, tires,
and rails has given a remarkable impetus to the growth of the town. The Albert half,
erected in 1873, is a commodious building which scats 3,000 people. Sheffield has three
public parks, one of which was presented to the town in 1878. Pop. '71, 239,946. B The
borough returns two members to parliament. Mary queen of Scots was imprisoned ia
Sheffield manor-house, about 2 m. from the town, for 12 or 14 years.


SHEFFORD, a co. in s.w. Quebec, intersected in the s. by the Stanstead, Shefford
ana Chambly railway; 555 sq.m. ; pop. '71, 19,077. It is drained by the Yamaska
river in the s.e., and the Black river in the north. It contains extensive beds of copper
and iron ore. Co. seat, Waterloo.

HEIK (Arab, elder, aged person), a title of reverence, applied chiefly to a learned
man, or a reputed saint, but also used sometimes as an ordinary title of respect, like the
European Mr., Ilerr, etc., before the name. It is, however, only given to a Moslem.
The sheik Al-lsiam is the chief mut'ti (q.v.) of Mohammedanism at Constantinople; a
title supposed to have been first assumed by Mohammed II. at his conquest of Constan-
tinople in 1453, when this place became the seat of his empire. The sheik of Mecca,
by virtue of his supposed descent from the prophet, levies a kind of tribute 011 all the
pilgrims to the Kaaba. The term is also applied to heads of Mohammedan monasteries
(our abbot or prior), and to the higher order of religious preachers. Sheik Al-Gebal
(ancient of the mountain) is the name of the prince of the assassins (q.v.), or tho^l
Ismaelites of Irak, who undertook to assassinate all those whom their chief would pro-
nounce to be his enemies.

SHEIL, RICIIAHD LALOK, 1791-1851; b. Watcrford, Ireland; graduated at Trinity
college, Dublin; studied law and was called to the bar in 1814. For eight years he
occupied himself chiefly in writing several successful dramas, of which Tk# Huguenot
was the best and the least popular. In 1822 was printed the first of his Sketches of
the Irish Bar, a keen and witty picture of the life and manners of the time, published
collectively in 1855. The same year ho joined the " Catholic association," and, in 1825
was sent to oppose its suppression as joint advocate with Daniel O'Connell before parlia-.
mcnt. He soon became known as a political agitator and brilliant orator; was elected
to parliament in 1829; aided O'Connell in the repeal agitation, but, changing his posi-
tion, took office Tinder the Melbourne ministry, and in 1850 was sent to the Tuscan court
as British ambassador.

SZEK'EL (.^7 />)}, from sJ/al-al, to weigh) originally a certain standard weight in use
among the ancient Hebrew-;, by which (lie value of metals, metal vessels, and other
things was fixed. Gradually it became a normal piece of money, both in gold and silver,
marked in some way or other as a coin, although not stamped. The gifts to the sanctu-
ary, the fines, the taxes, the prices of merchandise, are all reckoned "in the Old Testa-
ment by the she*kel, not counted but weighed. Three different kinds of irold, silver, and
copper shekels are mentioned: the common shekel, the shekel of the sanctuary (probably
of double value), and the shekel of royal weight. Besides these, there was a half-shekel
(bek/i). and a fourth shekel. The sacred shekel was equal to 20 geras (beans), and 3,000
sacred shekels made atalent. The gold shekel is reckoned approximatively to contain 161
Troy grains, the silver shekel 275" During the Babylonian exile, the Persian money
(ii'!f'/,-s) was used by the captives; nor do they seem to have afterward used any but tlije
coin of their foreign rulers. It was first under the Maccabrcans that national money
began to be struck, adorned with sacred emblems, and with inscriptions in the native
language and characters. De Smiley alone assumes, without much show of reason,
Jewish coins to have existed from the time of Alexander the great. Simon, the " prince
and high-priest," received, according to 1 Mace. xv. 16. the permission from Antiochus
VII. to strike coin in 138 B.C. The emblems are sacred branches, sheaves, flowers, vases,
etc., and the legend (in a peculiarly archaic ["Samaritan"] alphd;:t) contains the date,
the name of the Jewish ruler, and the inscriptions " Shekel of Israel." " Jerus'iYm the
Holy." "Redemption of Israel." The latest coins with Hebrew inscriptions date from
the revolution of Bar Cochba under Hadrian. The value of the silver shekel is reck-
oned to be something over tw r o shillings.


SHELBURNE, a co. in s.w. Nova Scotia, having the Atlantic ocean for its s. and
s.w. boundary; 945 sq.m.; pop. '71, 12,417. It is drained by the Clyde, the Jordan, and
other rivers. The surface is level, but the shores are rocky and precipitous. It has
several excellent harbors, that of Shelburne being considered the best in Nova Scotia.
The principal pursuits are the fisheries and the coast trade. It contains iron works, and
has a flourishing local trade.

SHELBTJRNE, WILLIAM PETTY, Earl of. son of the first earl, and descendant of sir
W. Petty, founder of the science of political arithmetic, was b. May, 1737, ai.d com-
menced his political career in 1761 by entering the house of commons as member for
U. K. XIII. 27

Shelby. , -, Q ^

Shell. 418

Wycombe, but only sat for a few weeks, the death of his father having called him to
the house of lords. When Mr. G. Grenville succeeded Bute in 1763, Shelburne, whose
talents had made him remarked, although only 26, was placed at the head of tbe board
of trade. When Chatham formed his second administration in 1766, he made Shelburne
one of the secretaries of state, although not yet thirty. Upon the fall of lord Korth's
ministry in 1782, George III. sent for Shelburne, and proposed to him to form a gov-
ernment. He declined, not being the head of a party, and was sent by the king to^the
marquis of Rockingham with an offer of the treasury, himself to be one of the secre-
taries of state. According to earl Russell, in his Life of C. J. Fox, it soon appeared that
Shelburne was not so much the colleague as the rival of lord Rockingham. the chosen
minister of the court, and the head of a separate party in the cabinet. Upon the death
of Rockingham in 1782, the king sent at once for Shelburne, and offered him the treasuiy,
which he accepted without consulting his colleagues. Fox thereupon resigned, and Shel-
burne introduced William Pitt, then only 23, into office as his chancellor oi the exchequer.
Shelburue's miuistrj^, on the occasion of the king's announcement of his determination
to concede the independence of the American colonies, found itself outvoted by the
coalition between Fox and lord North. He resigned, and the coalition ministry took
his place, but soon broke up. The nation expected that the king on this event would
have sent for Shelburne, but William Pitt received the splendid prize, and Shelburne
was consoled by the coronet of a marquis (of Lansdowne). During the later years
of his life his health was delicate, and he withdrew from public life; but he came
forward as a strong supporter of the union with Ireland. He indulged his tastes in
the adornment of Lansdowne house. Here he collected a splendid gallery of ancient
and modern pictures, together with a library of 10,000 volumes, comprising the largest
collection of pamphlets and memoirs on English history and politics possessed by any
man of his time, as well as a series of MSS., which were sold to the British museum
for 5,000. He was a discerning patron of genius. It was while he resided in Lans-
downe house as the librarian and friend of Shelburne that Priestley made the discovery
of oxygen. Jeremy Bentham was one of his most intimate friends, Shelburae was
the patron and friend of sir S. Romilly, and twice offered.him a seat in parliament, He
was also on terms of intimacy with Mirabeau, Dumont. and other foreigners of literary
and political distinction. He died in May, 1805. See Life of Shelburne, by lord Edmond
Fitzmaurice (London, 1875-76).

SHELBY, a co. in central Alabama, having the Coosa river for its e. boundary; 850
q.m. ; pop. '80, 17,236 17,120 of American birth, 4,982 colored. It is intersected by
the Selma, Rome and Dalton, and the South and North Alabama railroads, forming a
junction at Calera in the extreme e. section. It is drained in the n.w. by the Cahawba
river. Its surface is varied by hill and valley, well wooded with forests of oak, pine,
and hickory. Its mineral products are coal and iron ore. Its agricultural products are
grain, sweet potatoes, cotton, tobacco, and live stock. Its manufactures are cotton,
thread, pig and cast-iron, and lime. Co. seat, Columbiana.

SHELBY, a co. in s. central Illinois; drained by the Knskaskia, Little Wabash, and
Sangamon rivers; traversed by the Ohio and Mississippi, the Illinois Central, and the
Indianapolis and St. Louis railroads; ; pop. '80, 30,282 28,529 of American
birth. Surface partly prairie 'mid partly forest; wheat, oats, corn, hay, sorghum, and
pork are the staples; there are 6 carriage factories, 2 brick yards, and many flour and
saw mills. Co. seat, Shelbyville.

SHELBY, a co. in s.e. central Indiana; watered by Blue river and Sugar and Flat-
rock creeks; crossed by the Jcffersonville, Madison and St. Loui?, the Indianapolis,
Cincinnati and Lafayette, and the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton railroads;
about 425 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 25,256 24,481 of -American birth. The surface is mostly
prairie or woodland. The soil is fertile. The principal productions are corn, wheat,
oats, and cattle. Co. seat, Shelbyville.

SHELBY, a co. in w. Iowa; drained by the Nishnabatona river and Boyer and
Mosquito creeks; 576 sq.m.; pop. '80, 12,696 10,279 of American birth, 13 colored.
The Chicago. Rock Island and Pacific railroad crosses the extreme s.w. portion. Its
surface is varied by rolling prairies, furnishing excellent pasturage, and long stretches
of woodland. The soil is fertile, producing maize, wheat, and oats. Live stock is
extensively raised. Co. seat, Harlan.

SHELBY, a co. in n. Kentucky, watered by branches of the Kentucky river; on the
Shelby and the Louisville, Cincinnati and Lexington railroads; about 460 sq.m. ; pop.
'80, 16,813 5,556 colored. The surface is rolling and heavily wooded. The soil is
fertile. The principal productions are corn, wheat, oats, and cattle. Co. seat, Shelby

SHELBY, a co. in n.e. Missouri; drained by the n. fork of Salt river, by North
Two river, and the South Fabius river; 500 sq.m.; pop. '80, 14,034 13,457 of Ameri
ean birth, 937 colored. It is intersected in the s. by the Hannibal and St. Joseph rail-
road. Its surface is undulating and thinly timbered. The soil is fertile, producing
corn, oats, sorghum, and livestock. Its mineral products are limestone and bituminous
eoal. Co. seat, Shelbyville.



SHELBY, a co. in w. Ohio; drained by the Miami river and Loramie's creek; trav-
ersed by the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati and Indianapolis, and the Cincinnati,
Hamilton and Dayton railroads, and by the Miami canal; 420 sq.m.; pop. '80, 24,136
22,004 of American birth, 557 colored. Surface rolling and productive; corn, oats,
wheat, hay, and pork are the staples. Co. seat, Sidney.

SJELBY, a co. in s.w. Tennessee, adjoining Mississippi; bounded on the w. by the
Mississippi river; drained by Wolf river and Elk creek; crossed by the Memphis
and Charleston, the Memphis and Little Rock, the Memphis, Kansas and Colorado,
and (he Memphis, Paducah and Northern railroads; about 090 sq.m.; pop. '80, 78,433
73,034 of American birth, 43,989 colored. The surface is level and heavily timbered.
The 'soil is fertile. It is the largest cotton-growing county in the state. Co. seat, Mem-

SHELBY, a co. in e. Texas, having the Sabine river for its e. boundary, separating
it from the state of Louisiana; 800 sq.m.; pop. '80, 9,524 9,488 of American birth, 2,154
colored. It is drained by the Attoyac river, which forms part of its w. boundary. Its
surface is rolling and largely covered with forests. Its soil is fertile, producing cotton,
corn, sweet potatoes, and the products of the dairy. Co. seat, Center.

SHELBY, ISAAC, 1750-1820; b. Md. ; was a surveyor in western Virginia; lieut.
at the battle with the Indians at Mount Pleasant, Va., in 1774; capt. of a military
company in Virdniain 1770, and in 1777 appointed commissary; was elected to the house
of dele-rates, Virginia, in 1779, and commissioned maj. by gov. Jefferson, and the fol-
lowing" year made col.; fought at the battle of King's mountain, and in 1780
received for his bravery a vote of thanks and a sword from the legislature of North
Carolina, to which he was chosen a member in 1781; settled in Kentucky and was gov-
ernor, 1792-90, and again, 1812-16. With 4,000 Kcntuckians he aided gen. Harrison at
the battle of the Thames, and received a gold medal from congress.

SHELBY V1LLE, a city in s.e. Indiana, co. seat of Shelby co , on the Blue river,
and on the Indianapolis, Cincinnati and Lafayette railroad at its junction with the
Columbus and Rushville railroad; pop. '80, 3,745. It is 27 m. s.e. of Indianapolis, in
the midst of a rich farming district, and has a court-house, 7 churches, 2 banks, public
schools, 3 newspapers, and a seminary. Lumber and furniture are manufactured.

SHELDON, GILBERT, D.D., 1598-1077; b. England; graduated at Trinity college,
Oxford, 1617; became fellow of All Souls' college in 1622; vicar of Hackney in 1633,
and rector of Ickford and Newington; was chaplain to Charles I. in 1635; became
bishop of London in 1600, archbishop of Canterbury in 1663, and chancellor of Oxford
university in 1067.

SHE'LIF, the chief river of Algeria (q.v.).

SHELL. This term is employed to designate the hard outer coverings of a large num-
ber of invertebrate animals. Shells are met with in the cchinodennata, in the great major-
ity of the mollusca (excluding the molluscoids), in a few of the annelida, as serpula, spiror-
bis, etc., m the cirropoda, and in the Crustacea. The forms of the different varieties of
shells are sufficiently noticed in the articles on the classes of animals to which they
respectively belong; and we shall confine our remarks to the intimate structure of shell,
which, until the publications of Carpenter, Rainey, and others, during the "last quarter
of a century, was altogether misunderstood. The doctrine formerly held, and still
maintained in many popular hand-books of conchology, was, that shell is not only extra-
vascular (or devoid of vessels), but completely inorganic, being composed of an exuda-
tion of calcareous particles (chiefly carbonate of lime) cemented together by a kind of
animal glue. It is now known that shell always possesses a more or less distinct
organic structure, which in some cases resembles that of the epidermis of the higher
aniinals, while in others it approximates to that of the derma, or tru2 skin. The nature
of *he organic structure is so different in the echinodermata, mollusca, and Crustacea,
that .1 separate description is required for each, and as Dr. Carpenter remarks: ''Even
in tl<e subordinate divisions of these groups, very characteristic diversities are frequently
observajlo, so that, as in the case of the teeth, it is often possible to determine the fam-
ily, someHmes the genus, and occasionally even the species, from the inspection of a
minute fragment of a shell, as well fossil as recent.

In the echinodermata, the elementary structure of the skeleton exhibits the appear-
ance of a net-work composed of calcareous and animal matter intimately united. The
diameter of these apertures or meshes of net-work varies to a certain degree in different
parts of the s.viic shell, the openings being larger in the inner than the outer layers, the
extremes being T Jij and y^y^ of an inch. The entire shell is made up of an immense
number ef such plates, which lie parallel to one another, separated by minute vertical

In the mollusca, the shell is formed upon the surface of the mantle, which corre-
sponds to the true skin of other animals. Hence 5ft must be regarded as epidermic. It
consists of celli; consolidated by a deposit of calcareous salts in their interior, but, as in
the case of many other tissues, the original cellular organization often becomes so hidden
by subsequent changes, as to cease to be recognizable. The typical condition of the
JLell in this sub-ki^ci^ is best seen in certain bivalves the genus pinna, for example.

Sh flirt rake.

On breaking off a small portion of the projecting margin of one of these shells, and
examining it under the microscope, it is found to be made up of a vast number of
prisms, hexagonal in form and nearly uniform in size, which are arranged perpen-
dicular to the surface of the lamina of the shell, so that the thickness of the lamina
is formed by their length, and its surfaces by their extremities. On submitting
such a lamina to the action of a dilute acid, the calcareous salts are dissolved,
and a membrane is left which shows the prismatic structure as perfectly as it was
seen in the original shell, the hexagonal divisions being evidently the walls of
cells resembling those occurring in the pith or bark of a plant. It sometimes
happens in recent, but more commonly in fossil shells, that the animal matter decays
and leaves the prisms ununited, and easily separable from one another. It is only in a
few families of bivalves that the cellular structure is seen in this very distinct form, or
that it makes up a large portion of the shell; and these families are closely allied to
pinna. In many shells the external layer is formed on the above plan, while the inter-
nal layer is nacreous; in many, again, the nacre, or "mother of pearl," and in others
eub-nacreous structure, constitutes nearly the whole thickness of the shell. The nacre,
according to sir D. Brewster, consists of a multitude of layers of carbonate of lime,
alternating with animal membrane; and the grooved lines on which iridescent luster
depends are due to the wearing away of the edges of the animal laminae, while
those composed of carbonate of lime stand out; it is, however, more probable, from
Dr. Carpenter's researches, that the peculiar lineation of the surface of nacre is due to
the disposition of a single membranous layer in folds or plaits, which lie more or less
obliquely to the general surface.

In the crustacen, the structure of the shell has only been examined in the order of
decapods. In this order in the common crab, for example the shell consists of three
layers, viz., (1) an external horny epidermic membrane covering the exterior; (2) a cellu-
lar or pigmentary structure; and (6) an internal calcareous or tubular substance. The
horny layer is easily detached 'after the shell has been for some time immersed in dilute
acid ; it is thin and tenacious, and presents no trace of structure. The pigmentary layer
is very thin in the crab and lobster, but is much thicker in some other decapods. The
internal layer is that which constitutes the chief part of the shell; it Is in this layer that
the calcareous matter is chiefly deposited; but even after this has been removed, a very
distinct animal basis remains, which closely resembles that which is left after the dentine
of the teeth has been deprived of its inorganic constituents.

? For further information on this subject, the reader is referred to Dr. Carpenter'*
various articles on the microscopic structure of shells, and especially to his article

^" Shell" in the Cyd'rpmditt, of Anatomy and Phyxwlorjy (from which the materials of the
present article have been almost entirely drawn), and to ins Microscope and its Revelations.

SHELLDRAKE, or SHTELDKAKE, Tadornn, a genus of ducks of the section having the
hind-toe without any pendent membrane. The shelldrakes are a connecting link be-
tween geese and ducks, having much resemblance to the former. The species are mostly
natives of the southern hemisphere, but the COMMON SHELLDRAKE (T. vulpanser, or
bellonif) is common on the sandy sea-shores of Britain ; many coming from the n. for the
winter, and some remaining all the year, and breeding, making their nests in rabbit-
burrows or other holes in soft soil, whence in some places the shelldrake receives the
name of burrow dvck. It is a beautiful bird, the sexes nearly alike in plumage; the head
and upper part of the neck green, with a collar of white, and a lower collar of rich
chestnut, extending over part of the back, the rest of the back white. The whole length
is fully two feet. 'The shelldrake i.s very capable of being tamed, and breeds in
domestication. Its note is a shrill whistle. Its flesh is coarse and unpalatable. The
RUDDY SHELLDRAKE (T. rutiln), the only other European species, is rare as a British
bird, although common in many parts of Europe and Asia.

SHELLEY, PERCY BYPSITE, the eldest son of sir Timothy Shelley, hart., the represent-
ative of an old Sussex family, was born at Field Place, near Ilorsham, in that county, on
Aug. 4, 1792. His earlier education he received at home with his sisters. About the
age of ten he was sent to a school near Brentford, and thence, three years after, trans-

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 97 of 203)