Frank A Lovelock.

Lovelock's American standard of excellence for purebred cattle, sheep and swine, being a compilation of the scale of points online

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Online LibraryFrank A LovelockLovelock's American standard of excellence for purebred cattle, sheep and swine, being a compilation of the scale of points → online text (page 1 of 9)
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,.,.FOR.,.;



Cat;tl<s, Sheep and .Suiine,




^<^'i?5'??"i:C^






AMERICAN

STANDARD OF EXCELLENCE



FOR



PURE-BRED CATTLE, SHEEP AND SWINE,



BEING A COMPILATION



OF THE "SCALES OF POINTS" ADOPTED BY THE
DIFFERENT PURE-BRED LIVE-STOCK
BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS OF
• " THE UNITED STATES.



" E\erj- animal should be judged hy the standard established by the associa-
tion of the breeders of that class of animals. * * * * * jjq q^^q need say that
any intelligent breeder, of any class of thoroughbred animals, with the standard
of characteristics and the scale of points as a chart, cannot judge fairly and profit-
ably, animals bred for the same purpose as his."— Col. F. J)^ ^pg^isr - ^

AUG 15 1894



PRINTED AND PITBLISHED FOR ^.yCM^O H V

FRANK A. LOVELOCK, EXPERT JUDGE,
SALEM, VIRGINIA.

1893.



Entered accord itij;- to ,-\ct of (^jngresy, in the year 180.'!.

By FKANK A. LOVELOCK. Expert Judge, Salem, Virjiinia,

In the OlHce of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.






SALEM, VA.:
THE a'IMES-KEGISTER BOOK AND JOB PUIXT.



f^i^e:f".a.oe:.



It is now probably some ten or twelve years ago since the editor
of tliis book first became acquainted with " Tlie American Stand-
ard of Perfection " for poultry, a work for which his respect and
admiration have steadily increased as he has witnessed year by
year, at the different poultry shows throughout the country, the
skillful work of intelligent expert judges, in determining the merits
of competing specimens, by comparing them with the points of
excellence laid down in that most reliable authority. Nor has it
been only in the show room that the true worth of this perfect
poultry guide has been tested, for there is not a careful breeder of
l)ure-bred poultry in America today, but who turns with the same
regularity for counsel and advice to his " Standard," as the Christ-
ian does to his daily guide, the holy Bible. All disputes in com-
petition are settled by the " Standard"; prizes are won by select-
ing those specimens which approach nearest in excellence to the
hundred points of perfection laid down in the " Standard "; buy-
ers purchase those birds which score highest according to the
"Standard"; breeders mate their birds according to the require-
ments of the " Standard," and, inasmuch as the " Standard of
Perfection " in poultry is the result of the combined experience
and thought of the foremost breeders in the country, so the speci-
mens which in excellence approximate nearest its requirements are
considered the best specimens of their breed.

Seeing then, how good a thing was this "Standard of Perfec-



4 PREFACE.

tion" as applied to poultry, the editor, who was formerly a breed-
er and exhibitor of purebred live-stock, often thoujjht that a
standard of excellence for pure bred cattle, sheep and swine, if
approved by the respective breeders' associations, would be equal-
ly as helpful to the thoushful breeder or judfi^e of pure ored live-
stock, as those recognized as authorities by ihe poultry breeders
of the United States. At that time it did not occur to the editor
of this book to correspond with the secretaries of the different
breeders' associations, but, later, after he had commenced his
career as expert judge at the Fairs, he gradually obtained the
standards of excellence from the aforesaid secretaries, and soon
realized that they were of inestimable value in making awards.
After having studied them all carefully, the editor is of the opin-
ion that whilst improvements could be made in a few of these, yet
any one of them is a vast improvement upon the "rule of thumb"
system, (?) for breeding or judging so prevalent throughout the
Eastern States. Feeling, therefore, that breeders and judges of
pure-bred cattle, sheep and swine would welcome a collection of
these standards of excellence in one handy volume, as a guide, and
for reference, education and comparison, the undersigned has,
after considerable correspondence and study, obtained and sys-
tematized almost every standard of excellence ever adopted by
any pure-bred live-stock association in America. He trusts that
it may become to the breeders and judges of pure-bred live stock
as useful as the " Standard of Perfection" is to the countless
breeders of poultry throughout the country.

The undersigned, knowing full well that he could hardly emi)ha-
size suflRciently the great need for better judging at Fairs, has
taken the liberty of republishing from that well-known publica-
tion, " The Country Gentleman," an essay vipon this topic from
the facile pen of the late illustrious Col. F. D. Curtis, which ap-
peared in that excellent weekly, and which should be read by all.

FRAN^K A. LOVELOCK.

Salem, Virginia.



A Reform in Judging- at Fairs.



Eds. Country Gextlkiiax— A fair, to till iis full mission, should
be educational. When shows simply excite wonder, and only-
fill gaping mouths with a passing interest, there is not much in-
struction about them, and very little knowledge is carried home
to stimulate improvement and provoke emulation. In all needed
reforms, I am not particular about the way it may be done, pro-
vided it is done. How shall fairs be made more than an attrac-
tion for sight-seeing and the pleasure of meeting each other? It
may be urged that there are reasons enough for holding fairs.
I grant it, for the past, perhaps, but not for the future. Agricul-
ture must stand in the iunnediate future upon broader and deep-
er foundations. There is too big a tide against it to enable it to
move with so little power. The propelling force must be stronger,
to push our business along in competition with others. The fair
inust be made more of a factor foi- instruction and improve-
ment. As now conducted, the " picking up " system of getting
judges is too common. This should never be done. None but
experts should ever pass upon the merits of goods or animals. By
experts I do not mean cranks or ax-grinders. Such men are al-
ways out of place, where opinions are asked. There is too much
warp in their make-up.

There is a cla«s of experienced and honorable men in every
trade, farmers and stock-breeders not excepted. These are the
men who should be invited to do the judging, and they should be
well paid for it. It is unnecessary to have three experts, as one is
ample. The old style judges were generally friends of the powers
that be, and while this was no disqualification, it was not an
equipment for skill and judgment which specially fitted them for
this important and delicate work, nor would it carry much
weight with exhibitors and lookers on.

In the West, where fairs are fairs, there is a rapid tendency to-
wards the one-judge plan, and he a man " known and read of all
men" in the special line in which he is called to act. Such judg-
ing must iie instructive, and far in advance of the awards made



6 A REPORil IN JtTDfilNd AT FAIRS.

u{)onthe' picked up" plan. The jiulLririf? at some of our State fairs,
whei-e we expect a hiicher j;:rade thnn at a county fair, is often sim-
ply a burlesque. At a State fair recently held, one of the judges,
who assumed a degree of arrogance and importance equal to sev-
eral ordinary men, and wisdom superior to several ordinary owfs.
did not know anythinf^ about swine herd-books or standards, or
requirements of associations to constitute thorou<ihbreds, but he
" knew a good hog and one which suited him." Under the dicta-
tion and awards of such a judge the exhibitors of all breeds stood
back in disgust, and let the thing run. How much could any
one learn from such decisions in regard to the characteristics
or qualities of any breed or the valuable and best features in
breeding?

I would uiake the exhibit of as great practical value as possible,
as this would add to the attractions of the fair. When people
found out that teaching by object lessons would take place, and
by noted and accepted teachers, they would flock around the
rings where stock, was being judged, and the pens, to compare
the points and evidences of value. To make all the lessons of the
exhibition of animals merely a sight, with printed records to fol-
low, is not the full measure of an agricultural fair of^ any preten-
sions. We must get more out of it. The wheels of time now grind
too close for so small a return. My idea is that each and every ex-
hibition, especially of live stock, should be a school of thorough
object teaching, to be added to all the other and stereotyped impres-
sions. Every animal should be judged by the standard establish-
ed by the association of the breeders of that class of animals. The
standard should be publicly announced, and each animal tried by
it, and its superiority over another, or where it may be equal,
stated orally ; so that those looking on, and the breeders, may see
the value of good points and learn how to distinguish them. No one
should be allowed to talk back or interfere, but let the judge give
reasons for his preferences, and i)oint out the blood markings and
perfect features. This kind of judging is no mere dream ; its prac-
ticability has been demonstrated. This little taste of common
sense in judging has made a keen appetite for a full meal. The
judges must not be breeders of the same kind of animals, but of
other breeds bred for the same purpose. If is difficult to get (ex-
perts, breeding Jerseys, for instance, who are not identified with
some family of this breed, and heu'e, however higli-minded, they



A REFORM IN -Tl?DGtN« AT J'AIRS. 7

M'oul J be liable to be accused of leaning toward their favorites.
The same criticism might follow with the judges of sheep or swine
or horses. Let us have a new track, and see if it will not carry us
smoother and better than any old rut. Take the judges for any
accepted butter breed from the breeders of butter breeds — from
Jerseys to judge Guernseys, Ayrshires to judge Holsteins, and
beef breeds in the same way — JShort-Horns to judge Herefords —
following the same rule with the Polled cattle. The same mis-
matching should be followed with the breeds of swine, giving, for
instance, the Berkshire breeder dominion over the Duroc-Jersey,
and the Chester White over the Poland-China, or one judge over
each class, classed as large and small — this judge being taken from
a class he does not breed.

The tine wool sheep breeders will oppose a one judge and an out-
side man, the strongest, for they have a conceit that a coarse or
rai(5dle-wool breeder does not know anything about Merinos. Why
not V Is there any unfathomable mystery about the breeding or
appearance of Merino sheep V The truth is, there ought to be a
little more of the middle-wool brains in them, and would it not be a
wise thing for the sheep, and the breeders also, to pass in review
before the breeders of larger sheep and those bred for a double
purpose? There has been too much of the one-idea, or hang-on
with the breeders of Merino sheep. They want to get out of it. I
should consider it a privilege to have my Merinos judged with the
Merino standard by a wide-gauged, middle- wool breeder, and why
not the sheep of this last class by a close-texture, fine-staple, big-
dewlap, compact-body and hardy-constitution, Merino-educated
eye and brain ? Sheep must now, of all stock, be bred for utility,
and they must stand on their merits while in the hands of the
farmer. The protection, trusts and inflation will come when out
of the farmer's reach. No one need saj" that any intelligent
breeder, of any cl^ss of thoroughbred animals, with the standard
of cliaracteristics and the scale of points as a chart, canuot
judge fairly and profitably animals bred for the same purpose as
his. Such an objection would be a reflection on tlie intelligence
and sound judgment of the breeder. If it may in part hold good,
it is a possibility for better results, than with " pick-up " judges,
or those expert in their kind, with an inevitable round of dissat-
isfaction on account of possible prejudice or favoritism.

Kirbi/ tiotnesttud. New Vork, F. D. CURTIS.



NOMEN-CLATURE FOR BULL.




. 0) -P
fe tH o 0) -p






NOMENCLATURE FOR COW.



coi4H-ar-i>*»-MN"




10



ABERnEEN-AKttlfS CAtTLTl.



ABERDEEN-ANGUS CATTLE.



standard of Excellence for Aberdeen-Anjj- is Cattle, as adopted by the Ameri-
can Aberdeen- Angus Breeders Association, Thomas McFarhine, Secretary, Har-
vey, Illinois.



POINTS.



SCALE OF POINTS FOR BULL.



1. Color, .

2. Head

3 Throat,

4. Neck,

5. Shoulders,

6. Chest,

7. Brisket,

8. Ribs,

9. Back, .

10. Hindquarters,

11. Tail,

12. Underline, .

13. Legs,

14. Flesh,

15. Skin, .

10. General Appearance,





COUNTS


3




. 10

•J




. 3

if




. 10




4




. 8




10




. 8




3




. 4


<


4




. A




10




10



100



Pmhfkction,

When bulls are exhibited with their progeny in a separate class,
add 25 counts for progeny.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION.

POINTS. COUNTS.

1. Color. — Black. White is objectionable, except on the un-

derline behind the navel, and there only to a moderate
extent; a white cod is most undesirable, . . .3

2. Head. — Forehead broad; face slightly prominent, and taper-

ing toward the nose, muzzle tine ; nostrils wideand open;
distance from eyes to nostrils of moderate length; eyes
mild, full, and expressive, indicative of good disposition ;
ears of good medium size, well set and well covered with
hair ; poll well defined, and without any appearance of
horns or scurs ; jaws clean, . . . . . 10



AHKKDEEK-AXnrs CATTLK. 11

ii. Throat. -Clean, \vitl)out any devflupuient uf louse llesli un-
derneath, . . . . . . 8

4. Neck. — Of niediuui length, nin.«cul;ir. with moderate crest

(wliich increases witli age), spreading out to meet the
shoulders, witli full neck vein, . . . .3

5. Shoulders. -Moderately oblique, well covered on the blades

and top : with vertebra or backbone slightly above the
scapula or shoulder-blaJes, wliich should be moderately
broad, .... ....(}

6. Chest. — Wide and deep ; also round and full just back of

elbows, . . . . . . . .10

7. Brisket. — Deep and moderately projecting Irom between

the legs, and proportionately covered with flesh and fat, 4

8. Ribs. — Well sprung from the backbone, arched and deep,

neatly joined to the crops and loins, . . . .8

9. Back. -Broad and straight from crot)sto hooks; loins strong,

hook bones moderate in width, r.ot i)rominent, and well
covered ; rumps long, full, level, and rounded neatly
into hindquarters, . . . . . . . 10

10. HlXDQUARTEHS.— Deep and full, thighs thick and muscu-

lar, and in proportion to hindquarters ; twist filled out
well in its "seam "' so as to form an even wide plain be-
tween thighs, . . . . . . .8

11. Tail. — Fine, coming neatly out of the body on a line with

the back and bunging at right angles to it, . . .3

12. Underline. — Straight as nearly as possible, flank deep and

full, . . . . " 4

13. Legs. -Short, straight, and squarelj' placed, hind legs slightly

inclined forward below the hocks; forearm muscular;
bones fine and clean, . . . . . .4

14. Flesh. — Even and without patchiness, . . .4
lo. Skin. -Of moderate thickness and mellow touch, abundantly

covered with thick, soft hair. (Much of the thriftiness,
feeding properties, and value of the animal depend upon
this quality, which is of great weight in the grazier's and
butcher's judgment. A good "touch" will compensate
for some deficiencies of form Nothing can compensate
for a skin hard and stiff. In raising the skin from the
body it should haye a substantial, soft, flexible feeling,
and when beneath the outspread hand it should move



12



ABERDEEN-AKQUS CATTLE.



eaBily as though resting on a soft ceUular substance,

which, however, becomes firmer as the animal ripens.

A thin, papery skin is objectionable, especially in a cold

climate, . . . . • • • -10

16. Gkneral Appearance.— Elegant, well bred, and mascu-

line. The walk square, the step quick, and the head up, . 10

Perfection, . . . - loo
Purity of blood must be evidenced by registry in the American

Aberdeen-Angus Herd Book.
When bulls are exhibited with their progeny in a separate class,

add 35 counts for progeny.



•OI.NTS. SC/


^LE OF


1. Color,




3. Head,




•S. Throat,




4. Neck,




5. Shoulders,




6 Chest,




7. Brisket,




8. Ribs,




9. Back. .




10. Hindquartt-r.-,




11. Tail, .




13. Udder,




18. Underline,




14. Legs,




15. rie.-<h.




If). Skin,




17. General Appear


IMCf,



Pehkhciiox,



In judging heifers omit No. 13.
counts to No. 17.



Add 3 counts to No. 15 and 5



10
3
3
()

10
4
8

10
8
3
8
4
3
3

10



100



DETAILED DESCRIPTION.

POINTS. COUNTS.

1. Color. — Black. White is objectionable, except on the un-
derline, behind the navel, and there only to a moderate »
extent, . . . . . . . .3



ABERDEEN-ANGUS CATTLE. 13

2. Head. — Forehead luoderately broad and slightly indented,
taperinp: toward the nose ; muzzle fine ; nostrils wide and
open ; distance from eyes to nostrils of moderate length ;
eyes full, brijjht and expressive, indicative of jjcood dispo-
sition ; ears large, slightlj' rising upward jind well fur-
nished with hair ; poll well defined, and without any ap-
pearance of horns or scurs ; jaws clean, . . .10

3. Throat. — Clean, without any develoi)ment of loose Hesh

underneath, . . . . . . . :}

4. Nkck. — Of medium length, spreading out to meet the shoul-

ders, with full neck vein, . . . . . .3

5. Shoulders. — Moderately oblique, well covered on the blades

and top ; with vertebra or backbone slightly above the
scapula or shoulder-blades, which should be moderately
broad, . . . . . . . .6

6. Chest. — Wideanddeep; round and full just back of elbows. 10

7. Brisket. — Deep and moderately projecting from between

the legs, and proportionately covered with flesh and fat, . 4
.8, Ribs — Well sprung from backbone, arched and deep, neatly

joined to the crops and loins, . . . . .8

9. Back. — Broad and straight from crops to hooks ; loins
strong: hook bones moderate in width, not prominent,
and well covered ; rumps long, full, level, and rounded
neatly into hindquarters, . . . . .10

10. Hindquarters. — Deep and full, thighs thick and muscular,

and in proportion with hindquarters ; twist filled out
well in its "seam," so as to form an even wide plain be-
tween thighs, . . . . . . .8

11. Tail. — Fine, coming neatly out of the body on a line with

the back and hanging at right angles to it, . . .3

12. Udder. — Not fleshy, coming well forward in line with the

body, and well up behind ; teats squ irely placed, well
apart and of good size, . . . . . .8

13. Underline.— Straight as nearly as possible, flank deep

and full, . . . . . . . .4

14. Legs. — Short, straight, and squarely placed, hind legs

slightly inclined forward below the hocks; forearm mus-
cular ; bones fine and clean, . . . . ,3

15. Flesh. — Even and without patchiness, . . .3

16. Skin. — Of moderate thickness and mellow touch, abund-



14



A i;i:i;iiI',i;n a Mil's ( a'I ri,K.



HiiMy covrrcd with lliick, sofl, l))iir. (IMucli of tli(! tlirifti-
iicss, feeding propcrt icK, tUKl vnliui of tlici Miiiiiiul (Icpciid
upon tliJH ((iiality, wliicli is ol j^rent wci'i^lit in tli*^ }^rn/,i«'r's
;iii(l hiilciici's Jiult^iiK'nt. A ^Aood " toiicli " will compcii-
Mitt' lor soiiK' (IcrKrirncics of forin. Notliiii^ riiti coiiipen-
Hat(H'or 11 Hkiii liiird Jiiid stilT. In raising; the skin from
Mi(* Itody it slioidd lia v(i !i, siil)stMiil ial, noK,, ilcxihln feel-
ing;, iiiid wiicii iicinalli tlic outspread hand it, HJiould
move easily as tJiou(;li resting;; on asoft eellidar substanee,
which, however, becomes lirnier as the aninnul ri|)ens. A
tliin, pa.pei'v skin is oliject ionahle, especially in ii cold
clinia,t,e), . . .10

17. (iKNKllAli AiM'lCARA^cn;. Klef;:ant, well bred, and feminine.

Tlu» walk s(pnire, the step (piick, and the head np, . 5

ricKi'KcnoN, - . - . 100
Purity of l>lood nuist be evidenced hy registry in the Am(>rican

Aberdeen ;\n;.;iis Herd Hook.

I n Jiul{j;int^ lieilers <iniil No. 12. Add ;i (M)nnts t.o No. 1.') and T)

(rounts to No. 17.



AYK-^HIKE CATTLE. 15



AYRSHIRE CATTLE.



Slaiiilaid ol i;\<<ili-in:c lot- AyiHliiic ('attic, us adoptt-il l).v tlic A.\ishirc
HrccdfTH AsHociation, ('. M. Wiiislow, Hoci'otary, JJrandon, Vermont. beiriK Himilar
to that a<l()|(tc(l ill Scfjtlaiifl ill 1H8(, and chaiiKfil in a fow points to render them
anplicalilc to this <-<iiHitiy.

roiNTS. SCALE OF POINTS FOR BULL. (oints.

1. Head and Horns, ...... 10

2. Neck, ....... 10

i\. rore(juarf«M's, ....... 7

4. Back and Ril)s, ...... 10

."5. Hindfiiiarters, . . • 10

0. S'irotuin, ....... 7

7 LefJTH, ........ T)

H. Skin, ....... 10

•). Color, ........ ;5

10. Wei^'lit, ... . . . . . 10

11. (-ieneral Apjiearance, ..... 1.^

12. Escutcheon, ...... '6

Pkhkkction, - . - - 100
Tii<! points desiral>le in tlie female are {generally so in the male,
hut must, of course, he attended with that masculine (diaracter
which is inseparahle from a stron<^ and vifjcorous constitution.
Even a certain dej^ree of coarseness is admissible; but then it
must be ho exclusively of masculine descrii)tion as never to be dis-
covered in a female of his tcet.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION.

POINTS. _ COK.NTS.

1. Hkaj>.— H(!ad of the hull may he shorter than that of the

cow, but the frontal >)one should be broad, the muzzle of
pjoodsize, throat nearly free from hanf^in^ folds; eyes
full. The horns should have an upward turn, with suflfi-
cient size at the base to indicate strength of constitution, 10

2. Nkck. — Of medium length, somewhat arched, and larfi:e in

those muscles which indicate power and strenf^th, . . 10

3. FoRK<iiiARTKR.s. — Slioulders close to the body, without any

hollow si)ace behind; chest broad, brisket deep and well



16



AYRSHIRE CATTLE.



developed, but not too large, 7

4. Back. — Short and straight; spine suffleientiy defined, but

not la the same degree as in the cow ; ribs well sprung,
and body deep In the Hanks, 10

5. Hindquarters. — Long, broad and straight; hip bones wide

apart ; pelvis long, broad and straight ; tail set on a level
with the back ; thighs deep and broad, . . . .10

(i. Scrotum. — Large with w^ell developed teats in front, . . 7

7. Legs. — Short in |)roportion to size, joints firm. Hind legs

well apart, and not to cross in walking, . . . . ."5

8. Skin.— Yellow, soft, elastic, and of medium thickness, . 10

9. Color. — Red of any shade, brown or white, or a mixture of

these — each color being distinctly defined, . . .3

10. Weight. — Average live weight at maturity, about 1500, . 10

11. General Appearance — including style and movement, . 15

12. Escutcheon. — Large and fine development, .... 3



Perfection.



100



oiNTS. SCALE OF POINTS FOR COW. ,


COUNTS


1. Head and Horns, ....


. 10


2. Neck, ......


5


3. Forequarters, .....


. 5


4. Back and Ribs, .....


10


5. Hindquarters. .....


. 8


6. Udder, Milk Veins and Teats,


80


7. Legs and Bones, ....


. 3


8. Skin and Hair, .....


5


•). Color, ......


. 3


10. Weight. ......


8


11. General Appearance, . . . . .


. 10


12. Escutcheon, ......


3



Perfection,
DETAILED DESCRIPTIOiM.



100



rOINTS. COUNTS.

1. Head.— Short; forehead, wide; nose, fine between the muz-

zle and eyes ; muzzle large; eyes full and lively; horns
wide set on, ineliningupwards, 10

2. Neck. — Moderately long, and straight from the head tcf the

top of the shoulder, free from loose skin on the underside,
fine at its junction with the head, and enlarging symmet-



AYRSHIRE CA.TTLE. l7

rically towards the shoulders, 5

3. FORKQUAHTKRS.— Shoulders, sloping: ; withers, line ; chest,

sufficiently broad and deep to insure constitution; brisket
and whole forequarters lig^ht, the cow gradually increas-
ing in depth and width backwards, 5

4. Back. — Short and straight ; spine, well defined, especially

at the shoulders ; short ribs, arched ; the body deep at
the flanks, , ... 10

5. Hindquarters. — T^ong, broad :nn\ s-traight, hor.>kbnii<is wi.le

apart, and not overlaid with fat ; thighs deep and broad ;
tail, long, slender, and set on level with the back, . . 8
G. Uddkr. — Capacious, and not fleshy, hindpart broad and


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Online LibraryFrank A LovelockLovelock's American standard of excellence for purebred cattle, sheep and swine, being a compilation of the scale of points → online text (page 1 of 9)