Frank C. (Francis Carlos) Higgins.

An introduction to the copper coins of modern Europe online

. (page 1 of 6)
Online LibraryFrank C. (Francis Carlos) HigginsAn introduction to the copper coins of modern Europe → online text (page 1 of 6)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


YOUNG COLLEC



I OFFER CO!



OF LlJ ROPE



FRANKC.HIGGINS.



. ONE SHILLING.



E. SUMMER'S

flahtralists' Stores.

The Largest and Cheapest Establishment in the World for every
description of Natural History Apparatus, etc.



British and Foreign Birds, Eggs, and Nests;

Aviaries, Cages, and Parrot Stands for the

Drawing Room, Conservatory, or Garden ;

Wirework of every descripton.



Larvae and Pupae of Lepidoptera ; Scientific
Insect Cabinets, Cases, Setting Boards, Cork,
Killing Bottles, Spinning Wheels, Silkworms,

Butterflies and Moths.
KENSINGTON INSECTABIUM, 2/6, 3/6, 4/6.



Gold Fish, Carp, Roach, Tench, Dace, Golden
Orfe, Minnows, Snails, Beetles and Water
Plants; Aquariums, Globes, Fountains, Rocks,
Cork Models, Swiss Chalets, Running Wind-
mills, Nets and Syphons.

Sumner's Fish Food, 2d. pkt. Ants' Eggs, 6d. pt.



Snakes, Slowworms, Lizards, Chameleons,

Land and Water Tortoises, etc., in great

variety from all parts of the globe.

KENSINGTON EEPTILAR1UM, 2/-, 2/6. 3/6, 5/6.



Department.



Green Tree Frogs, Fire Frogs, Common and
Edible Frogs, Toads, Salamanders, Newts,

etc.
Mexican Axoloti of every description.



Experienced Workmen in all branches kept on the
premises for special orders, etc.



BOOKS AND EVERY REQUISITE FOR ALL BRANCHES OF
NATURAL HISTORY.



W ATKINS & DOWCASTER



, STRAND, W.C.

LONDON.

(Five doors from Charing Cross.)



Every description of Apparatus and Cabinets of the best make
for Entomology and general Natural History, &c.

Wire or Cane Ring Net and Stick, is. 8d., 25., and 2S. $d
Umbrella Net (self-acting), 73. 6d. Pocket Folding Net (wire or
cane), 35. gd. and 43. 6d. Corked Pocket Boxes, 6d., pd., is. and
is. 6d. Zinc Relaxing Boxes, gd., is., is. 6d. and 25. Chip Boxes,
nested, 4 doz.. 8d. Entomological Pins, mixed, is. per oz.
Pocket Lantern, 23. 6d. to 5s., Napthaline, i|d. peroz. Sugaring
Tin (with brush), is. 6d. and 25. Best Killing Bottles, is. 6d.
Store Boxes, 23. 6d., 45.. 53., and 6s. Setting Boards, from 5d. ;
complete Set, IDS. 6d. Setting Houses. 93. 6d., us. 6d., and 145.
Larva Boxes, pd., is., is. 6d. Breeding Cages, 23. 6d., 45., and
5S-

Finest Stock of British and Foreign Butterflies, Beetles,
Birds' Eggs, &c., in the Kingdom.

Throughout the winter and early spring, a large stock of live
pupae of British and Foreign Butterflies and Moths, including
the gigantic Atlas and other Exotic Moths.

Collections of Natural-History objects, carefully named and
arranged.

New and Second-hand Works on Entomology. ,

Label Lists of every description. The complete Label List
of British Lepidoptera (Latin and English names), is. 6d , post
free.

One each of all the British Butterflies in a Case, 253.

A magnificent assortment of Preserved Caterpillars always in
Stock.

Birds and Animals stuffed and mounted in the best style by
skilled workmen on the premises.



A full Catalogue sent post tree on application.



JAMES GARDNER,

V

Manufacturer of all kinds of Entomological
Apparatus,



29,

caler in Insects, birds' Eggs, Skins.



Plain Eing Net, cane or wire, 2s. Umbrella Net, 5s. 6d.,
6s. 6d , 7s. 6d., and 10s. 6d. Folding Nets, cane or iron, 4s. 6d.
Pocket Box, wood, 6d. and Is. Ditto, metal, Is. 6d. and 2s.
Store Box, Is. 9d., 2s, 6d., 4s., 5s., and 6s. Larva Box, Is.
Larva Cage, 2s. 6d., 3s., 3s. 6d., and 5s. Sugaring Tin, Is.,
Is. 6d., 2s., and 2s. 6d. Entomological Pins, from Is. per
ounce, assorted or mixed. Willow Chip Box, four sizes,
Nested, the packet of four dozen, 9d. Setting Boards, 6d. to
2s. ; a Complete Set, 10s.

All Articles Guaranteed.
EXCHANGED IF NOT APPROVED OP.



Price Lists on Application.

29, OXFORD STREET.



Jo



THE YOUNG COLLECTOR SERIES.]

AN INTRODUCTION

TO THE

COPPER COINS
OF MODERN EUROPE



FRANK C. HIGGINS



Profusely Illustrated ; -with many drawings by the Author from
coins in his oivn collection




i, onto on

SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & CO
PATERNOSTER SUARE




w

One kreuzer of Francis Joseph I., Austria. 1851




PRE FAC E.

THE author wishes to express, first his obligation to the
comprehensive list of modern European copper coins com-
piled by his friend Mr. Lyman H. Low, and published as the
Official Catalogue of the Scott Coin and Stamp Company of
New York. The lines of this valuable list have been followed,
as representing the most convenient order, and at the same
time guaranteeing that the coins treated of might readily be
found on application to this and other excellent concerns,
both in England and abroad.

The filling in of the outline thus provided has been ac-
complished, however, by reference to the author's own large
collection, from which many of the illustrations are made, and
to the excellent private numismatic library of an indefatigable
London amateur, Mr. Thomas Pocock. To both of the fore-
going gentlemen many thanks are therefore rendered. To
young collectors desirous of embracing the entire range of
modern copper coins, the two volumes of this series, entitled
English Coins and Tokens, by Llewelyn Jewett, F.S.A., and
Colonial Coins and Tokens, by I). F. Howarth, F.S.A., will
give, with but few exceptions, notably those of American
and foreign colonial coins, a complete master) 7 of this most

fascinating topic.

FRANK C. HIGGINS.

London.



2003142



CONTENTS.



AUSTRIA


57,58


ITALY (continued).




Burgau . . .


5*, 59


Italy (United) .


75


Bohemia . . ' .


. 60


Naples and Sicily


61-^5


Goritz


59


Neapolitan Republic .


65


Hungary . . .


59, 60


Orbetello . . .


. 65


Poland . . .


. 60


Palma Nuova


. 66


Salzburg


59


Papal States


66-68


Transylvania


. 60


Roman Repul lies


73


Tyiol, The. .


59


Sardinia . .


73


BULGARIA


9 1


Tuscany . .


74


FRANCE


9-14


Venice


75


French Provinces


14-16


NETHERLANDS, THE .


77, 78


GERMANY


27


Belgium


. 82


Anhalt


45


Dutch and Flemish .


So, 8r


Baden


35,36


Holland .


82,83


Bavaria


33, 34


Luxemburg.


. 84


Bremen


47


Netherland Provinces .


78-80


Brunswick and Luneberg


36-38


PORTUGAL .


24-27


Frankfort .


47


POLAND


. 89


German Empire .


. 48


ROUMANIA .


. 90


Hesse- Cassel


4 1


RUSSIA


84-89


Lippe


45,46


Poland .


. 89


Mecklenburg


43


Russian Dependencies .


. 89


Nassau


. 44


SCANDINAVIA


. 48


Oldenburg .


44


Denmark .


49, 50


Prussia . .


27-32


Norway


5 1


Reuss . . .' ,


47


Schleswig-Holstein .


5 1


Saxony . . -.


38-40


Sweden


52-56


Waldeck . . .


. 46


SERVIA ....


. 90


Westphalia . . *


42


SPAIN ....


17-22


Wurtemburg


24,35


Spanish Provinces


22-24


GREECE


91,92


TURKEY


93


ITALY ....


. 61


Cyprus


94


Corsica


74


Malta


94,95


Italian Provinces


68-72


Venetian Dependencies


93



AN INTRODUCTION



COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE.



INTRODUCTORY".

IT will not be out of place to preface a work treating exclusively 01
copper coins, with a few words concerning the position occupied
by that useful metal in the currency of nations, and the peculiar
features which commend it to the attention of young collectors
who, the writer at least, believes, will find the study of copper
coins quite as interesting and more practical as a beginning
in Numismatics than that of any other series. Copper and
bronze, which latter is simply copper mixed with a certain
proportion of tin or other alloy to render it of a hardness and
fineness suitable to its employment for artistic purposes, have
since the most primitive ages been accorded an intrinsic value
which has secured their employment in matters of barter and
exchange. Originally this value was real, because at an early
period of the world's history, copper, tin, and malleable iron,
were the sole metals with which mankind had become suf-
ficiently acquainted to turn into weapons of war and implements
of domestic utility. In the primitive ages, before the invention
of coin, bronze served as currency by weight, or in the form of
small implements such as were in common use, the same way
as to-day knife blades and hatchet heads form the currency of
the natives ot some parts of Central Africa.

To the Romans, properly, belongs the credit of having first
introduced a regular copper coinage. We owe our English
word pecuniary, relating to a money consideration, to the fact



6 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE.

that the Latin founders of Rome stamped or cast upon their
huge pieces of copper the effigy of an ox. Hence the derivation
from, pec us, meaning cattle. From this humble beginning the
copper coinage of Rome and of Greece developed and spread
over the entire ancient world, so as to bequeath to us in the
variety of nations, conditions, and types represented, an inestim-
able treasure of testimony to historical truths. The Imperial
series of Roman bronzes stands to-day, in value, superior to the
gold coin of its own or any other period.

With the decadence and extinction of the Roman Empire,
the once all-important copper coinage of Europe dwindled and
disappeared without leaving a trace beyond a few meaningless
bits of metal coming, perhaps, from the wreck of the Byzantine
Empire. The small values for which it passed in early times
were for centuries represented throughout Europe by minute
scales of silver, so mean and insignificant as to hardly deserve
the distinction of being called coins, and which most frequently
were told by weight. Then came a period during which the
lesser fractional values were represented by billon coins, a base
mixture of a very little silver with a great deal of copper, and
not until the twelfth century did pure copper or bronze make
its reappearance in Europe as a distinct coinage, while its use
in other than the merest localities was restricted until several
hundred years later. The middle of the fifteenth century may
be fairly given as the period of the renaissance of European
copper coinage.

The satisfaction to be derived by the collector from the /act
that it is possible for him to reunite at slight expense a most
creditable representation of almost every series which has
appeared in the period intervening since that epoch, need not
be dilated upon. The number of " curious " copper coins
which have come to British shores in the pockets of her
voyagers by sea and land, have counted up into the millions
yearly ever since Britons have mingled freely with the outer
world. There is no lack of hoards which the collector will
encounter from time to time in divers places, and it only
remains for him to select, classify, and study as becomes a true
amateur. The home and colonial coinages of Great Britain,
which of course deserve first attention, have been clearly and
sensibly treated of in the two preceding volumes of this series,
so that the contents of the present, its compiler hopes, will
follow in pleasing natural sequence.



HINTS ON COLLECTING. 7

There are several points concerning the collection of coins
which the collector, commencing, will soon find out for himself,
after having committed a few errors of judgment, but which
are well worth mentioning at the outset.

HINTS ON COLLECTING.

It does not do to go too fast at the beginning. The chief
beauty of a collection lies in the number of actually perfect
and undamaged specimens it contains, and a collection to
possess any appreciable number of such coins must be the
patient accumulation of a long period nor is it wise to
search out rarities in preference to all others. Rare issues are
very high priced when in the hands of dealers, and are the
field of the advanced collector, who buys coins as one would
buy old plate and china, knowing where to sell again,
at a pinch. The young collector will, if he keeps his eyes
open and carefully identifies each piece coming into his posses-
sion, secure from time to time odd specimens which he could
not buy in the open market for large sums. He should never
lose sight of the fact that when he obtains a better specimen
of a coin already in his possession, he must discard the latter,
for which he may not readily find a purchaser. This should
make him cautious about going to expense for a coin which he
is not sure of retaining. If he acquires an indifferent specimen
for a mere song, it may do to help fill a set with for a while,
but it had better be left alone than over-paid for. Copper
coins which have been long hoarded away, especially those of
elaborate design, having a high relief, accumulate a great deal
of dust and dirt which combines with the natural verdigris of
the metal to discolour the piece and clog up every crevice.
Ammonia or acid should not be employed to remove this, but
the deposit may be loosened, without hurting the coin, by
immersion in a strong solution of common soda in water, and
cleared away by brushing out with a moderately hard brush.
An old tooth brush is the best which could be recommended.
The colour of the coin does not matter so long as it is clean,
as old coins are all more or less oxidized. The surface of an
uncirculated or proof coin should never be touched with the
fingers, but the piece should be taken carefully and firmly by
the "opposite outer edges, between the thumb and index finger,
as a damp finger-mark leaves an almost indelible stain.



8 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE.

It is a great mistake of the ignorant that only those coins
are genuine which are more or less battered and show visible
signs of age and wear. Coin collecting has been in vogue
many hundred years, and old collections have brought down
to our time plenty of very old pieces still in their mint fresh-
ness. Counterfeits of modern European copper coins do not
exist in any great proportion, as the originals have not reached
a degree of rarity to warrant their being profitable to unscru-
pulous persons. Copies of current copper coins have certainly
been made at divers times in different countries to serve as
tokens, but they are of such inferior execution, and badly
struck on such thin planchets of copper, as to at once show
what they are. Electrotypes of rare coins, or leaden copies
washed with copper, may be detected by their failure to ring
when balanced on the finger, and the excellent condition of
such desirable coins as they will represent will at once lead to
critical examination. Electrotyped counterfeits have each side
manufactured separately, after which they are soldered together,
An examination of the edges will detect this. It is a common
trick of some coin dealers to improve the appearance of a worn
and discoloured copper coin of value by giving it a bath of fresh
copper. In this sort of coin the worn lettering and design
will belie its apparent mint condition. The young collector
will also do well to avoid the type of junk-shop dealer who has
a few coins for sale about which he knows absolutely nothing,
but which he invariably attempts to foist upon an inexperienced
amateur at prices varying from five to fifty times their real
value. A reputable coin or specimen dealer should alone be
relied upon. Young collectors should endeavour to know
others equally interested, so as to furnish each with an outlet
for duplicate coins and exchange of experiences. The friend-
ship of an advanced collector, and access to his cabinet for
purpose of study, will be found invaluable if it can be com-
manded.

As I have already stated, a very few copper coins are extant
which belong to an early period, subsequent to the final dis-
appearance of the regular bronze coinage of the Roman and
its successor, the Byzantine Empire. These belong principally
to Italian provinces bordering upon the Mediterranean, such
as Naples and Sicily, and are of such a nondescript order and %
so irregular in sequence that they do not furnish an adequate*
basis upon which to found a chronological account. They



FRANCE. 9

herefore will be touched upon in connection with their respec-
tive countries, which in turn will be covered in the order o
their importance. Our work dealing with such an immense
variety of types, it is necessary in many cases to depend on the
personal aptitude of the collector, who, when a single coin of
a series, differing one from another in many minor points, is
described or pictured to him, will identify the others by impor-
tant details unmistakably common to all.

As abbreviations constantly appear on coins t:o small to
bear the entire inscription common to the series, the student
will find it necessary to develop a familiarity with the latter,
which will often prove of great aid. Dates given are those
during which copper coins were issued.



FRANCE.

The first coinage of copper for use in modern France took
place in the reign of Henry III. Le Blanc, in the quain
French of his elaborate Traite Historiqiie des Monnoyes de
France, published at Amsterdam in 1692, says,

" I shall not say anything about the billon moneys (of Henry
III.) because they were the same as of the preceding reign.
In 1575 were made Doubles-deniers Tournois and Deniers
Tournois of fine copper. Up to that time there had been no
pure copper money in France, but as now billon was lacking
wherewith to manufacture Doubles and Deniers they were
obliged to use copper to make these little coins, which they
have always done since." The type of these first French copper
coins was destined to endure upwards of one hundred years,




Henry IV., 1603.

during which a great variety appeared not only bearing the
effigies of the Kings of France, but of a large number of their



10 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE.

princely vassals in the provinces. The obv. of these pieces
contained invariably a small bust of the monarch in the high
collar or ruff of the period, facing right, within an inner circle,
which is surrounded in turn by his titles. The rev. bore
usually three fleur-de-lis in a circle surrounded by DOVBLE
TOVRNOIS and date, or two fleur-de-lis in the case of the smaller
coins, with DENIER TOVRNOIS and date. These pieces were
multiplied by thousands, and are not rare. They are to be
found of HENRI in. 1575-89; the Cardinal de Bourbon,
pretender as CHARLES x. 1590-95; HENRI mi. 1590-1610;
LOVIS or LOYS xin. (Louis) juvenile head, LOYS xin. adult




FIG. 2. Obverse of Double Tourno-s. Louis XIII. Adult head.

head and LUD(OVJCUS) xin. undraped adult bust (latter facing
left) 1611-43. The heads of course changing with advancing
age. For Louis XIV. were struck, first Deniers and Doubles
with a young head and L. xini. etc., and afterwards a series




Fie. 3. Obverse of Liaid. Louis XIV. (Young head.)

of Liards on the obv. of which was a crowned juvenile bust,
titles and date, and on the rev. LIARD DE FRANCE, and three
fleur-de-lis below. Later the Liard bore his well known
adult head with flowing hair, uncrowned. There were also
struck late in the reign of Louis XIV. pieces of two and four
Deniers with bust, and six Deniers, bearing on olm. a triangular
figure of three double 1's (JL) crowned, with a fleur-de-lis at
each angle, the whole surrounded by titles. Rev. a cross
surrounded by six DENIERS DE FRANCE and date. The



FRANC K.



I I



period of the foregoing was from 1648-1713. The copper
coinage of Louis XV. was in Liards, Sous and half Sous, with
bust and LUDOVICUS xv. DEI GRATIA on obv., and on rev.
the remainder of his titles and date surrounding the crowned
arms of France. The dates are first coinage, young head,
1719-23; second coinage, adult head, 1766-74. The first



FIG. 4. Rev




of Sou. Louis XVI.,



(Type of Louis XV. also.



coins of the ill-fated Louis XVI., 1774-93, were a Liard,
Sou and half Sou, precisely similar to those of his grandfather,
whom he succeeded. On the destruction of the Bastille and
subjugation of the king to the National Assembly, with which
events the Revolution began, a new coinage was prepared and
struck in both copper and brass, the values being two Sous,
and three, six and twelve Deniers. The obvs. bear the draped
bust of the King, who is styled LOUIS xvi., ROI DES FRANCOIS,
with date below bust. The rev. bears an upright fasces sur-
mounted by a liberty cap and within a wreath of oak leaves,




while encircling this in turn appears LA NATION*, LA LOI, LE
ROI above, and L'AN DE LA LIBERTE below. The value is



12



COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE.



expressed by a figure and letter in field. Slight varieties exist,
but the general type of these coins is always the same.

On the death of Louis XVI. by the guillotine, the coinage
of the " Reign of Terror " commences, with pieces of |, one and
two Sous in both copper and brass. Their type is, obr. a
pair of scales surmounted by a liberty cap, and about which
a wreath is entwined. Above are the words LIBERTE EGALITE,




FIG. 6. Obverse of Sou. First Republic, 1793. (Reign of Terror.

and below, the date, 1793, or a mint mark: the value is
expressed within the wreath. Rev. a tablet surmounted by
the All-seeing eye, and inscribed LES HOMMES SOXT EGAUX
DEVANT LA LCI. To the left of the tablet is a bunch of grapes,
and to the right a wisp of corn. The inscription is REPUBLIQUE
FRANCHISE L'AN ii. In 1795, or the "year four of liberty" as
the Republicans called it, the coinage was again changed.
Pieces of five Centimes, and two Decimes were issued, bear-




FIG. 7 .-Decim



ing the head of Liberty coiffed with a Phrygian bonnet and
surrounded by REPUBLIQUE FRAN^AISE. The ra 1 . of the



FRANCE. 1 3

smaller piece bears 5 CENTIMES, L'AX 4, and that of the larger
2 DECIMES. This last piece was called in later, " UN " punched
over the " 2," and the final " s " obliterated.

The following year, however, larger planchets were used
for the five Centime piece, while the Uecime retained the
altered size, and a one Centime piece was issued, which is
very common and plentiful in France up to the present day,
although it was soon discontinued. The dates will be L'AN
5-6-7-8-9. There are unhappily no French copper coins
bearing the effigy of the great Napoleon, 1804-15. His reign
is represented only by a Uecime bearing a large " N " within a
wreath, with value and date, 1808, on rev. Louis XVIII. struck
no copper coins except siege pieces. Neither Charles X. nor
Louis Philippe are represented except by colonial coins of the
value of five and ten Centimes, which bear beautiful busts.
These circulated freely at home, and are common. On the
overthrow of Louis Philippe and establishment of the second
Republic with Prince Louis Napoleon Bonaparte as President,
the one-Centime piece of the first Republic was revived from the
original obv. dies, and given a rev. differing only in the substi-
tution of the dates, 1848-49-50 and 51 for the Republican
year. The Prince-President on becoming Napoleon III. issued
fine bronze pieces of one, two, five and ten Centimes, bearing
his head within a circle of dots, and the legend NAPOLEON in.




FIG. 8. Ten Centimes of Napoleon III., 1855.

EMPEREUR, with date under bust, 1852-57. Rev. the Imperial
eagle perched upon a thunderbolt within circle of dots, EMPIRE
FRANC.AIS above, and value UN, DEUX, CINQ or DIX CENTIMES
below. These are still the most common type current in
France to-day. In 1861 a new bust of the Emperor was
substituted with a crown of laurel, referring to his victory at the



14 COPPER COINS OF MODERN EUROPE.

battle of Magenta, and the, since famous, waxed moustache.
Dates of the latter issue 1861 to 1865.

The coins of the present Republic are precisely similar in
size, appearance and value, but the head of the Emperor has
given place to one of Ceres, and the legend REPUBLIQUE




FIG. 9. Ten Centimes of the "Third Republic," 1870- .

FRANCHISE, with date below. On the rev. the value, i, 2, 5,
or 10 CENTIMES within a wreath of olive and laurel, surrounded
by the text of modern France, LIBERTE*EGALITE*FRATERNITE.



FRENCH PROVINCIAL ISSUES.

It has been noted that the little Doubles and Deniers
Tournois were not only multiplied by the Kings themselves in
France, but imitated by princely vassals and the governors of
distant provinces. The general appearance of the original
coin is always preserved, and in most cases the rer. type with
the fleur-de-lis is unaltered. We meet, however, with " Doubles
de Lorraine" " Liards de Boiiillon" etc., only departing from
the series in matter of lettering and minor details, and others
on which the arms of their issuers appear. The following is
a list of the principal series and types of provincial issue which


1 3 4 5 6

Online LibraryFrank C. (Francis Carlos) HigginsAn introduction to the copper coins of modern Europe → online text (page 1 of 6)