Frank Morton Todd.

The story of the exposition; being the official history of the international celebration held at San Francisco in 1915 to commemorate the discovery of the Pacific Ocean and the construction of the Panama Canal (Volume v.5) online

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THE



AUTOCHROME BY COURTNEY A. REBUT



THE STORY OF THE EXPOSITION

BEING THE OFFICIAL HISTORY OF THE INTERNATIONAL CELEBRATION

HELD AT SAN FRANCISCO IN 1915 TO COMMEMORATE THE

DISCOVERY OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN AND

THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE

PANAMA CANAL




BY

FRANK MORTON TODD



WITH 600 ILLUSTRATIONS, INCLUDING 6l PLATES IN COLOR



IN FIVE VOLUMES
VOLUME FIVE



PUBLISHED FOR

THE PANAMA-PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION COMPANY



BY

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

THE KNICKERBOCKER PRESS

1921







r



* 60k

VOL. >/




Printed in the United States oj America



CONTENTS



CHAPTERS



VII
VIII



XI



XII

XIII

XIV

XV

XVI

XVII

XVIII

XIX

XX

XXI

XXII

XXIII

XXIV

XXV

XXVI

XXVII

XXVIII



CONGRESSES, CONFERENCES, CONVENTIONS

THE MARKET PLACE OF IDEAS .

SOCIAL PROGRESS .

THE WOMEN'S CONGRESS OF MISSIONS

ADVANCES IN MEDICINE .

PLAGUE, LEPROSY, TYPHOID

HEALTH DEFENSE FOR THE AMERICAS

SAFE MILK ....

NURSING ....

HEALTH IN THE SCHOOLS

EXTENDING MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE

THE WORLD'S INTELLIGENCE CORPS

HISTORIANS OF THE PACIFIC AREA

THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE

WHAT SHALL THE WORLD BE TAUGHT?

WORK OF THE WORLD IN I9I5

DEMONSTRATING A SOCIAL PROVIDENCE

THE CONGREGATION OF CONGRESSES

MORAL PROTECTION

HELPFULNESS ....

GOVERNMENT OF THE EXPOSITION .

ADMINISTRATION IN I9I5

A FEW CRITICISMS

ADMISSIONS AND CONCESSIONS — REVENUE

THE FREE ADMISSIONS BUREAU

TO OPERATE THE PLANT .

A FEW ITEMS OF EXPOSITION HOUSEKEEPING

THE POWER O' GASOLINE



4

7

II

16

23

27

31

33
31
41
43
49
62

74
84
90
100
122
125
130
136
ISI
154
164
169
174
184



IV



CONTENTS



CHAPTERS

XXIX AN EXHIBITION HOSPITAL

XXX THE MODEL POST OFFICE

XXXI INSURING AN EXPOSITION

XXXII OPERATING-PERIOD ACCOUNTS

XXXIII FOR THE FIRST TIME

XXXIV THE LAST DAY AND NIGHT
XXXV THE PASSING OF THE EXPOSITION

XXXVI EXODUS ....

XXXVII WRECKAGE AND SALVAGE

XXXVIII DISSOLUTION AND PRESERVATION

XXXIX LOSSES ....

XL THE CORPORATION DISSOLVED
EPILOGUE ....



PAGE
I8 7
193
I96
207
221
225
23I
236
2 4 I
248
256
263
265



APPENDIX



PART I RULES OF THE DIVISION OF WORKS

PART II CLASSIFICATION OF THE EXHIBITS .

PART III RULES FOR INSTALLATION

PART IV DIRECTIONS FOR PARTICIPANTS

PART V RULES OF THE AWARD SYSTEM

PART VI RULES FOR WRECKING AND REMOVAL
INDEX .....



3
62
IO9
Il6
125
133

'39



ILLUSTRATIONS

frontispiece: the mirror (color) . . . Facing Title



CORRIDOR ENTRANCE ....
FOUNTAIN OF ENERGY, AND FESTIVAL HALL
THE ROMAN WALL ....

FOUNTAIN OF THE SETTING SUN
RHODODENDRONS ....

PANSIES ......

italian towers ....

"industrial fire" (color)

fountain of youth ....

fountain of el dorado

lights on the peristyle

the pool with jets ....

a railroad building ....

glacier park indians

grand trunk headquarters

doorway to the court of palms (color)

tablet to the flying men

salone reale .....

an entrance to the palace of education
in the portuguese pavilion
tea room in the california building,
phantasy ......

"the net" (color) ....

one of the italian group, at night

room in the french pavilion

the tower of ages ....

down the esplanade



Facing
Page

2

6
10

18
22
26
30
34
38
42
46
So
54
58
62
66
70
74
78
82
86
90
94
98
102
106



ILLUSTRATIONS



searchlight on the column of progress

cloister of the italian pavilion

passage through the arch of the setting

" the hunters " (color)

cactus garden, california building

urns and columns

orchestral niche, court of seasons

temple of sculpture.

entrance hall of the argentine pavilion

westward aspect, court of the universe (

chart of attendance and revenue .

woven beams .....

east end of the palace of horticulture

"beauty and the beast" .

angle in the venetian court

the lighted palace ....

la fayette .....

"dancing the grapes" (color) .

patio of the cuban pavilion

guardians of the arches .

model post office ....

the arch illumined ....

cloister piers, court of abundance .

dinner to president moore

night vista .....

closing day in the court of the universe

final ceremonies ....

the last gleam ....

closing night on the zone

the last pyrotechnics

a backward glance ....

"the windmill" (color) .

trailing fire .....

model of the utah copper mine

old faithful inn ....



Facing
Page

no
114
118
122
126
130
134
138
142
146

154
158
162
166

170

174
178
182
186
190
194
198
202
206
210
222
226
230

234
238
242
246
250
254
254



ILLUSTRATIONS



THE FOUNTAIN OF EARTH
TRANSFERRING THE AUDITORIUM
MISSION CLOISTER, CALIFORNIA BUILDING

THROUGH A MOORISH ARCH .

ITALIAN CYPRESSES

AURORA, FROM THE SCINTILLATOR

THE FINAL SALVO (COLOR)

THE DOME IN DARKNESS

MEMORIES. ....



Facing
Page

. 2 5 8

. 262

. 266

In Appendix

4
8
12
16
20
24



THE STORY OF THE EXPOSITION

CHAPTER I
CONGRESSES, CONFERENCES, CONVENTIONS

THERE is something in the nature of an international exposition that
refuses to be satisfied with merely material exhibits. If corporeal
exhibits, why not incorporeal ? The job is only half done when you
show what men are manufacturing. You must go ahead and show what they
are thinking. To represent what they have to sell to one another isn't
enough. In this twentieth century of ideals and idealism you must show
what they mean to do for one another.

Religion, as expressed in the World's Parliament of Religions, was the
keynote of the conventions at the Columbian Exposition; Learning, exempli-
fied in the World's Congress of Arts and Sciences, of the St. Louis Exposition
eleven years later. Those Congresses meant Disposition, and
Power. The Exposition at San Francisco had a strong utilitarian n p " 3 "l g
character, and it took these two themes, Religion and Learning,
and sought to consolidate them and make them real and give them practical
application to human life, through Service.

This was the core and spine of that great series of congresses, conferences,
and conventions that met at San Francisco and vicinity in 191 5. It was the
theme of thousands of letters of invitation to organizations all over the
world. There was no single large and conspicuous gathering, dominating all
the rest, such as the Parliament of Religions at Chicago, because the war
disrupted plans for the greatest gathering of the sort ever held; but through
the majority of the subjects discussed and expounded at the Panama-Pacific
International Exposition, whether by the Mt. Hamilton astronomer and the
New York mathematician pointing out the human values of their researches,
or the enthusiastic young New Orleans dentist telling his fellow practitioners
about the new treatment for pyorrhea alveolaris, ran a consideration of the
question, what can men do for men, and how can the sciences help them?

The thing that emerged noticeably from thousands of papers and ad-

VOL. V — I I



2 THE STORY OF THE EXPOSITION

dresses and debates, was the test of utility. That accorded with the spirit
of the times, which the Exposition expressed. Yet this underlying idea in
the minds of the management, reflected in the responses to its invitations
and the utterances of the delegates, its guests, was not permitted to have a
restrictive effect. The Exposition regarded itself as a world forum, and in a
spirit of the broadest catholicity all organizations were invited to participate
without regard to race, color, creed, or religious, political, fraternal, or other
affiliation.

A satirical person some centuries back noticed that it is one thing to "call
spirits from the vasty deep," and quite another to have them "come when
you do call them." Invitations, great ideas, fine themes are not enough.
People may not respond. There must be practice here, as well as good in-
tention. If you are going to have these incorporeal exhibits, the congresses,
conferences, and conventions, in effective number, you have to go after them
and get them. And in this instance an unfavorable phase of the problem of
getting them was, curiously enough, the fact that too many of the scientific
and philosophical gentlemen throughout the nation and the
, ea ~ e world seemed to have made up their minds that San Francisco

to Come , ... .

would be a good city to avoid during the pressure and confusion
and counter-attractions of its Exposition year. On July i, 1912, exactly ten
gatherings had been scheduled to meet at San Francisco in 1915, notwith-
standing much vigorous publicity and some months of hard work on the part
of the Manager of the Bureau of Conventions and Societies. An exposition
is not, it is true, a quiet cloister inviting meditation in an academic calm;
it is stressful as a steel bridge with an Overland Flyer thundering across it.
Yet good, vigorous work, with the ideal of Service back of it, brought them
at last. Although it took the balance of the year 1912 to get 62 more gather-
ings, the number of conventions held in San Francisco or vicinity, under the
auspices of the Exposition and during the Exposition season, was more than
double the number held at the St. Louis Exposition, and nearly five times as
many as were held at Chicago.

It was a world's record: 928. Hardly a day of the Exposition season
passed without a convention, and sometimes as many as forty were in ses-
sion on the same day. The average was ten. If the rate had been a session
a day it would have taken 2,927 days to hold them all, or eight years and one
week, and they would have had to meet Sundays and holidays. It is esti-
mated that the 5,854 half-day sessions were attended by a total of 1,756,000
people.

Taking them by groups, the educational group was the largest, with
172 separate gatherings. Two hundred and thirty-two California organiza-




GEORGE W. KEL



sT COMPANY



A CORRIDOR ENTRANCE



CONGRESSES, CONFERENCES, CONVENTIONS 3

tions met, in all, or 25 per cent of the total. And of the entire list, 114
conventions were held by women, a remarkable showing of the extent to
which women had been organizing in their own particular fields

. Women

of interest in the few years preceding 191 5. There were many Organizing
college and university alumni reunions, as well as college fraternity
conventions, and there were a great many reunions of organized families,
for it was known to the head of the Bureau of Congresses that some 200
families in the United States are organized and hold annual gatherings,
usually near the old homestead. An amendment to the Political Code of
California, secured at the legislative session just preceding the Exposition,
made it possible for 23 Teachers' Institutes to be held on the grounds.

No other exposition ever made such preparations to care for its conven-
tions. Halls were furnished, free. Festival Hall cost about $277,000, and
was much used. Then there was Congress Hall, in the Live Stock section,
and there was the California Building, and some meetings were held in the
Y. W. C. A. Building and the Inside Inn. But the Exposition Auditorium,
in the Civic Center of San Francisco, was built to give halls to the con-
ferences that should meet at San Francisco for the year, not only without
rent but even without the charge of an entrance fee into the grounds.
Some of the conventions were accompanied by little expositions of their
own, and for these, such as the American Medical Association and the Den-
tal Congress, the main hall of the Auditorium Building, 190 feet square,
offered grand space. Free halls were the only subsidy offered, nor was any
money paid any organization member for promotion. It was necessary to
rent outside halls but four times.



CHAPTER II
THE MARKET PLACE OF IDEAS

NEVER in a like period did one city see so many and such diversified
learned gatherings within its boundaries as those that met at San
Francisco in connection with the Exposition. Meetings went on
as in some great conclave of college faculties. Seventy-three congresses,
conferences, and conventions were held in a single week. Few held single
sessions. Most of them met for days and in several sections. The various
meetings of the National Education Association ran for thirteen days. The
World's Insurance Congress sat for two weeks. During the height of the
season 14 or 15 conventions would hold 35 or 40 meetings in a single day —
in the different halls of the Exposition Auditorium, in Festival Hall, in the
Live Stock Congress Hall, in Native Sons Hall, in Scottish Rite
b MeeHn s Auditorium, at the Inside Inn, in the Municipal Auditorium in
Oakland, in the halls of the two great California universities at
Berkeley and Palo Alto, at Asilomar, and at other convenient points; simul-
taneously, concurrently, all at once; representing every shade of opinion,
from the rarefied doctrines of the Mazdaznan Society to the latest practices
of the civil engineers.

There were congresses of mothers, and dancing masters, and authors,
and railway superintendents, and dentists, and descendants of the "May-
flower" immigrants, and members of the Shedd family, and synods of the
churches. At one time an anti-tobacco league was demonstrating all the
hideousness of the demon nicotine at one end of the Auditorium Building,
while at the other end the Rotary Clubs were having their national gather-
ing, and offering fat, black cigars to everyone that entered their hospitable
door. Discussions went forward on the humor of the Old Testament and
the newest Newthot directions about your aura.

No matter what the cultus, the Exposition welcomed it as long as it kept
the peace. It is not too much to believe that the presence of all the dele-
gates, some of them men of the greatest eminence, and the transactions of
all these gatherings, glimpsed in the newspapers and discussed in their
diversity in the home and on the street, was a tremendous stimulus to the

4



THE MARKET PLACE OF IDEAS 5

intellectual life of the Bay communities. It was an outline review of the
subject-matter of modern thought. And although, practically speaking,
only subjects of contemporaneous thought and activity were represented,
the range of interest was astonishing, as this segregation of gatherings ac-
cording to topics will indicate:

Agricultural and Horticultural 36

Business and Commercial 75

Educational 172

Fraternal 105

Genealogical 28

Governmental and Civic 69

Greek Letter Societies 55

Historical and Literary 10

Industrial 28

Insurance 43

Labor 21

Live Stock 29

Musical 9

Press 10

Professional 47

Religious 79

Scientific 56

Social Service 56

During most of the season, large weekly schedules of conventions and
places of meeting were issued by the Director of Congresses, Mr. James A.
Barr, so that delegates and interested visitors could tell where to go.

As we have elsewhere stated, the great Congress of Congresses, which
would have crystallized the world of modern organization at one time and
place, had to be given over on account of the war — which is a pretty good
illustration of the character of war itself. Without that, perhaps the most
significant and important gatherings in connection with the Exposition were
those of the American Medical Association, the Pacific Coast meeting of
the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Women's
Congress of Missions, the International Engineering Congress,
the convention of the National Education Association, the Inter- p Rank
national Press Congress, the Panama-Pacific Historical Congress,
and the series of events leading up to and running through Insurance Week.
None of the others can be said to have been unimportant, inasmuch as no
intellectual effort and no sort of commerce in thought can ever be unimpor-
tant, but these were probably the largest of the gatherings, and the most
valuable. A complete reprint of the discussions and transactions would be
illuminating at many dark points, and would fill several rods of book-shelves.



6 THE STORY OF THE EXPOSITION

The transactions of the Engineering Congress alone made a dozen volumes.
Obviously this narrative cannot, if it is ever to be printed, present them all,
and so must confine itself to a rather sketchy treatment of those conferences
whose work appeared broadly significant of the state of the arts and perhaps
of some practical aspects of thought in the Exposition year.

As to the effect on the Exposition itself, something we may well notice,
as this is the Exposition's history, it was found from experience that dele-
gates to conventions entered the grounds from four to six times apiece, and
it was estimated that 277 conventions which met in August were responsible
for about one million admissions.

The consciousness of the growing importance of the work of women in
the twentieth century was reflected in the number of women's gatherings.
The 1 14 state, national, and international women's conventions or congresses,
were attended by some of the most eminent women in the world. The
subjects of these meetings covered a wide range of topics, including various
religions, missions, suffrage, peace, child welfare, social hygiene, social
economy, and governmental, fraternal, and professional interests. Such well
known leaders attended various gatherings as Mrs. Philip Snowden of Lon-
don, wife of the labor leader in Parliament; Miss Jane Addams of Hull House,
Chicago; Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt of New York; Mrs. Kate Waller
Barrett of the United States Immigration Department; Madam
wlmln Montessori; Madame Chen Chi, wife of the Chinese Commis-
sioner General of the Exposition; Madam Ali-Kuli Khan; Mrs.
William Cummings Story of New York, President of the Daughters of the
American Revolution; Mrs. Florence Kelley of New York, General Secre-
tary of the National Consumers' League; Mrs. Ella Flagg Young, Super-
intendent of Schools of Chicago; Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst, Mrs. May Wright
Sewall of San Francisco, Miss Helen Berg of Denmark, Frau Riga Hellman
of Berlin, Mme. A. Emily Napieralski of Poland, Mrs. Isabel S. Shepherd
of New York, Mrs. Clara Bewick Colby of Washington, D. C, Mrs. Ida
Husted Harper of New York, Mrs. Andreas Hofer Proudfoot of Chicago,
Comtesse Dumas of France, and many more.



! rsfer *>








CHAPTER III
SOCIAL PROGRESS

THE movement for definite human betterment and an advanced social
order, with a strengthening of social consciousness and an emphasis
of the principles of individual responsibility and the morality of
nations, took form in the World's Social Progress Congress which met at the
Exposition Auditorium from April i to u inclusive. The Chairman of the
Committee on Arrangements was Bishop William M. Bell of Los Angeles,
and he presided at almost all the sessions. Leaders in ethical movements
traveled long distances to appear and address the congress, and the addresses
ultimately made a 400-page book, covering in the most effective manner a
tremendously wide field of possible reform.

The congress was authorized and promoted by the Committee of One
Hundred in charge of religious work at the Exposition — a body instituted
by the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, with Bishop
Edwin H. Hughes of San Francisco at its head, working through the follow-
ing special committee: Bishop William M. Bell, Chairman; Gov-
ernor Hiram Johnson, Hon. Richmond P. Hobson, Hon. J. Stitt rmn i-ation
Wilson, Dr. Benjamin Ide Wheeler, Rev. Hugh W. Gilchrist,
Rev. J. A. Geisinger, Rev. J. E. Squires, President John Henry Whyte,
Prof. C. S. Gardner, Dr. David Starr Jordan, Bishop Francis J. McConnell,
Prof. E. A. Wicher.

The congress resulted in the World's Social Progress Council, a per-
manent body, which was based upon the following declaration, adopted at a
business session:

Resolved:

1. That in our judgment the time is opportune for a permanent organization
that shall undertake to develop and carry forward a specific and constructive pro-
gram in behalf of Social Progress which shall be, please God, as largely as our re-
sources and ability shall make possible, a world-wide cooperative effort.

2. That we proceed to organize The World's Social Progress Council by electing
officers to lead us in carrying forward this work, and that we authorize the said
officers as an Executive Committee to complete the organization as in their judg-
ment shall be deemed wise and best.



8 THE STORY OF THE EXPOSITION

3. That we authorize a session of the World's Social Progress Council at such
time and place in 191 6 as the officers or Executive Committee may deem advisable,
and also the prosecution of the work of the Council as extensively as shall be found
possible, in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and any other country in which the
good work in any way may be promoted.

4. That we will duly exalt the principle of individual character and responsibility
as the basis for social progress.

5. That we recognize the inevitable reactions of environment on the nature and
achievements of human kind, and call attention to the responsibility of society for
the securing as nearly as may be, of a favoring environment in so far as it is a matter
of human control and such as shall be adapted to the highest efficiency and develop-
ment of the race.

6. That we are of judgment that the religious organizations together with all
other institutions and organizations of civilization should at once identify them-
selves under a sane and aggressive leadership in behalf of social justice and efficiency
in order that every removable human handicap shall be lifted from the back of our
common humanity.

7. That a satisfactory definition of, and program for, social progress shall be
wrought out in the light of the highest and worthiest ideals known to mankind.

8. That civil government should genuinely serve the cause of social progress by
heartily acknowledging the sovereignty of the people and nurturing that sovereignty
in constructive activity, international justice, friendliness, and good will.

9. That we will work loyally for permanent peace among men and nations; not
merely for absence of strife, but for cooperative and constructive relations based on
mutual help and mutual respect.

The grade of the platform addresses was exceptionally high and the pro-
nouncements were replete with constructive ideas. No speaker was invited
unless he was accredited by real achievement. Programs suggested for
human betterment were sane and assuring. The topics treated were such as
"Education and Social Progress," by Dr. Thomas Walter Butcher, Presi-
dent of the Kansas State Normal School at Emporia; "Commer-
Thought cialized Vice," by Dr. Kate Waller Barrett, President of the
Florence Crittenton Missions; "Social Incorporation," by John
Henry Whyte; "The Movement for Peace," by David Starr Jordan, Chan-
cellor of Stanford University; "'Kultur' as Against Civilization," by Prof.
Edward Krehbiel of Stanford; "The Fallacies of War," by Dr. W. T. Foster,
President of Reed College, Oregon; "Votes for Women, and Social Progress,"
by Mrs. Gerberling of the Congressional Union, Washington, D. C; "The
Key to Social Progress," by Prof. Charles S. Gardner of the Southern Bap-
tist Seminary at Louisville, Ky.

The general status of education in the United States was thus briefly
summed up by Dr. Butcher:

"The present educational unrest in America is due in large measure to
an economic change through which we are passing as a result of the disap-
pearance forever of our western lands. An increasing population must have



SOCIAL PROGRESS 9

an outlet; without it the weak perish; only the strong survive. If our west-
ern lands could have lasted another hundred years the economic change
through which we are now passing would not have come until the next
century.

"Agriculture, as conducted on new land, required no technical training.
With our western lands gone, untrained American labor finds no market,
and condemnation falls upon the schools. A system of education rarely
questioned for a hundred years is assailed by newspaper, magazine, and
public speaker because it fails to do what it has never done, provide its pro-



Online LibraryFrank Morton ToddThe story of the exposition; being the official history of the international celebration held at San Francisco in 1915 to commemorate the discovery of the Pacific Ocean and the construction of the Panama Canal (Volume v.5) → online text (page 1 of 47)