in duplicate, the copy remaining in the book as a part of the
Ordering Castings and other Parts. For the smaller parts or
castings, the superintendent causes the list shown in Fig. 4 to be
sent to the store-keeper. This list, which is printed on heavy
flexible paper and put up in pad form, gives all particulars, and
asks for the information indicated. The store-keeper, on re-
ceiving it, ascertains the number of parts or castings he has on
hand as requested, fills in the date, signs his name or initials, and
returns the list immediately to the superintendent's office. Upon
the advice thus received, the balance of supplies, if any, are im-
mediately ordered by the superintendent through the purchasing
department, using the blank shown in Fig. 3. By adopting this
plan, a check is kept on all castings and supplies, which prevents
the continual accumulation of such supplies, a condition that
2 DEPARTMENT SHOP ORDER.
)rder issued to Dep'ts No. 2- 3 - 4- ^ p^ zjio/lt.
For Mch. Xo.
Oep't Work Fin.
To be used by Foreman of Department as Memorandum of PARTIAL ORDERS only.
Return to Superintendent's Office when all work Is finished. ,
Fig. 5. Department Shop Order Ticket
would occur if they were ordered on each successive order with-
out first ascertaining whether or not any stock was available.
Department Shop Order. The parts being all provided for
through the superintendent's office, department shop orders
(Fig. 5) are now issued to the various departments for all the
parts to make up the completed machines. These orders have
the number of the department printed in heavy black type in the
upper left-hand corner, and are printed on flexible paper (prefer-
ably white), so that they may be typed in multiple, to include all
the departments handling or machining that particular part.
Suppose an order is issued for twenty-five crankshafts for a certain
style of press; orders are issued to departments 2, 3, 4, and 9.
GENERAL SHOP SYSTEMS
The lathe department, No. 2, handles the work at the beginning;
the milling department, No. 3, receives it after No. 2; and so on.
Similar orders are issued to the first three departments, the orders
being distinguishable by the number representing the department
printed in the upper left-hand corner as previously stated. A
separate order, similar to the others, calling for the number of
the complete machines, is issued
to department No. 9, which is
the assembly department for this
type of machine.
Upon the receipt of this order
by the head of department No. 2,
or the department that first
handles the work, a requisition
on the store-keeper is issued on
a blank similar to that shown in
Fig. 3, for the number of forgings
required to fill the order, and, as
these have been provided through
the superintendent's office, they
are sent as requested, having
a red tag (Fig. 6) attached to
one of the lot to identify them.
This tag contains all particulars
as to quantity, part number, ma-
chine and style, and order num-
ber. As the work is completed in this department, this same tag
or a duplicate is attached to one of the crankshafts already ma-
chined, and is sent to the next department handling the work,
which, in this case, is No. 3. The same procedure applies in this
department; the work is then sent to the next, which is No. 4,
with the red tag still attached. This department, in turn, sends
the shafts when finished to the final department, No. 9, which is
Responsibility for Spoiled Work. Should one of these crank-
shafts be spoiled or incorrectly machined through an error on the
part of some mechanic, this system compels the foreman of the
Fig. 6. Identification Tag
department to report this fact immediately to the superintendent,
thus causing an investigation to be made as to how it happened,
whether through negligence or accident, and gives no opportunity
for anyone to quietly scrap it without the full knowledge of the
superintendent. As the work is finished in each department, the
shafts are sent on, the head of department sending them to the
head of the next department, who acknowledges their receipt by
signing his name in the space provided on the department shop
order, at the same tune filling in the date. This compels the re-
ceiving foreman to verify the number of pieces so that it tallies
PARTIAL ORDER TICKET.
r>f[>'t Work Fii
To be used for ONE ITEM ONLY when Impossible to finish up full number of Parts on Dep't Shop Order.
Return to Superintendent's Office.
Fig. 7. Department Partial Shop Order Ticket
with the number on the red tag, Fig. 6. After obtaining the
signature of the next department foreman, the shop order is
returned to the superintendent and is filed, until all departments
through which this part has passed have turned in their shop
orders. All labor being completed on the part, the costs are
transferred to the factory cost ticket, Fig. 2, which is then a
complete record of actual costs.
Record of Partly Finished Orders. At various times,
through the excessive rush of work and piling up of orders, it may
be found advisable in some departments to make up only a part
of the order. To record this, another blank (Fig. 7) called the
" Partial Order Ticket," printed on brown paper, is used by the
GENERAL SHOP SYSTEMS 25
head of the department in lieu of the regular department shop
order, and after going through the same routine as the original
order, being signed by the foremen of the departments, is turned
in to the superintendent's office. As this is done the fact is re-
corded on the original shop order in the space provided for this
purpose; this acts as a constant memorandum of parts still due
on the original order. Each department, in turn, on completion
of the work to be done turns in a similar ticket to the superin-
tendent; these are in pad form as issued to the heads of the de-
partments. This partial order ticket, as it is turned in to the
superintendent's office, forms part of the record and shows what
progress is being made on this particular part through the works.
The adoption of this plan enables the superintendent to take
steps to push through and direct what parts are to be rushed, and
avoids the holding up and delaying of parts in the various depart-
ments, as he has the information at hand to locate the part by
looking up the department shop orders returned to his office.
Time Ticket for Determining Costs. A " daily time ticket,"
shown in Fig. 8, is an important part of the system. It is ruled
and printed, as shown, provision being made for all particulars
of both stock and time; it also forms part of the superintendent's
record. These tickets are collected daily and filed in respective
order number rotation, and, upon the completion of any depart-
ment shop order, all information is transferred to factory cost
cards as before described. This daily time ticket is an important
factor in determining actual costs, etc.
Summary of Features. To sum up, a system such as the
one described in the foregoing is automatic in operation and has
much to commend it: i. There is a complete and actual record
of labor costs by departments. 2." A constant check is kept of
costs by comparison, and a means provided for locating any
excessive expenditures due to negligence, incompetent help, or
other conditions. 3. The cost of each individual part or piece
of every machine is recorded information that can be ad-
vantageously used in computing the cost of duplicate parts when
needed. 4. There is a correct tally of the material used for
both the part or machine, and the actual cost of each. 5. After
a complete record of all parts and the machine have been estab-
lished on the factory cost cards (Figs, i and 2) and the department
shop order (Fig. 5), the information is all there to facilitate the
issuance of any further orders for similar parts.
Routing System in a Machine Tool Shop. Any shop system
must be judged by what it accomplishes and the cost of its
administration. The simpler a system, other things being equal,
the better it is when judged from the practical man's point of
view. The following system of routing work through a machine
DAILY TIME CARD.
Order No. Part No. TIME
Fig. 8. Daily Time Ticket
shop has been applied to the building of horizontal boring ma-
chines by the Lucas Machine Tool Co., Cleveland, Ohio, and is
commended for its simplicity and the complete control and
knowledge of the progress of work through the shop.
The detail drawings are made on sheets 19! by 26 inches. The
sheets are divided into sections by horizontal and vertical lines,
the size varying according to the size or complexity of the parts
to be shown. On the lower part of the sheet, space is reserved
for symbols indicating the machine and pattern number and the
GENERAL SHOP SYSTEMS
corresponding operation numbers. If the part number or
symbol is, say, 8-40, the first figure represents the machine num-
ber, and the second, the pattern number, in case the part is a
casting. The operation numbers are placed opposite the part
number and show what kind of machining operation or type of
machine is to be used. The accompanying list shows what the
different numbers represent.
10. Lo-swing lathe.
11. Turret bar.
12. Turret chuck.
14. Thread milling ma-
15. Milling machine.
2. Boring machine.
3. Drilling machine.
5. Cleaning castings.
6. Painting (including
filling and rub-
7. Cutting off.
26. Spindle boring ma-
27. Automatic turret ma-
It will be noted that the list gives the name of the operation
in some cases, but more frequently it gives the name of the ma-
chine. The reason for this is that the operations on the lathe,
milling machine, etc., are minutely specified in separate lists that
accompany the routing tag and blueprint, as determined in the
planning department. These lists of operations are typewritten
and blueprinted, and are pasted on the back of the shop blue-
Two blueprints are made of each group of details in the draw-
ing-room and issued for. each lot of twenty-four machines. One
print is made on paper and is kept in a binder in the shop office.
The other print is made on cloth and is cut apart, making as
many individual prints as there are separate details on the sheet.
These small prints are provided with a ring at the top to which is
attached a routing tag. (See Figs. 9 and 10.) The routing tag
is filled out in the shop office and sent into the shop with its blue-
print to accompany the parts until finished and delivered to the
assembling floor or the store-room.
For the purpose of illustration, assume that, twenty-four " first-
driving " bevel gears are to be machined. The symbol of this
part on the drawing is 32-139. Each operation is designated
in the space opposite the part symbol on the drawing, as pre-
viously explained. The operations in this case are i2-a, i2-b,
I II I O '/ I
*-,u I'l tV
Fig. 9. Detached Detail Drawing with Routing Tag
13, 16, 24, 9, 15, and 20, representing the " turret chuck " (a and
b), " gear-cutter," " keyseater," " store-room," " lathe," " milling
machine," and " fitting," as shown by the list of operation
GENERAL SHOP SYSTEMS
The first operation on the bevel-gear blank is that of chucking
in the Gisholt turret lathe and performing operation "a." This
operation consists of boring, facing, and turning the surfaces
designated by the line a on the drawing (Fig. 9) which starts in
the bore and terminates at the outer angle of the tooth section.
This line is broken, the break being one short dash. One short
NUMBER OF EXTRAS
NUMBER OF PIECES
TO MAKE c<O
PIECES IN STOCK ARE
READY FOR OPERATION No..
WORKMAN WILL BE HELD RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
CARE OF THIS TAG AND KEEPING IT WITH THE
Po.cm No. 17
Fig. 10. Front and Back of Routing Tag
dash indicates that it is the first operation. The second opera-
tion " b " is indicated on the drawing by another broken line b,
the break consisting of two short dashes. The operator on the
turret lathe does not change from one operation to the other on
each piece; he does one operation on each piece first and then
changes his chuck and tools to do the second operation, and so on.
When the lot of castings and the routing tag are delivered to the
turret lathe, a check mark is made by the clerk on the shop office
drawing, opposite the symbol. This mark shows that work has
been started on these parts. Further records are made from the
cost cards, a sample of which is shown in Fig. n. The cost cards
are stamped in a time recording clock when the job is started
and when completed. They are partly filled out by the shop
office clerk, the order number, piece number, operation, and num-
ber of pieces being the items entered. The cards then go to the
foreman who keeps them in a card rack with index tab cards to
designate the various operations. Thus there will be cards for
J.T. No 068
ORDER NO. PIECE NO.
OPERATION y...3L~ '&_ ......
~ s~~, NO. PCS.
i^mO'.l. - FINISHED
W.../&jt^A^Z& / l^
MORNING | AFTERNOON . | OVERTIME |
OUT 1 IN OUT T IN OUT j
. : . j -.)_
. 1 1 -~
1 ; j ' 1
" 1 I ~!~~
Fig. ii. Top Portion of a Cost Card
practically all the operations enumerated on the schedule of
The turret lathe operator who machines the bevel-gear blanks
is charged with twenty-five pieces, an extra piece being supplied
to replace any casting found defective or spoiled. When he
finishes operations i2-a and i2-b, the time of completion is
stamped in the tune recorder, and the card is turned in to the
foreman, who then gives the workman another job, and the cost
GENERAL SHOP SYSTEMS 31
card for the operation is stamped in the " in " column. The
cards for completed operations are collected each morning, and
the completed operations are checked off on the shop office blue-
prints for operations i2-a and i2-b. The same is done for all the
other parts on this sheet and on the other sheets for the lot of
machines going through.
When the turret lathe man completes the lot of bevel-gear
blanks and so reports to his foreman, the report indicates to the
shop office that the lot has been delivered to the machine for
the next operation. An order is not considered complete until
the delivery is made.
The next operation in this case is that of gear cutting. Twenty-
five turned and bored blanks are delivered to the gear-cutting
department together with the routing tag and blueprint, Fig. 9.
The operator to whom they are given stamps the time of begin-
ning in the " in " column of a cost card filled out for operation 13,
and, when the lot is completed, the time is stamped in the " out "
column, as before. In this case, one blank was found defective
when cut so that only twenty-four perfect gears were turned over
to the keyseater for operation No. 16. The cost card is sent into
the shop office and operation 13 checked off on the shop office
The orders for castings also originate in the drawing office, and
the prints are not issued to the shop office until the castings are
delivered by the foundry. The drawings are made to convey all
necessary instructions to the workmen; thus, when parts are to
be drilled or bored in jigs, the jig number is given on the drawing.
For example, the driving pulley sleeve and driving chain sprocket
sleeve, symbols 32-108 and 32-109, are drilled in jig No. 616.
This jig will be found in the tool-room in rack 6, on shelf E, in
section 1-2. The description and location of the jig are given
on a card, Fig. 12, filed in a card index in the tool-room.
From this outline, it will be understood that a constant record
is available in the shop office which shows, from day to day, the
progress of work on any lot of machines, and the location of all
parts. It also shows the number of parts spoiled and indicates
on what operation they were spoiled. The costs can be calcu-
32 SHOP MANAGEMENT
lated for a machine or lot of machines in any stage of construc-
tion. The simplicity of this system is shown by the fact that one
clerk attends to all its details after receiving the blueprints from
the drawing office .
System of American Machine & Foundry Co. The drafting-
room is necessarily the starting point of all machine shop work,
but at the plant of the American Machine & Foundry Co.,
Brooklyn, N. Y., the drafting-room is of more than usual promi-
nence. Not only is it called upon to fulfill the usual function of
JIG NO.-__jSlfi. PART No._. 32-109 DRAWING No. E_*-.52Q.
/ F**" f
RACK_, H,i;sX SHFI.F P SECTION J^t^Zt.
No. OF MACH. &) HO* 32 HBM JIG FIRST I
NAME OF piECEl-^j^-Y-ijig^p^-ii^y }&&?& &- Chain USED ON ^ ^^-2""^2
L&_ Qr^Orillin^ oil. and a cr ew
Fig. 12. Sample Index Card showing Location of a Jig in the Tool-room
designing, but it also includes, as a subsidiary department, the
production department which has charge of ordering the patterns,
castings, and material for filling each order that is received, and
of determining the best method of machining each part, and the
most satisfactory way of routing the work through the factory.
The production department also looks after issuing blueprints
and material to the factory, sending the necessary jigs and fixtures
to each department in which they are to be used, and keeping a
record of the progress made with each individual order.
As the work handled by this company consists of building
high-grade special automatic machinery, the designing is of a
diversified character, but there are certain customers for which
GENERAL SHOP SYSTEMS 33
the same general class of work is constantly being done. For
instance, a great many automatic machines for the manufacture
of cigarettes are constantly being built. It is obviously desirable
for men with previous experience in this class of designing to
handle all such work which comes to the factory. In order to
make this possible, the drafting-room is subdivided into depart-
ments, each of which is in charge of a chief draftsman of wide
experience in his particular line of work. Thus, the cigarette
machine department is in charge of a man who has designed a
great many machines for the automatic manufacture of this par-
ticular product, and he has a wider knowledge of the field than
any general designer could be expected to possess. Parts of a
cigarette machine will be considered in describing the shop
Symbols and Part Numbers. Each machine is designated
by a symbol that usually consists of the initial letters of the name
of the machine. For instance, the standard cigarette machine
built by this company is designated by the symbol " SCM."
Each part of this machine is designated by a number, and parts
which assemble together in the machine have consecutive num-
bers. For instance, a certain shaft for use on this machine is
designated by the symbol and number " SCM-/j.o8," while a
bushing which is assembled on this shaft has the number " SCM-
409." The convenience of this method lies in the fact that an
assembler looking over his detail drawings is able to determine
what parts go together by their numbers. The detail drawing
of each part is made with a partial cross-section of those parts
which assemble on it, each part being referred to by its symbol
and number, thus doing away with the necessity of giving special
instructions to the assembling department.
Work of the Production Department. When an order is
received from a customer, a typewritten copy is sent from the
office to the production department, where a memorandum of
this order is made out expressed in the symbols and numbers used
for designating the machines or machine parts that are called for.
Spaces ate left for the insertion of serial order numbers, and the
memorandum is sent down to the office to have these numbers
34 SHOP MANAGEMENT
assigned to the order. The correspondence form for use between
different departments, which is shown in Fig. 13, is employed for
this purpose. When the memorandum is received in the office,
the order numbers are inserted and it is returned to the produc-
tion department, where one of the clerical force proceeds to make
AMERICAN MACHINE AND FOUNDRY CO.
DEPT....... Office AVOID VERBAL ORDERS. ORDER No.
MR. .Miss O'Neill . DATE, y -' 24
please is<5ue J.O.'i ns follpwo;-
por building (15) Standard Cigarette Vachinen. Equipped
with sing! e hei.vy type cutoffo, fu? ? nrintero, folder and
change pirts to r^ake ci^nretten 29 . l . ri / n circ. ov-i3 , usin,;;
31 n/n paper. Length of ci.^irette S'i n/n..
Delivery T.O d-\yn fro PI' ')/;i'ia,
(A.X.CO . letter 'J,'!?2>14)
Fig. 13. Production Department's Call on Office for Assignment
of Order Numbers
SYMBOL O & /Y PATTERN N
SHELF No. ' /"? & DIVISION
No. OF PATT'S / CORE BOXES &
PATT. MADE FOR J. 0. ^ / O / CHA/GED FROM '
HRS. LABOR ^- / COST MATERIAL / TOTAL COST/2
Fig. 14. Form used in keeping Record of Location of Each
Pattern on Shelves
out a specification sheet and a list of all parts which must be
provided to fill the order, the proper symbols and numbers being
applied to the notation of each part.
In the case of new machines of a type that has not formerly
been built in the factory, it is necessary to order the patterns
for parts which are made from castings, and special forms
GENERAL SHOP SYSTEMS 35
are provided for this purpose. In the case of standard ma-
chines, it is necessary to look up the old patterns preparatory
to issuing orders for castings. The system employed in storing
patterns and keeping track of them makes this an easy matter.
Each pattern is given a number and bears a symbol of the ma-
chine for which the part made from it is intended; and the
patterns are stored on numbered shelves. The form shown in
Fig. 14 is used to keep track of the location of each pattern. Re-
ferring to this illustration, it will be seen that the form gives
complete information regarding the pattern, its number, symbol,
and location on the pattern storage shelves. The original cost
of the pattern and other useful information is also included on
jrssssrosi vsysrt ///? / "^^1
SYMBOL *J L. - T / PATTERN No. ^ L/ ' ,
SHIPPED TO REMARKS
Fig. 15. Form used in keeping Record of Patterns sent to
Foundry when Castings are ordered
this card. When castings are to be ordered, the pattern is drawn
from the pattern storage room and sent to the foundry, together
with an order for the required number of castings to be made
from it. The form shown in Fig. 15 is used to record the fact