on the lines of the Baltimore and Ohio, Southwest
1 'en nsy I vania, and Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroads,
with the number of ovens now in operation at each of
tlie works. The numbers set against each, indicate
their respective locations by reference to correspond-
ing numbers on the accompanying map of the coke
iiiiion. The lines of railway shown upon the map
ill reil are those of the Baltimore and Ohio, those in
Mack the Southwest Pennsylvania, and in green the
Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad:
COKE- WORKS LOCATED ON B.\LTIMORE AND OHIO
No. Name of Works, ' Ownere.
■1... Mount Ii,-»d,lock...
:t ,. Uenrv Olav H. C. rrii:k Coke Company....
4 .. W:ishii,Klnii .Sannilp Cclirau Sons & Co....
Name of Works.
H. C. Frick CokB Company....
B. F. Keister & Co '.".
H. C. Frick Coke Company....
H. C. Frick Coko Company
.1. 1). liM.vle
I |.|, T ^1 niffer & Co
'1.',. ', ■; ', khTAc;;:;:::;::::
\ \ llni. liiH„..n&Bro
lA RAILROAD AND BRANCHES.
Name of Works.
Bli.ss and Ma
.r. W. Moore & Co
IJuliiiar Furnace 'company
Mahoning Coke Company
Colvin & Co
Dellinger, RaiTerty 4 Co
oal and Coke
1 J. W, Overholt (agent)
Coke and Iron
Connellsville Gas-Coal Com-
ON PITTSBURGH AND
LAKE ERIE RAILROAD.
Name of Work.
W J Raine 4 Co
n Westmoreland County; all
Numbers 21 to 34, inclusive, a
his line are in Fayette.
others on this road as indicated
ill Westmoreland County, al
INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS— POPULATION.
In all new and undeveloped sections of country
the first step in the direction of public internal im-
provements is the opening of roads. The first attempt
by white men to open or mark the route of a road
within the territory now embraced in the county of
Fayette was made by Col. Thomas Cresap, of Oldtown,
Md., in the year 1750. He was employed by the Ohio
Company to select and mark a route for their proposed
traffic between their base of operations at 'Wills' Creek
(Cumberland), Md., and their objective point at the
site of the present city of Pittsburgh; and so, in exe-
cution of this mission, he set out from Wills' Creek
in the year mentioned, with the old chief Nemacolin
as a principal guide, and assisted by several other In-
dians, and proceeded northwestwardly over a route
not materially different from that afterwards traversed
by Washington and Braddock in their respective cam-
paigns until he reached the west base of the Laurel
Hill, in what is now Fayette County (at or near the
place now known as Mount Braddock), from which
point, instead of turning northeast towards the pres-
ent site of Connellsville, as the later military road
did, he proceeded on, to and down the valley of Red-
stone Creek to its mouth, where his work ended, for
it was proposed at that point to abandon land carriage
and take transportation down the Monongahela to its
confluence with the Allegheny.
Col. Cresap, however, neither builc nor opened any
part of the proposed road, but merely selected its
route, and indicated the same by blazing and mark-
ing trees, and occasionally rearing piles of stones as
landmarks at prominent points. But in 1763 the Ohio
Company sent out a party 'of pioneers, who " opened
the road,"^ though they made it little more than a
bridle-path for the passage of pack-horses. A few
months later (in January, 1754) Capt. William Trent,
with a small company of men in the employ of the
Ohio Company, marched over the road, and further
improved it as they passed. At its western terminus,
the mouth of Redstone Creek, they built the "Han-
gard" store-house for the company (as before noticed),
and then passed on down the river to commence build-
ing a fort for the company at the Forks of the Ohio.
In 1754, Washington with his little army, on the
campaign which ended in the surrender of Fort Ne-
cessity on the 4th of July in that year, passed over
the same road, and improved it so that it was passable
for wagons and light pieces of artillery to the west
» Washington, in advocating this route in preferenr-e to the more north-
erly one through Bedford for the passage of Forbes' troops in 17.58, said,
"The Ohio Company in 17o:i, ni a, considerMe erpenw, oiiened the road,"
HISTORY OF FAYETTE COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA.
side of Laurel Hill. " In 1754," he says, " the troops
whom I had the honor to command greatly repaired
it as far as Gist's plantation, and in 1755 it was
widened and completed by Gen. Braddock to within
six miles of Fort Du Quesne." The road, as " com-
pleted" by Braddock, extended from Gist's (Mount
Braddock) northeastwardly to and across the Youghio-
gheny at Stewart's Crossings, a little below the pres-
ent borough of New Haven ; thence in the same gen-
eral (lirertioi) to Jmi-<i1>'s (;'rfek, the northern bnuiiclary
of this county, and on thnmgh Westnioreluud to tli'e
Monongahehi. Gen. llraddnrk made it in its entire
length, practicable itlmn-li
of his heavy wagons :ind
more than four years afterw
could be called such within
In tiiefallof 17oOCol.Jn
which bore his name, wln-re the
ville now is, and opened a good
ard,-, tlie only road which
the territorv now Favette
and thrnrv ini
ning on the old route ,>]n
and partly improved by \
a few miles w
^^t nf Gi-t's in 17.'.4. loni - l
distanrc [., tin
mouth ot i;..lstnii,.. allrr H
the old route;
nd lioR' ^lore^vrst^va^dly t(
of Dunlap's C
•cek. This road was lor a
years the mat
n thoroughfare to the M
some travel came over
road," which was much inferior to the m
built by Burd,
and, in fact, hardlv more tl
horse path It left Braddock's road at th
La 1 IT 11
1 B Rock a 1 e te
M 1 1
1 utl ot D lap C
\. 1 1
1 le 11
earl j ea
roa 1 or s
1 1 1
to T o
11 1 1
C 1 J I 11
Ik r 1
tleM 11 1
u tl 1 r 1
11 1 1 T k I
L 11 k
1 1 F
1 1 1
done upon it until after 1760, when its construction
was resumed and the road completed to Turkey Foot,
and was afterwards extended by a route passing a
little south of Sugar-Loaf Mountain and by Dunbar's
camp to Uniontown. From there it was opened to
Jackson's or Grace Church, from which place it was
identical with the old Brownsville road.
One of the earliest roads in this region (other than
those already mentioned) wa^one prayed for in a pe-
tition presented to the court of Westmoreland County
at the April term of 1778, viz. : " A publick road to
begin at or near the mouth of Fish-Pot run, about
les below the mouth of Ten-Mile Creek, on the
west side of the Monongahela River (it being a con-
venient place for a ferry, as also a good direction for
a road leading to the most western jiart of the settle-
ment), thence the nearest and best way to the forks
of Dunlajvs path and Gen. Braddock's road on
the t,-p of Laurel Hill."
The viewers appointed on this road were John
Moore, Thomas Scott, Henry Beeson, Thomas Brown-
field, James McClean, and Philip Shute. This was
the first petition for a road presented to the court of
Westmoreland after the erection of that county. At
tiie same time a petition was presented for a road from
Washington's Spring to Sewickley.
" A Road from near Redstone Old Fort to Henry
Beeson's Mill, and thence to intersect Braddock's
Road near the forks of Dunlap's road and said road
on the top of Laurel Hill," was petitioned for by in-
habitants of Tyrone and Menallen townships at the
April sessions of 1774. Richard Waller, Andrew Linn,
Jr "\^ 11 Cal n, Thomas Crooks, Henry Hart,
nl Jo ei 1 Gra lie were appointed viewers. One
rea on g en b) tl e petitioners for desiring this road
v tl t son e of them were frequently obliged to
arry tl e r cor t enty miles to the mill of Henry
Bee o at L ion Town, "and in all probability, at
o e easons of the year, will ever have to do so."
A oad f n Thomas Gist's to Paul Froman's
11 e r the Monongahela, and thence to his other
11 o CI art e Creek," was petitioned for at the
J J es ns of 1774 of Westmoreland County
C urt and a ordered laid out. This road led from
Mo t Braddo k orthwest, by way of where Perry-
Fa ette City now stand, to Froman's Mill,
ek ^\ ashington County. It was called
V I Beeson's Town I UniontownJ, in the
F rk i\ J gheny, to the Salt-Works [on Jacob's
Creek] 1 tl en eastward to Bedford Town," and a
ad f n Bee on s Town to Col. Cook's [Fayette
C t ] ere I et t oned for in the sessions of January,
1 83 a d 1 84 re pectively.
At tl fir t e on of Lord Dunmore's (Augusta
Co t ^ ) CO rt held at Pittsburgh, Feb. 22, 1775,
a 1 e ot -s were appointed, among whom
e ( [ t \V 11 1 Crawford and Van Swearingen,
1 1 he present territorv of Favette
County, to view a road petitioned for, " to run from
Providence Mounce's [Mounts'] Mill, by Ausberger's
Ferry, to Catfish Camp." Mounts' Mill was in what
is now Connellsville township, and Catfish Camp was
the same as the present town of Washington, Pa.
A road from the foot of Laurel Hill, by William
Teagarden's ferry (on the Monongahela), to the mouth
of Wheeling Creek (Virginia), was ordered by the
same Virginia court, on the 17th of May, 1775. The
starting-point of this road, at the foot of Laurel Hill,
is not designated, but it was of course in what is now
Fayette County, as the place where it was to cross the
Monongahela was not far above Brownsville. The
first road viewed and laid out by order of the court
of Fayette County, in December, 17S3, was that from
Uiii(jntown to the mouth of Grassy Run, on Cheat
Kivir, this being part of a road which had been
|it_-titioned for to the Westmoreland County Court
I liclnre the erection of Fayette), to run from Stewart's
< 'rossings (Connellsville), through Uniontown, to the
( 'licat. It was ordered to be opened, cut, cleared, and
liri'lj;ed, thirty-three feet wide.
A |ietition was presented to the same court for "a
road from Union Town to the Broadford on the River
Youghiogeni," and another " for a Road from the
mouth of Whitely's Creek, on the River Mononga-
hela, to David Johns' Mill, and thence to Daniel
McPeck's." The court at the June sessions of 1784
ordered this road to be opened, cut, cleared, and
bridged, thirty-three feet wide. This was known as
the Sandy Creek Road.
At the September sessions of 1784 there was pre-
sented to the court :
"The Petition of Sundry of tiie Inhabitants of Fayette
County and others, showing to the Court that as the intercourse
frnni Redstone Old Fort along the River side is now very con-
si. Icraljle upon account of the number of Boats for Passengers
wliich are almost continually building in different parts along
the river side, and as there is now a very good grist- and saw-
mill at the mouth of big Redstone, and no Waggon road as yet
laid off from Redstone Old Fort to the Mill, nor from thence
to the mouth of little Redstone and to Colonel Edward Cook's.
As the Petitioners conceive that a good road in that direction
would be of general public utility to inhabitants, and likewise
of great convenience to Strivngers, the Petitioners therefore
pray the Court to appoint six men to view the said Road, and
if necessary to lay out the same from Redstone Old Fort to the
mouth of big Redstone, from thence to the mouth or near the
mouth of little Bedstone, and from thence to Colonel Edw.ard
Cook's. Whereupon it is considered by the Court, and ordered,
that Bazil Brown, Senior, Samuel Jackson, William Forsythe,
William Goe, John Stephens, and Andrew Linn, Junior, do view
the ground over which, by the prayer of the Petitioners, the
said Road is desired to pass, and if they or any of them see it
necessary, that they lay out a road according to the prayer of
the said Petition, the nearest and best way the ground will
admit of, and with the least injury to the settlements there-
abouts, and make report of their proceedings therein by courses
and Distances to the next Court."
At the next following December
made their report on this road, and it was ordered laid
out. Among the numerous other roads petitioned for
in the early years (many of which, however, were
never opened) the court records show the following:
1784. — Road from Miller's Ferry, on the Monon-
gahela River, to the Widow Moore's, on Sandy Creek,
to join the Maryland road.
" Road from Josiah Crawford's Ferry, on the Mo-
nongahela River, to Uniontown." This road ran to
Samuel Douglass' mill and to Dunlap's Creek at Amos
Hough's mill, intersecting the road from James Craw-
ford's Ferry to Uniontown.
1787. — " Road from Moorecraft's Ferry, on the river
Youghioganie, to Cornelius Woodruff's on Chestnut
Ridge — granted,"
"Road from the Monongahela River, opposite to
the mouth of Pike's Run, to join the road from
Swearingen's Ferry to Uniontown."
" Road from Redstone Old Fort to the southern
line of the State."
1788. — "Road from Friends' Meeting-House to
" Road from Zachariah Council's (Connellsville) to
Isaac Meason's, on Jacob's Creek."
1789. — " Road from Isaac Jackson's to Stewart's
Crossing and Connell's Ferry."
j "Road from Union Town to Robert McClean's
Ferry on Monongahela River."
"Road from the ferry of Thomas McGibbins, jiist
below the old Redstone Fort on the Monongahela
River, to Septimus Cadwallader's Grist- and Saw-
Mill, and from there to intersect the road from the
Friends' Meeting-House to the ferry aforesaid, near
the mouth of Joseph Graybill's Lane."
] " Road from Brownsville, by Samuel Jackson's
JMill, in a direction to Gebhart's Mill on Jacob's
j 1790. — " Petition for a private road from Griffin's
Mill to the great road from Jonathan Rees' Mill to
I Hyde's Ferry, at or near the house of Enoch Abra-
1791. — " Road from Jacob's Creek Iron-Works to
John Van Meter's Ferry."
1793. — " Road from the ferry on the Monongahela
River, at Frederick Town, to the road from James
Crawford's Ferry to L'niontown."
1794. — "Road from Kinsey Virgin's Ferry towards
j " Road from Davidson's Ferry, on the Mononga-
hela River, to the Union Town Road."
j " Road from the Couuty line to Alliance Furnace."
' " Road from Meason's Iron-Works to the mouth of
I Big Redstone."
" Road from Krepps' Ferry to the bridge at the
mouth of Dunlap's Creek."
"Road from Joseph Neal's Ferry, on the Monon-
gahela River, to the Sandy Creek road — granted."
" Road from Jasper Elting's, at the foot of Chest-
nut Ridge, to Mr. Smilie's fording."
HISTORY OF FAYETTE COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA.
1796.—" Road from Redstone Old Fort, by McFar-
land's Ford, on Cheat River, to Morgantown."
It would of course be impracticable, if not well-
nigh impossible, to give an account of the multitude
of roads which have been opened from time to time
in later years, but mention of some of the most im-
portant one.s will be found in the histories of the sev-
In the records of the county commissioners, entries
are found at various times having reference to the
building of bridges over the difierent streams in the
county as follows :
Jan. 7, 1796.— Samuel Jackson received £50, being
the last payment on a bridge constructed by him over
March 12, 1801. — The commissioners addressed a
letter to the commissioners of Westmoreland County
on the subject of a proposed iron bridge across Jacob's
April 9, 1801. — Letter received from the commis-
sioners of Westmoreland, requesting a meeting of the
two boards, with Col. Isaac Meason, on the bank of
Jacob's Creek, on the next following Tuesday, " to
consult and complete contract relative to James Fin-
ley, Esq., undertaking to erect an Iron Bridge over
Jacob's Creek, and it is agreed that John Fulton and
Andrew Oliphant proceed to business."
April 14, 1801.— The commissioners of Fayette and
Westmoreland Counties met and completed contract
with James Finley to build a bridge supported with
iron at or near Isaac Meason's, over Jacob's Creek,
for the sum of six hundred dollars, one-half to be
paid out of the treasury of Fayette, and one-half out
of the treasury of Westmoreland. The bridge to be
" a patent Iron chain suspension" structure of seventy
feet span, and to be completed ready for use on or be-
fore Dec. 15, 1801. This bridge over Jacob's Creek,
on the turnpike road between Connellsville and
Mount Pleasant, was the first iron suspension bridge
erected in the State of Pennsylvania. The plan on
which it was built was invented and patented by
Judge James Finley, of Fayette County. Another
bridge of this kind was built a few years later over
Dunlap's Creek, at Bridgeport. The plan, however,
proved defective and the bridges unsafe, the one last
named falling under the weight of a team and ordi-
nary wagon-load, after having been in use less than
Oct. 9, 1801. — The commissioners made a contract
with David Barnes, of Connellsville, "to build a
frame bridge over Indian Creek, to be completed
against the first of July next, he to receive $324.99, in
three equal payments." This bridge was completed
and accepted by the commissioners July 5, 1802.
Oct. 27, 1801. — Commissioners met at Bridgeport
to view the bridge over Dunlap's Creek at that place,
and having done so, authorized Isaac Rogers, Sep-
timus Cadwallader, and Andrew Porter to repair the
bridge at a cost not exceeding 8300. An account of
the several bridges over Dunlap's Cr^ek between
Brownsville and Bridgeport will be given in the his-
tory of the former borough.
July 3, 1802. — Commissioners contracted with Tim-
othy Smith to build a bridge over Dunlap's Creek,
near the house of Nathaniel Breading, for S123.50.
Feb. 3, 1803.— " Agreeable to an Order from the
Court of Quarter Sessions, the commissioners pro-
ceeded to Sandy Creek to sell and contract for the
building of a bridge over the said creek, agreeable to
notice given in the Newspaper of the County." The
sale was made to Enos West, the lowest bidder, at
S249. The bridge was accepted by the commissioners
Jan. 5, 1804.
Nov. 11, 1808. — Completed bridge over Georges
Creek, near New Geneva, accepted by commissioners.
Dec. 8, 1808.— Commissioners contracted with Jesse
Forsythe for building a bridge over Redstone Creek at
S1200. Completed in August, 1809.
Aug. 6, 1833. — Commissioners agreed with George
Marietta to build a new wooden bridge over Jacob's
Creek, in place of the old Finley chain suspension
bridge, for $267. The iron of the old bridge sold to
Nathaniel Mitchell for 890.
April 3, 1834. — Commissioners contracted with
George Marietta for building a bridge over Redstone
Creek, at the crossing of the State road leading to
Pittsburgh. Contract price, $375.
1838.'— Bridge over Mounts' Creek, on road leading
from Connellsville to Pittsburgh.
1839. — Bridge over Dunbar Creek, on road from
Connellsville to Laurel Furnace.
1839. — Bridge over Big Redstone Creek, on road
from Brownsville to Cookstown.
1839.— Bridge over Big Redstone, at Sharpless'
1840. — Over Downer's Creek, at or near Cookstown.
1840.— Over Dunlap's Creek, at Merrittstown (re-
1841. — Over Dunlap's Creek, on road leading from
Brownsville to Morgantown road.
1842. — Over branch of Redstone Creek, " where
the great road leading from Uniontown to Pittsburgh
crosses, at Mitchell's Tilt-Hammer."
1846. — Over Jacob's Creek, road from Uniontown
1848. — Over Jacob's Creek, on road from Detwiler's
Mill to Mount Pleasant.
1850.— Over Jennings' Run, on Pittsburgh State
road (Union and Menallen townships).
1850. — Over Redstone Creek, near James M. Lynn's
mill (Redstone and Jefferson townships).
1850.— Over Jacob's Creek, at Tyrone Mills.
1 The list of bridges built in Fayette County in the different years
from 1S38 to 1S81 has been gathered from the commiseiouers* recorde
byThomas Hazen, Esq., a menilier of the present (1881) board.
1850. — Over Mounts' Creek, on Counellsville and
1851.— Over Georges Creek, at Crow's Mill.
1851. — Over Jacob's Creek, near Stouft'er's Mill (in
conjunction with Westmoreland County).
1851.— Over Brown's Run, at Cookstown.
1851. — Over York's Run, on road from Geneva to
Uniontown (Nicholson township).
1851.— Over Redstone Creek, at Cook's Mill, lower
ford (Redstone and Franklin townships).
1851. — Over Indian Creek, road from Counellsville
to Somerset (in Springfield township).
1852. — Over Dickerson's Creek (Dunbar and Frank-
lin townships), road leading to Counellsville.
1852.— Over Georges Creek, at Long's Fulling-
Mill, on Morgantown road.
1852. — Over Dunlap's Creek, near Finley's Mill
(Luzerne and Menallen townships), road from David-
son's Ferry to National road.
1852. — Over Georges Creek (Nicliolson and Spring
Hill townships), road from Virginia line to Browns-
1852. — Over Redstone Creek, near Clement's Mill
1852. — Over Dunbar Creek, near Spear's Mill (Dun-
1852.— Over Redstone Creek, lower ford, Jona-
than Sharpless' mill.
1852. — Over Brown's Run, at James Williams'
1852. — Over Robinson's Run (Dunbar), one-half
mile west of New Haven.
1852. — Over Indian Creek (Springfield township),
where Clay pike crosses.
1852. — Over Georges Creek (Georges township),
road leading from Sniithfield to Morgantown.
1853.— Over Sandy Creek, at Elliott's Mills.
1853.— Over Dunlap's Creek, "at Young's Saw-
Mill or one mile up" (Redstone and Ijuzerne).
1853.— Over Little Redstone (Fayette City), " near
saw-mill dam of William E. Frazier."
1854. — Over Youghiogheny River, at Ohio Pile
1855. — Over Meadow Run, " where Turkeyfoot
road crosses said road, in township of Wharton."
1855. — Over Little Redstone Creek, on State road,
near line between Jefi'erson and Washington town-
1856. — Over Rowe's Run, near Redstone Creek
1857. — Over Georges Creek (Georges township),
on road from Smithfield by way of Spring Hill to
1858. — Over Dunlap's Creek, near Elijah Van
Kirk's (Redstone and Luzerne).
1859.— Over Crabapple Run, at Redstone Creek
(Franklin and Jefferson townships).
1859. — Over Trump's Run, on road from Counells-
ville to Indian Creek (Counellsville township).
1861.— Over Rush's Run (Luzerne township), on
road from Brownsville to Fredericktown.
1861. — Over Jacob's Creek, near John M. Stouffer's,
on road from Broad Ford into Westmoreland County.
1862.— Over Youghiogheny River, at Ohio Pile
(bridge of 1854 rebuilt).
1863.— Over Indian Creek, on road from Springfield
1863. — Over Jacob's Creek, on public highway lead-
ing to Mount Pleasant.
1864.— Over Redstone Creek, at Work's Mill'
(Menallen and Franklin).
1868.— Over Redstone Creek, at Cook's Mill,^ up-
per ford (Franklin and Redstone townships).
1869.— Over Little Sandy Creek (Wharton town-