Franklin T Oldt.

History of Dubuque County, Iowa; being a general survey of Dubuque County history, including a history of the city of Dubuque and special account of districts throughout the county, from the earliest settlement to the present time (Volume 1) online

. (page 1 of 56)
Online LibraryFranklin T OldtHistory of Dubuque County, Iowa; being a general survey of Dubuque County history, including a history of the city of Dubuque and special account of districts throughout the county, from the earliest settlement to the present time (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 56)
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uaoe. Co,





,,.:'^ IOWA

Being a General Survey of Dubuque County History,

Including a History of the City of Dubuque and

Special Account of Districts throughout the

County, from the Earliest Settlement

to the Present Time


Author of History


Author of Biography






R 1841! L


AN examination of this \olume by subscribers will reveal that
a vast extent of original research for material has been
made in newspaper files, public documents and private rec-
ords of various kinds. The object has been to compress
into the pages, even at the partial expense of finished literary style,
interesting and valuable data concerning the county so far as space
would allow. In additi(5n, though the subscription list is small,
the number of pages has I^een extended over two hundred beyond
what was contemplated at the outset, in order still further to save
from permanent loss thousands of interesting items usually over-
looked or disregarded by local historians. Thus a permanent foun-
dation for a future perfect historical work, which can be elaborated
and improved by subsequent writers, has been laid. Generally,
statistical tables have been avoided and a narrative form has been
adopted. The book necessarily contains errors, though it is believed
they will be found comparatively few. The publishers stand ready,
as is their custom, to correct all such by a special errata sheet to be
sent to subscribers to be pasted in the books. As a whole we feel
confident that subscribers will appreciate this fine volume.

The Publishers.




Geology, Lead and Zinc Mining, etc 17

Dubuque 's Settlement, the Indians, etc 31

City of Dubuque, 1788 to 1849 46

City of Dubuque, 1850 to 1859 88

City of Dubuque, 1860 to 1869 131

City of Dubuque, 1870 to 1911 167

Boating, Eiver Commerce, etc 204

Railway Projects 240

Military Record 251

PoUtics 324

County Affairs 391

Practice of Medicine, Dentistry, etc 421

Protestants 431

Bench and Bar 447

Townships, Settlement, etc 467

CathoUcs 871

Education 903

Miscellaneous Events 935



Abeln, Frank G 818

Adams, Shubael P 773

Aitchison, Albert Wallace 783

Aitchison, William C, Jr 811

Allen, Leonard P 699

Allison, .Tames Emerson 797

Altman, Franc W 647

Andres, Claus 679

Arendt, Charles F 699

Armstrong, David 593

Armstrong, David W 82.3

Armstrong, .Tames 592


Baird, William 537

Baldwin, Charles Dunn 530

Baldwin, Isaac W 529

Barker, W. T 455

Barmeier, Harry 752

Barry, Rev. Michael 852

Baumann, Rev. Father .Tohn S. . 515


Beattv, .Tames W 512

Beaubiues, The 501

Beck, Guido 651

Becker, August 619

Beiler, Frank A 644

Benton, Charles 572

Benton, Curtis D 568

Berg, Christopher H 704

Beringer, John F 771

Sevan, .Tames W 533

Bigelow, Dr. Isaac S 861

Bisenius, Nicholas John 695

Blocklinger, Dr. Albert Herman 755
Blocklinger, Benjamin Franklin 684

Board, Charles L 812

Bockensted, Anton 737

Boeckensted, Frank 741

Boldt, Gustav H 703

Bonsoii, Richard 643

Bonson, Hon. Robert 650

Brede, .Tohn F 710

Brede, Louis H 749



Briggs, Thomas G 551

Briggs, Thomas Howard 552

Brinkmau, Herman 693

Broell, John C 582

Brouillarii, Henry 784

Brownson, Dr. Orestes A 752

Brueekner, Edward 604

Brumnier, John W 647

Brunkow, Ferdinand W 837

Buckley, Henry L 850

Bueehele, John Paul 777

Bueehele, Theodore E., Sr 777

Bullinger, Francis Xavier 864

Bunker, Horace F 847

Burdt, Frederick C 846

Burlage, Simon, Sr 620

Burns, John F 502

Byrne, John M 863


Campbell, Edmond H 791

Carey, Eugene C 793

Carey, Rev. Michael H 851

Carkeek, Thomas T 708

Carney, Frank 501

Chesterman, Caleb C 606

Christman, Charles 630

Christman, Mrs. Christiana 857

Clancy, Mathew C 843

Clark, Alfred L 845

Clark, Rev. Arthur M 514

Clarke, Dr. E. Lincoln 560

Clarke, Frederick M 565

CoUis, George 691

Conlin, James L 535

Conlin, Thomas J 556

Connell, Charles W 566

Conzett, Arthur M 847

Cooley, Mrs. Clara Aldrich 762

Cooley, Hon. D. N 761

Cooper, Augustin A 499

Cox, Walter G. . . 584

Craft, George W 538

Craft, William 689

Crawford, Hon. Phineas W 770

Crawford, Theophilus 656


Dchner, Henrv L 532

Dell, Charles H 824

Dement, Herman 676

Deming, Judson Keith 566

Denison, .lohn D., Jr 728

Denlinger, Martain 807

Dersch, Francis H 701

Deyen, George B 822

Dickinson, George F 526

Doerr, Phillip 522

Doerrmann, Fred 686

Dorr, Col. Joseph B 532

Dreher, .loseph J 648

Drexler, Anton 735

Drexler, Frank L 820


Dubuque Academv of Music. . . . 742
Dubuque. Julien.". 19, 31, 43, 46, 391

Dufifv, James J 618

Dyer, Judge J. J 452, 453

Ede, David F 6TS

Eighmey, Charles H 653

Elmer, Mrs. Phoebe 857

Ellwanger, Andrew 719

EUwanger, John 631

Ellwanger, Otto 720

Emerson, J. Hannibal 661

Emerson, James M 657

Ersehens, Peter F., Jr 639

Even, Peter 605

Evers, Henry 586


Fagan, James 527

Faha. Frank 604

Fanning, James 664

Fanning, Timothy 664

Farrington, Earl J 834

Feigner, Emil 736

Fengler, Edwin A 520

Fengler, Leo M 521

Ferring, Anton W 841

Finn, .lohn J 516

Fitzpatrick, Thomas J 623

Flick, Arthur R 524

Pober, Joseph L 702

Poulke, H. B 459

Prantzen, J. P 665

Freeman, L. P 814

Freking, Ferdinand , 863

Friedman, Anton 694

Friedmann, George 711

Friedman, Jacob 713

Frith, Eugene E 737

Fromm. Dr. Lawrence 588

F^udden, Hon. A. F 652

Fuhrman, Edward 720

Fuhrniann, Frank P 774


Ganfield, Henry 789

Ganfield, Samuel 788

Garrigan, Matthew 816

Gebhard, John B 820

Gehon, Gen. Francis 251

Gehrig, Joseph 692

Gehrig, D. A 869

Gerken, Prof. George F 580

Gerkon, Henry 580

Giegenrich, Albert 636

Glab, Adam 581

Glab, .lohn 579

Glab. Nicholas 581

Glaser, August L 545

Goetzinger, Nicholas 641

Gorman, Very Rev. Daniel M.,

LL.D 664



Gostlen, Henry 789

Graffort, Thomas 665

Graham, William 744

Gregoire, Charles Hypolitte 501

Gregory, E. James 775

Guthrie, James R., M.D 663


Haas, Hon. Daniel J 640

Ham, Mathias 799

Ham, Moses M 673

Hammel, August 771

Hamil, Andrew Preston 792

Hamil, Thomas A 783

Hamilton, Judge William W 665

Hammond, William A 528

Harkett, William A 636

Harragan, Joseph F 717

Harrington, Cornelius Daniel. . . 578

Harris, Capt. D. S 205, 218

Harris, James H 666

Hartniann, Anthony A 833

Hartmann, Leo. L 834

Haudeushield, Jacob 836

Hauer, Lorenz 626

Hawkins, Benjamin 718

Hawkins, Reuben 750

Hav, Robert 621

Heald, Burton D 548

Healey, Mrs. Elizabeth 857

Healej', George W 662

Heeb, Anthony F 611

Heer, Fridolin Joseph, Sr 597

Heer, Rev. George W 650

Heery, William 814

Heffernan, Thomas Henry, M.D. 603

Hein, George L 540

Heim, John L 655

Heisey, David J 719

Heitzman, William 668

Heles, John B 587

Hempstead, Gov. Stephen 497

Henderson, Col. D. B.. .377, 384, 386

Herod, Joseph 664

Herdmann, Thomas A 830

Heme, Gustavus A 838

Higbee, Herbert G 510

Higgins, Eugene 803

Higgins, Warren 804

Hillvard, Lorenzo 610

Hinds, Franklin 639

Hirons, Harvey 551

Hodgdon, Gen. John 661

Hoefer, Adam J 576

Hoerr, Peter 671

Hoifman, Mathias M 724

Holmes, Dr. Harry Lowell 511

Hollnagel, Charles H 683

Holscher, Bernard, Sr 732

Honerbaum, Barnard 809

Horchem, B. J 781

Huplshoff, Bernard H 645


Huntoon, D. C 866

Hyde, Lucien R 517


.Jaeger, Frank M 753

Jackson, Dr. Edward R 605

Johnson, A. C 523

Jonas, Dan J 763

Jones, Gen. George W 865

Jones, Rudolph 689

Jungk, Philip 825


Kapp, John 572

Karrick, Capt. George 252

Kearney, Frank J 687

Kearney, William S 812

Keckevoet, John 831

Kehoe, John C 557

Kelly, Thomas 540

Kenline, Henry Charles 749

Kenneally, Daniel J 669

Kennedy, Michael 815

Kenter, Clemens 818

Kerper, .Jacob • 575

Kerper, .John A 539

Kessler, .Jacob 634

Kiene, Emil 559

Kiene, Henry 538

Kiene, Peter, Jr 501

Kiene, Peter, Sr 501

Kies, John L 777

Kif er, John H 805

Kingsley, Thomas 681

Kinsella, .John A 677

Kirchen, John P., Sr 751

Klauer, Peter 617

Klauer, WMlliam H 834

Kleis, Charles E 507

Kluesner, .John 765

Knapp, Dr. Horace G 505

Knight, William J 465

Knoll, Dr. Oscar A 800

Knowlton, Henry A 676

Ivoch, John Adam 705

Kohlmann, Henry W 527

K:olck, Richard 531

Kremer, George 716

Kretschmer, Prof. Charles G. . . . 627

Kretschmer, Frederick N 577

I\retschraer, Herbert C 576

Kuhn, Prof. Albert 799

Kumpf , Edward E , . 795

Kutsch, Frank P 844

Kutsch, Joseph P 504


Lange, Dr. Frank X 582

Lange, Otto Fernando 734

Langel, Adolph 868

Langel, John 869

Langworthy, Edward 507

Langworthy, Dr. Henry Glover. 658



Lungwort hy, James L 313

Langworthy, James Lyon 696

Langworthy, Luiius H 498

Lattner, Samuel B 746

Lcarv, James 860

Leffert, Daniel 806

Leigh, (Jharles E 758

Leman, Adolph Warburg, M.Th. 738

Lemper, Henry P 730

Lenz, Nicholas Martin Phillip. 733

Levens, Capt. Thomas 532

Levi, James 588

Lightcap, Leonard L 702

Limbach, Joseph H 596

Linehan, Dr. Charles M 591

Linehan, Edmund A 860

Linehan, J. J 591

Linehan, Dr. Mathias D 633

Link, James F 822

Loetscher, Christian 725

Loizeaux, Charles, E., M.D 603

Lorimier, Peter A 497

Lubok, Louis C 782

Luchrsmann, Dr. Bernard H... 596

Lufhterhand, Fred L. M 709

Lusk, William H 523

Luther, William C 622

Lyon, Col. D. E 550

Lyons, Michael Edward 722

Lyou, George T 550


MacHogan, William 819

Maguire, Daniel D 842

Maguire, John E., M.D 552

Maiers, Peter J 856

Manson, John W 525

Manson, Walter 632

Martin, William B 843

Martin, Moses H 546

Martin, Robert 790

Massev, Frederick 1 695

Mason, Dr. Timothy 636

Mathes, Lee Dandrige 657

Mathiesen, Julius H 837

Matthews, Alphous 722

Matthews, Hon. Matthew C. ... 794

McCollins, John J 713

McCraney, Thomas 646

McEnanv, Michael 835

McFadden, Prof. John A 729

McGee, George 573

McGee, Isaac L 569

McNamara, C. B 766

McXaniara. John F 726

Menke, John W 864

Jlorkes, Thomas 707

Mesi-her, Henry J ". 817

Mctcalf, George 643

Meuser, Jose])h A 542

Meyer, Joseph L 549

Miiim. John .1 717

Moes, Dr. M. J 706


Moes, Mathias 707

Moloney, Lawrence 754

Monger, Shubael A 727

Monroe, Thomas M 455

Mueller, Dr. Emil F 594

Mueller. Henry 546

Mulgrew, Thomas J 851

Mulkern, Hon. M. B 4.53,454

Mullany, John 1 624

Mullen, Richard D 544

Muntz, Samuel E 774

Murphy, John Stanford 766

Murphv, William C 687

Murray, P. C 796

Myers, Dorrance Dixon, Sr 602


Nabor, Bernard A 585

Newburgh, Joseph W 858

Newton, Rev. Isase 571

Neyens, John 784

Nightingale, George L 517

Noel, John B 712

Norman, J. J. E 639

Norton, John W 829

Norton, Patrick 854


Ovel, John G 583

O'Neill, John 810

O'Neill, .John H 456,459

Oneill. William B 543

O'Malley, Rev. Peter 848

O'Farreil, James 832

Otto, Prof. Rudolph Franz 719

Oberbroekling, Rev. Frederick

William 671

Orvis, Rev. Gurnev Mahan 648

Ott, Joseph John ." 660


Palmer, William A 728

Pape, Rev. Frederick W 629

Perkins, Solon B 787

Pond, Dr. Alonson M 801

Planiondon, Isidore J., Jr 555

Pitman, John A 564

Pottebaum, Henry 508

Patterson, Samuel 519

Pitschner, Charles 840

Palen, Dr. Charles 849

Preston, Gustavus V 828

Poole, Horace 697

Pfersch, Philip C 633


Quinlan, Robert W 859

Quigley, Patrick .1 654


Rankin, .John 547

Hanson, Franklin Adelbert 571

Rath, George C 510



Redding, James E 560

Reinold, John F 680

Renier, Philip J 798

Reynolds, Joseph 238

Rhomberg, Alphons L 534

Khomberg, Alphonse J 535

Rhomberg, Frank M 574

Rliomberg, Joseph Andrew 532

Rhomberg, Joseph H 574

Rhomberg, Titus E 536

Rider, Peter 615

Rittscher, John A 616

Roberts, Thomas C 458

Robinson, Frederick C 634

Roche, Michael 674

Rodgers, Robert W 802

Roedell, Alfred T 868

Rose, George De Forest 616

Roshek, John Jerome 867

Rowan, Joseph J., Jr 553

Ryan, the Rt. Rev. Roger 848

Ruete, Theodore W 656


Samuels, Ben M 635,451

Manner, John P 816

Sauer, Daniel 747

Sauser, J. P 813

Sauser, Michael H 685

Schaetzle, Joseph W 740

Sc-haul, Adolph 855

Schemmel, Theodore 736

Schenimel, Joseph 587

Schemmel, William 588

Seherr, Bernard C 613

Scherr, Franz 613

Sehiek, Arthur D 559

Schollian, Alexander 672

Schmid, George, Jr 518

Schmid, George, Sr 517

Sehmitt, Paul J 521

Schroeder, Frank N. 637

Sehrup, Nicholas J 592

Schrup, John 592

Sehruj), Dr. Joseph Henry 715

Schublin, August 828

Schulte, Bernard 756

Schulte, George G 757

Schulte, John J 757

Schultz, Daniel 786

Schunk, Henry A 746

Schwind, Benjamin J 619

Sehwind, John W 612

Sehwinn, Phillip 669

Sebo, Nicholas 808

Segur, James F. 705

Seippel, Peter J 667

Shaffer, Nicholas M 541

Shiras, Hon. Oliver Perry 778

Simplot, Alexander 690

Singrin, William 827

Skemp, Charles P 612

Skemp, Charles W 608


Sleator, Col. David 665

Slocum, Prof. Perkins S 554

Sniead, John S 556

Smith, Albert Hugo 614

Smith, George P 842

Smith, Prof. Harry B 721

Smith, Thomas 548

Spahn, Charles J 714

Speilman, Jacob 862

Spencer, John 688

Spensley, Harker Brent 849

Spoden, John N 764

Spoden, Peter 765

Staheli, Christopher E 852

Stampfer, Joseph Frederick.... 594

Stedman, Benjamin F 585

Stetfens, Dr. Cornelius M 731

Steuek, Carl A 854

Stichler, George W 553

Strief, Samuel L 562

Stronck, Michael 626

Stronck, Peter 627

Stuber, John William 514

Sullivan, Timothy 756

Summerfiekl, Adolph G 682

Sumpman, Dr. Hubert Anton... 595

Sweenev, Dr. Robert J 727

Swift, Samuel T 578


Tavlor, Stanley Morgan 607

Tavlor, Thomas J 830

Tegeler, Henry 743

Tegler, Bernard 821

Tibbals, William R 698

Tingley, Patrick 643

Traub, Eugene 735

Traufler, George 730

Traut, Paul 780

Tredway, Alfred 570

Tredwav, Harry E 570

Trexlerl Adolph M 567

Tromblev, Robert H 853

Tschudi," Fred 709

Tucker, Edward 809


Utt, Anna M 824

Utt, John B 824

Ilrbach, Abe 670

Urbaeh, Milton 670


Van Horn, Charles 590

Van Vors, Jason F 839

Voelker, Christian Anthon .... 638

Von Der Heide, John Henry... 733

Vorwald, Henry ^ 624

Vorwald, John and Annie 609


Walker, Marshall M 563

Waller, John R 629



Walsh, Jamea M 589 Wilson, Mrs. Frances P. (Stoke-

Walter, John B 748 ly) 498

Walton, Charles Wesley 658 Wilson, Judge T. S 453, 463

Waples, Peter 517 Wiltse. Gen. Henry A 660

Weaver, Gassoway S 503 Wise, Benjamin C 509

Webb, Capt. N. F 204 Wood, Fernando H 642

Weigel, Frederick 758 Wright, William Scott 682

Wieland, Dr. Frank W 678 Wunderlich, Henry J 529

Wieneke, August W 840 Wunderlich, Henry 529

Williams, John B 615

Winner, Milton F 589

Willv, Ulrieh 506

Wilberding, Henry 827

Wilson, Judge David S 452, 462 ZumhofT, William 683

Winner, Milton F 589 „ t, u » ^ tha

Willv, Ulrieh 506 ^''""S' ^"^"^ *^

Wilberding, Henry 827 Z


Name Facing page

Allison, William B 369

Asylum 113

Beck, Guido 651

Birdseye View of Dubuque 257

Boldt, G. H 703

Chriatman, Mrs. Christiana 857

Cooley, Hon. D. N 761

Cooley, Mrs. Clara Aldrich 762

Cooper, A. A 499

Cooper, Mrs. A. A 500

Country Club 129

Dubuque, 1846 65

Dubuque 's Monument, Julian 177

Dubuque in Early Days 33

Dubuque Club 113

Dubuque Boat Yard 161

Dubuque Views 471

Eagle Point 145

Eagle Point High Bridge 225

Ellwanger, John 631

Elmer, Mrs. Phoebe 857

Fitzpatrick, T. J 623

Frantzen, John P 665

Glab, John 579

Guthrie, Dr. J. B 663

Ham, M 799

Ham, M. M 673

Healey, Mrs. Elizabeth 857

Heeb, A. F 611

Heer, F. J 597

Henderson, Hon. David B 385

Herod, J 664

High and Railroad Bridges 241

Hollnagel, Charles fiS3


Name Facing pack

Hollnagel, Mrs. Charles 683

In and around Dubuque 193

Jones, Gen. George W 49

Keane, Archbishop John Joseph 896

Kiene, Peter, Sr 501

Kieue, Peter 502

Klauer, Peter 617

Kleis, C. E 507

Kretschmer, Charles G 627

Linwoofl Cemetery 97

Matthews, Alphons 722

Matthews, M. C 794

Hazzuchelli, Fr. Samuel 871

Mouth of Catfish Creek 161

Mississippi River View 225

Oldt, F. T 903

Pape, Rev. Frederick W 629

Park and Country Views 273

Patterson, Sam 519

Picturesque Dubuque 289^

Quigley, P. J 654

Khomberg, F. M 574

Rockdale, Street Scenes, etc 321

Roman Catholic Church, Dyersville 455-

Ruins of Old Mill 97

Schwind, Jacob 612

Smith, H. B 721

Steps to Cemetery Hill 257

St. Boniface Catholic Church 423

St. Joseph 's Sanitarium, Dubuque 390^

The J. 8. and W. W 209

Thole, Rev. A. J , 629

Trexler, A. M 567

Trinity Catholic Church, Luxemburg 671

Waller, John R 63a

Y. W. C. A. Building 129



DUBUQUE COUNTY lies only partly within the driftless
area of this region; this area extends down from the north
along the Mississippi in varying widths to about seven miles
below the city of Dubuque, where it runs to a point. It
extends up the Catfish some ten or twelve miles and up the Little
Maquoketa about twenty miles. This region is represented by the
Pre-Cambrian system and the remainder of the county by the
Ordovician system.

The valley at Dubuque lies about 600 feet above the sea, and
above the valley tower the bluffs a few hundred feet higher. The
plain back of the bluffs is an important feature of the county. This
plain is cut by abrupt ravines and valleys, the principal streams
draining Dubuque county being Turkey, Big and Little Maquoketa
and Tete des Mort rivers and Catfish creek. The Mississippi flows
through a narrow valley bounded by steep bluffs or mounds. This
narrow valley and high bluffs are exceptional. Between two long
tributaries of one of the smaller streams the upland reaches out in
a long, finger-like promontory ; between two tributaries of the
Mississippi there is instead a sharp canyon wall, as if there had
existed promontories which later were truncated half or three-
quarters of a mile back from the main stream. Thus the valley
reverses the normal habit of rivers, becoming narrower here than
farther up stream. Certain other streams show this same tendency
in a less marked degree, and in addition Maquoketa river and
Catfish creek now join the Mississippi through new valleys up
stream, having deserted old open valleys having the normal down-
stream course usual for tributary valleys. These and other pecu-
liarities are unusual in the formation of water courses.

"This region is one of unmetamorphosed, little disturbed, sedi-
mentary rocks of the Paleozoic age and there are no igneous rocks
in it or recent ones near it. It has been at least once worn down by
erosion to mature topographic development and afterward uplifted
and is now being redissected. The rocks have a very gentle dip to




the southwest, superimposed on which are numerous shallow folds
of local extent. Within the ore-bearing district only Ordovician and
Silurian beds occur." The principal exposures of rock at Dulnique
are the Galena formation. I'he Maquoketa shale and Niagara dolo-
mite are seen elsewhere in the county. The lead and zinc deposits
lie within the well-known driftless area.


































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The Pre-Cambrian rocks lie i,ooo to 1,500 feet below the sur-
face ; they do not outcrop in Dubuque county. The Cambrian rocks
are represented by about 1,000 feet of sandstone with minor por-
tions of shale and dolomite. The Pre-Cambrian and Cambrian
rocks slope gently toward the southwest. The Ordovician rocks


are the only ones of importance in the mining operations of
Dubuque county. Where this formation is fully developed it
embraces (i) a dolomite at the base; (2) a sandstone in the middle;
(3) a second dolomite. Above the latter lies the St. Peter sand-
stone ; then the Platteville limestone ; then the Galena dolomite, and
then the Maquoketa shale. Above this are the quaternary deposits.

Lead ore was discovered at Dubuque by the Indians as early as
1780, and about four years later Julien Dubuque, then at Prairie
du Chien, was informed of the existence of that mineral at Dubuque
by the Fox Indians. From 1788 to 18 10 he worked these mines
with hoe, shovel, crowbar and pick, but sank no shafts. He had a
furnace at the mouth of Catfish creek and another at Eagle Point.
In 1805 Lieutenant Pike learned that Dubuque mined from 20,000
to 40,000 pounds of lead annually.

After his death the Indians burned Dubuque's house and fences
and destroyed all traces of his mining operations so far as possible
in order to keep out other white men. The Indians themselves
continued to work the mines intermittently and sold the ore to
traders who had furnaces on the islands in the river. In 1830
J. L. Langworthy and others, having previously obtained the con-
sent of the Indians and the Dubuque heirs, crossed the river and
began work in the mines. The Eagle Point crevice, it is said, was
located at this time. Troops drove out the miners and burned their
cabins. Evidently the Durango diggings were worked before 1820,
because Schoolcraft, who visited this locality in 1820, says they
were known and called "Mine of Maquanquitons."

"Very likely Dubuque himself worked these mines, because so far
as known no others were permitted to do so. The ore in this
locality is the common sulphuret of lead, with a broad foliated
structure and high metallic luster. It occurs massive and dissemi-
nated in a reddish loam, resting upon limestone rock. It generally
occurs in beds or veins which have no great width and run in a
certain direction 300 to 400 yards. . . . The lead ore at these
mines is now (1820) exclusively dug by the Fox Indians, and as
usual among savage tribes the chief labor devolves upon women —
also old and superannuated men ; they use hoe, shovel, pickax and
crowbar. . . . When a quantity of ore has been gotten out it
is carried in baskets by the women to the banks of the Mississippi
and then ferried over in canoes to the island, where it is purchased
by the traders at the rate of $2 for 120 pounds, payable in goods.
The traders smelt the ore upon the island in furnaces. Formerly
the Indians were in the habit of smelting the ore themselves, upon
log heaps, by which a great portion was converted into what are
called lead ashes and thus lost. Now the traders induce them to
search about the sites of the ancient fires and carefully collect the
lead ashes for which they receive $1 per bushel delivered at the
island payable in merchandise." — (Schoolcraft.)


When tlie Blackhawk Purcliase was made in 1832 tlie settlers
again crowded into tliis connty, but again they were forced to leave
by tlie soldiers because the treaty had not been ratified. After
June, 1833, they were no longer opposed.

The first geological survey of this region was made by D. D.
Owen in 1839. I" 1846 tlie system of leasing mineral land by the
government was abolished and much of the mining land was thrown
into market.

The early mining at Dubuque was for lead ores. Pockets of this
ore are yet found and individual pockets sometimes contain over
500 to 1,000 tons. Since 1880 zinc carbonate or "dry bone" has
been more extensively mined than galena or lead ore. Neither !ias
been mined except above high water of the river. In 1898-00
mixed carbonate and sulphide of zinc were worked at the Alpine
mine. At the same time several carloads of mixed blende-galena-
marcasite ore were taken from the Pike's Peak mine just below
water level by the Dubuque Lead Mining Company. The ore at

Online LibraryFranklin T OldtHistory of Dubuque County, Iowa; being a general survey of Dubuque County history, including a history of the city of Dubuque and special account of districts throughout the county, from the earliest settlement to the present time (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 56)