Franklin T Oldt.

History of Dubuque County, Iowa; being a general survey of Dubuque County history, including a history of the city of Dubuque and special account of districts throughout the county, from the earliest settlement to the present time (Volume 1) online

. (page 31 of 56)
Online LibraryFranklin T OldtHistory of Dubuque County, Iowa; being a general survey of Dubuque County history, including a history of the city of Dubuque and special account of districts throughout the county, from the earliest settlement to the present time (Volume 1) → online text (page 31 of 56)
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order, and of justice. You are aware that I ever avoid all matters
of a political nature, as foreign to my sacred duties, yet in this
present hour of trial, when the honor and happiness of our nation
are at stake, when some prejudiced minds may construe my silence
into a disrespect for you whose friendship I highly prize, or into a
criminal opposition to our National Government, the Government
of the United States, the only one to which I owe fealty, it may
not be departing too far from my usual course to say that my feel-
ings and sentiments are for the Union, and though peace is now
the darling object of my ambition, yet I would not consent to pur-
chase peace at the sacrifice of principle.

With the deepest respect. Yours most sincerely,

Clement Smyth, Bishop of Dubuque.

To N. B. Baker, Adjt. Gen., etc., Clinton, Iowa.

John O'Neill, J. J. Lambert and James O'Grady were commis-
sioned to raise a company here for the proposed Irish regiment.
.Adjutant General Baker visited Camp Union September 14. A
number of citizens who had subscribed to the relief fund for
soldiers' families neglected and finally refused to pay anything.
Late in September the Canada and Denmark carried southward
Colonel Vandever's regiment of about one thousand volunteers.
Abram Levins raised recruits for the Twelfth regulars. Col. J. F.
Bates was received here with great ceremony and honor early in
October, 1861. Capt. M. M. Hayden was presented with a fine horse
fully caparisoned. "Colonel Allison is justly entitled to the praise
of being the most energetic and popular officer in this part of the
State." — (Herald, October 26, 1861.) In October Lincoln Clark
and Bishop Smyth were appointed members of the Sanitary Com-
mission. S. D. Brodtbeck became Major of the Twelfth Regi-
ment. Late in 1861 the Soldiers' Aid Societv cared for the sick



272 HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY

soldiers at Camp Union and sent large quantities of supplies to the
fields; Mrs. Solon M. Langworthy was president and Mrs. Large
secretary. In November about seventy-five dollars per week was
paid to twenty-five families of soldiers.

In November, i86r. Lieutenant McMahon called for volunteers
for the sharpshooters' brigade. Sham fights were held at Camp
Union in November. At this time the Times announced that it
now favored "no union with slaveholders." This statement kin-
dled the wrath of the Herald.

".'\lmost daily the Herald is making pretentions to loyalty and
patriotism, but in words only." — (Times, November 15, 1861.)

The Herald of November 17, 1861, said, "We are for the old
Union, the Constitutional LInion, the legal L^nion, the L'nion Wash-
ington and his compatriots ga\e us, and not such a bastard Union
as the Abolitionists have conceived and now attempt to palm off
upon the country. Are you a Union man, reader? and if so, is it
for the Union as it was formed by our forefathers or for the Union
as .Abolitionists would have it?"

On November 26 the Twelfth Regiment left on the steamers
Canada and Henry Clay. The Seventh Iowa lost heavily at Bel-
mont. The County Board appropriated one thousand dollars for
the relief of soldiers' families. The board of relief prepared for
active work during tlie approaching cold weather.

During the holiday season of 186 1-2 the Ladies' Soldiers' Aid
Society held a large, successful and very profitable fair; they de-
served and received great praise for this notable event.

"It Means Something. — Several prominent citizens of this county,
including an e.x-Governor of this State, have within the last day or
two voluntarily appeared before Colonel Bates and requested him
to administer to them an oath to support the Constitution of the
United States. L^nion sentiment must be on the increase in our
community." — (Herald. January 12. 1862.)

Messrs. Merritt, Newcomb and Doyle raised the Light Guards,
sixty strong, ^hich left here in January. 1862. J. B. Dorr became
quartermaster of the Twelfth Regiment. Early in January, 1862,
the relief fund hoard announced that it was out of funds; they
had paid out $2,699.08, about two thousand dollars in casli and
the balance in clothing, groceries, etc.; they had assisted 116 sol-
diers' families. H. L. Stout was president of the board and M.
.'\llison secretary. Lieutenant Wright called for recruits for the
Second Iowa Cavalry in h'cbruary, 1862.

"Our country is still drifting from bad to worse. Congress is
doing nothing to belter its condition. Day after day the people
have been told that the liackbone of the rebellion was broken and
that the seceded States would soon be brought ]:)ack to the Union,
but the rebellion grows stronger and tiie seceded States ap])ear to
be going farther off than ever. Why is this? Is not Union, a



THE NEW YORK

PUBLIC LlBRAhY



ASTOB, LENOX AND
' TILDEN EODNDATIONS
» t




PATK AND COUNTRY VIEWS



HISTORY OF Di'BCOUE COUNTY 273

political Union such as the people of the United States once had,
desirable any longer? Of course it is, but the Abolitionists have
rendered such a Union hopeless by their insane course. * * *
Th£ great mistake of the present day, the great political error
which the people of the North have committed, is to attempt to
control social institutions which have their foundation in the cus-
toms and interests of the South by government interference."—^
(Herald, February 5. 1862.)

"It appears that the Captain Jones taken prisoner at Fort Henry
is G. R. G. Jones of this city, son of General Jones, now in Fort
Lafayette. We doubt if even Captain Jones' family knew
whether he was in the rebel army and they are probably as much
surprised to hear of his capture as if anything else unforeseen
and unexpected had befallen him." — (Herald, February 9, 1862.)

"It is rumored that a committee visited the editor of the Times
day before yesterday for the purpose of intimating the necessity of
pitching into the Herald and that the result of the intimidation of
this committee w-as the article in the Times yesterday. The Times
under the new regime was to be an independent patriotic paper,
but henceforth, we presume, it is to reflect the sentiments and feel-
ings of Dubuque Abolitionists, the meanest, most contemptible,
hypocritical, canting set of fanatics the whole country contains." —
(Herald, February 12, 1862.)

The capture of Fort Henry in February followed almost imme-
diately by the capture of Fort Donelson, fired the patriotism and
military spirit of this county as nothing had done thus far.

"Yesterday morning the city was agitated by the rumor that a
great battle had been fought at Fort Donelson and that the Federal
army had met with disaster. Soon after, and while the people
were still in suspense and anxiety, news came that Fort Donelson
was in possession of the Federal troops with fifteen thousand Rebels
taken prisoner, including Generals Johnson, Buckner, Pillow and
Floyd. The news at first was doubtful, but was soon confirmed."
— (Herald, February 18, 1862.) The Herald urged that now was
the time, after the government had secured such prestige by force
of arms, to secure peace upon the terms of the original Union.

A meeting in Table Mound township passed the following:
"Resolved, That we consider Abolitionism as preached in the pul-
pit, spread broadcast amongst the people by the infamous Abolition
press, harped upon in Congress and in the Legislature of the Free
States, as the most disastrous, mischievous and suicidal doctrine
ever promulgated among the people since the formation of the
government. We believe it to be the primary cause of secession,
for if we had no Abolitionists we would have no secession.

"Resolved, That we believe D. A. Mahony to be an unflinching
constitutional Democrat who has for the past year stood with a
bold front in the face of public opinion, fanaticism and partisan



274 HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY

feeling combined, threatened by suppression and the fury of mob
violence stirred up by a false view of patriotism; he has triumphed
over his most inveterate enemies.

"Resolved, That we view witli alarm the introduction in this
country of tiie Star Chamber proceedings by William H. Seward,
by which he dares to cause citizens to be confined and imprisoned
during his will and pleasure."

The last referred to General Jones' imprisonment in Fort
Lafayette. All the resolutions were in a similar strain and were
probably prepared in the Herald office.

At a big mass meeting in Ccntralia on February 15 Russell
Evans was chairman and E. M. Bartliolow secretary. John Strohl
explained tlie object of the meeting. Mr. Brown also delivered an
address. Tlie meeting adopted resolutions similar to those passed
at the Table Mound township, only they were more severe. One
was "that we deeply sympathize with the afflicted family and large
circle of friends of our most worthy citizen and statesman. Gen.
George W. Jones, who is now, as we verily believe, the innocent
victim of the tyrant and usurper and imprisoned without due
process of law."

The Herald rejoiced greatly over Halleck's Order No. 37, reaf-
firming and reinforcing Order No. 3, not to interfere with the
negroes or free them ; the paper was in ecstasies over this order.

"General Jones arrived home last night from his illegal and
arbitrary incarceration at Fort Lafayette. A spontaneous greet-
ing of his personal friends and of those who have a proper sense
of the violation of the Constitution committed in his person and
in others who were incarcerated with him, will take place at his
residence this afternoon. Thus will Higher Lawism (Seward) be
rebuked by the freemen of Dubuque."— (//fro W, February 28,
1862.) At the Jones reception loyal officials were near to observe
all that occurred.

"Hydrophobia. — The Abolitionists of the city were terribly mad
yesterday to think that Secretary Stanton had released Gen.
George \V. Jones from that American Bastile, Fort Lafayette.
They cursed the Administration from the President down to the
White House gardener and frothed at the mouth like a lot of mad
dogs. Poor fellows, how we pitv them."— (//rroW, March i,
1862.)

Early in 1862 Lieutenant Dewey left the city witli si.xty-nine
recruits for the Twelfth United States Regiment, then at Fort
Hamilton, New York. Lieutenant Newbury remained to recruit
others. The Second. Third, Seventh, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thir-
teenth and Fourteenth Iowa regiments were at Fort Donelson.
The Second lost close to two hundrcrl killed and wounded in that
battle ; the Seventh did heroic service there.

"The news yesterday of the possession by the Federal troops of



IlISTORV OF DUBUQUE COUNTY 275

the Rebel stronghold, Manassas, spread like wildfire through the
city and immediately, as if by magic, the stars and stripes were
flung to tlie breeze from nearly every house and public building
in the city. One patriotic overzealous individual who, like Job's
warhorse,' snuffs the battle from afar, went through the street with
his hat in his hand shouting, 'We've got 'em, we've got' em!' " —
(Herald, March 12, 1862.)

"For the purpose of aiding and abetting the rebels in their open
treason the Dubuque Herald and kindred organs resort to the decep-
tive cry that it is an Abolition war originating at the North and
not at the South. This is a treasonable fraud which should deceive
no honest patriot." — {Times, March 6, 1862.)

"How many times has Samuel McNutt called us a traitor; how
many times has he called us a Secessionist; how many times has
he alleged that we were in collusion with Jeff Davis, that we re-
ceived money from Richmond to favor the Rebel cause? If we
took the heart's blood of the villain who has thus belied us it would
be a poor satisfaction for the injuries he has attempted to inflict
upon us. McNutt came here, hired, but not yet paid, to belie
caluniinate, traduce, slander and libel the editor of this paper. He
has done his work faithfully and expects his reward from those
who brought him here, in the city treasurership of Dubuque." —
(Herald, April i, 1862.)

"Democrats. — Do not forget that Jacob Swivel, the Abolition
candidate for marshal, is the same Marshal Swivel who, when a
mob roared through our streets and endangered our property and
our persons, was quietly with his hands in his pockets looking on
when stones flew through the windows of our fellow-citizens and
when respectable men were knocked down and abused because they
were Democrats." — (National Dcmokrat, April 5, 1862.)

"When the peace of this city was violated last summer by a mob
and when private residences and public business places of citizens
were stoned and citizens themselves threatened with personal vio-
lence. Marshal Swivel looked on complacently." — (Herald, April
6, 1862.)

Several wounded soldiers of Pea Ridge, Fort Donelson and other
western fields began to arrive here in March, 1862. Bodies of
dead soldiers also arrived and were buried with much ceremony.
The Herald continued to denounce almost every act of President
Lincoln's administration. Hayden's battery participated in the
battle of Pea Ridge and lost heavily, but fought gallantly. The
Herald called Wendell Phillips a traitor and rejoiced when he
was mobbed at Cincinnati in the spring of 1862. President Lincoln
was denounced for having received Mr. Phillips. Returning sol-
diers were cared for at the Peosta Home. At the request of Gov-
ernor Kirk wood, H. L. Stout spent one thousand eight hundred
dollars for the care of soldiers passing through Dubuque; he was



276 HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY

later reimbursed for the outlay. The Germania band, which had
been to the front at Springfield, Missouri, returned in April. Lieut.
Col. F. J. Herron and his brother, Capt. R. G. Herron. arrived
here in April ; the former was wounded at Pea Ridge. Of the
immense meeting held at Julien theatre early in April, 1862, to
celebrate the victory at Pittsburg Landing, the Herald said it was
employed to abuse the successful party in this county. The City
Council passed the following on April 10:

"Resolved, That we hail with joy the glorious tidings from our
victorious armies as indicating a speedy and certain overthrow of
secession and its sympathizers in the North as well as in the South.

"Resolved, That Lieut. Col. Frank J. Herron and his associates
in arms from Dubuque at the battle of Pea Ridge, will be remem-
bered with pride by its loyal citizens, when those who have gone
from among us to aid in rebellion will be forgotten or only known
with infamy as traitors to their country."

Any suggestion to free and arm the blacks to assist the Federal
forces encountered the severest denunciations of the Herald and its
supporters. The Ad Hines brought up twenty sick and wounded
solcliers from Pittsburg Landing late in April. It was April 14
or 15 before any detailed and reliable news concerning Iowa regi-
ments at Pittsburg Landing was received here ; the horrors of that
bloody battle, the heroic conduct of the surprised Federal troops
and the grief over loved ones killed and wounded then, were almost
overpowering to the good people of Dubuque. Early in 1862 D. A.
Mahony was the real leader of the secession Democracy of Iowa.

"The war as waged by the Abolitionists is for the evident pur-
pose of bringing the white and black races to a social, personal
and political equality and not for the preservation of the Union nor
for the maintenance of the Constitution. The theme of the speeches
in Congress and the burden of the arguments of Abolitionists in
that body is the negro, not the Union." — (Editorial, Herald, April
30, 1862.)

"The telegraphic dispatches of yesterday brought the mortifying
intelligence that it was known at the capital that there was a secret
league of secessionists in this city who were intending to resist the
collection of the Federal tax. The leaders are known and the eye
of the authorities is upon them. Doubtless this is no idle surmise
or idle rumor, but the result of actual knowledge. * * * And
this is not all. Yesterday private dispatches were received from
the seat of government that there was a prospect that the Pacific
Railroad would be so located that it would not connect with any
tributary to Dubuque simply because it is such a secession hole. So
Iowa, the most loval State in the Union, has become a plague spot."
- (Times. May 8, 1862.)

United States Deputy Marshal Captain Conger began to investi-
gate the allegations that a disloyal society was in existence in this



HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY 277

county, organized, it was declared, to resist the collection of the
government tax.

Certain citizens here, or persons elsewhere, having informed
the government that tiiere was a secret disloyal organization for
resistance to the collection of government tax, the Herald demanded
an investigation and denounced the accusation, so far as it was
concerned, as false and malicious. From the New York Tribune's
correspondence the following was an extract : "It is known here
(at Washington, D. C. ) that a secret organization exists at Du-
buque, Iowa, to resist the collection of Federal taxes. The ring-
leaders in this movement are known to the government and its eye
is upon them." — (Herald, May 8, 1862.)

"Dubuque as a recruiting station has been the most productive of
any city in the United States. Over five hundred men have been
enlistecl here for the regular service." — (Dubuque Times, May 8,
1862.) "What on earth has happened to the Times to make this
admission? A hundred times or more during the past year the
Times has tried to make it appear that Dubuque and vicinity was
so disloyal as to withhold recruits for the war." — {Herald, May
9, 1862.) "It is equally notorious that the only other attempt at
riot or of a serious disturbance of the peace for years was the
attempt last summer of an abolition and Republican mob instigated
by the Dubuque Times, an Abolition-Republican paper, to destroy
the Herald printing establishment. The other was when the same
mobs attacked and in two or three instances broke in the houses
and business places of ]5eaceably disposed citizens whose only offense
was that they were Democrats in politics." — (Herald, May 9,
1862.)

In the spring of 1862 P. H. Conger became deputy United States
marshal here. In April two hundred Rebel prisoners passed up
on the steamer Evansville, but were not landed at Dubuque.

"We stated and now repeat the opinion that if the government
finds that it cannot suppress the rebellion without abolishing slavery
the Constitution gives the right and imposes the duty to remove it."
— (Times, May 20, 1862.)

General Hunter's proclamation freeing the negroes in his depart-
ment was denounced by the Herald, which declared that if Presi-
dent Lincoln would annul it the Herald would support the Lincoln
Administration. To the Herald and all Southerners residing here
the mere suggestion of interference with slavery was sufficient to
kindle the severest denunciation ; they hated Abolitionism with an
intensity almost unaccountable at the present time ; the negro was
regarded as an animal, nothing more.

"What have the fanatics of Dubuque and of Iowa to say now
to the course of the Herald f Step by step, act by act, the course of
this paper has been sustained by the Administration itself. The
rebuke of Sewardism embodied in Secretary Stanton's executive



278 HISTORY or DUBUQUE COUNTY

Order No. i. togetlier with the recent discomfiture of the Rebels
(capture of Forts Henry and Donelson) lias brought on a crisis
in the war and now comes tlie turning point which will result in
the demoralization of the Rebels, the discomfiture of Abolitionism,
the restoration of tlie Union and the establishment of peace on a
lasting and irre\'ocable foundation. Secretary Stanton's order of
amnesty is the most important event of the war." — (Herald, Feb-
ruary 20, 1862.) Stanton's order released all political prisoners.
The above article is given to show how utterly mistaken the Herald
was on the nature of the order and the intentions of the South and
the Administration.

In May, 1862, Lieutenant Colonel Herron was promoted to a
brigadier general. On May 26 Lieutenant Dewey left here with
seventy-four recruits for the Twelfth United States Regiment.
So many soldiers passed through Dubuque, needing assistance, it
was determined in May to provide a soldiers' hospital. Captain
Case recruited volunteers here for the Nineteenth Regiment in
June. As Memphis was captured about this time, steamers began
to go down to that city. On June 4 Lieutenant Newberry left
with thirty-five volunteers for the Twelfth United States Regiment.
The battles in Virginia attracted much attention at this time. The
Times openly accused Mahony, General Jones, Samuels, Lewis
Jennings, Quigley and others with being secessionists and traitors;
the Herald answered with its usual directness, sarcasm and dis-
loyalty.

On June 11, 1862, Capt. L. E. Yorke assumed the duties of
military commander of Dubuque and vicinity. He proceeded to
put his district in good order by seeing that soldiers were properly
mustered in or out; leaves of absence properly signed; pay of
soldiers attended to; soldiers absent without leave told to report;
paroled Union soldiers were considered on leave of absence until
exchanged, etc.

"It is taken for granted by a large portion of the people of the
northern States that tlie Rebellion of the South is primarily and
almost exclusively caused and carried on by slaveholders, and the
conclusion is formed wnth very specious reasoning that as slave-
holders caused this rebellion the property in slaves should therefore
be destroyed. We deny both the premise and the conclusion.
Slaveholders did not cause the rebellion, but those who determined
to abolish slavery did by personal interference with the institution,
so called, of slavery and by the influence which those Abolitionists
acquired over the northern State go\ernments and over the Federal
government. That is what caused the rebellion and not the slave-
liolders." — (Herald, June 17, 1862.)

On July 2, 1862, a bogus dispatch that Richmond had fallen and
fifty thousand Rebel soldiers captured caused a large spontaneous
celebration here; flags were flung out, cannon fired, bells rung.



HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY 279

stores closed and business suspended. At the Fourth of July cele-
bration Judge T. S. Wilson proposed three cheers for "the old
flag and the old Constitution" ; also "three cheers for McClellan."
Rev. Taylor proposed "three cheers for the Union as it is, and will
be." More troops being called for, the Herald asked :

"Why? Because Abolitionism has diverted the object of the
war, for a restoration of the government, to an emancipation raid,
disgusting good men and preventing them from joining in the
work. If drafting is resorted to we may look for lively times and
great physical disabilities prevalent." — {Herald, July 10, 1862.)

The following is a list of persons subject to military duty in
Dubuque county in July, 1862, made out and returned to the adju-
tant general as provided by law : Julien township, i ,904 ; Wash-
ington, 127; Prairie Creek, 140; White Water, 200; Cascade, 152;
Mosalem, 122; Table Mound, 167; Vernon, 160; Taylor, 159;
Dodge, 103; Center, 161 ; Iowa, 106; New Wine, 288; Peru, 107;
Jefferson, 206; Concord, 163; Liberty, 156; total, 4,421.

"This war can never, no, never, in our opinion, be brought to a
satisfactory close by means of war." — {Herald, July 12, 1862.)

In July, under the new call, another regiment was to be raised
in this congressional district. At this time the Herald was saying
and doing much to discourage enlistments. The government
bounty of one hundred dollars was now in force. The confiscation
bill was denounced by tlie Herald. By July, 1862, nearly three
hundred volunteers had been secured here for the Twelfth United
States Regiment. This is an important fact not to be overlooked.
In less than three weeks in June and July Captain Case enlisted a
full company of ninety-nine men. Vallandingham's theories were
extolled by the Herald which published his speeches in full.

"Our readers will remember that we had a military company
here some time ago composed of blood and thunder patriots, better
known as Shoddies, and that one evening one of the most innocent
and earnest of them proposed that the company tender their services
to the government, and that the probabilities of their being accepted
were so strong that the entire company disbanded, quaking in their
boots from the alarm occasioned bv the dangers they had escaped."



Online LibraryFranklin T OldtHistory of Dubuque County, Iowa; being a general survey of Dubuque County history, including a history of the city of Dubuque and special account of districts throughout the county, from the earliest settlement to the present time (Volume 1) → online text (page 31 of 56)