Franklin T Oldt.

History of Dubuque County, Iowa; being a general survey of Dubuque County history, including a history of the city of Dubuque and special account of districts throughout the county, from the earliest settlement to the present time (Volume 1) online

. (page 34 of 56)
Online LibraryFranklin T OldtHistory of Dubuque County, Iowa; being a general survey of Dubuque County history, including a history of the city of Dubuque and special account of districts throughout the county, from the earliest settlement to the present time (Volume 1) → online text (page 34 of 56)
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isin and tyranny of Abraham Lincoln. The Times supports Abra-
ham Lincoln against the Constitution. The Herald opposes all
treason to the Constitution and all traitors, Abraham Lincoln in-
cluded, as well as Jefferson Davis. The Times advocates and sus-
tains the treason of Abraham Lincoln and condemns only that of
Jefferson Davis." — (Herald. June 2. 1863.)



HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY 297

In May, 1863, John Hodnett, who was connected with the Her-
ald, while at a private house in Cedar Falls, was waited upon
by Lieutenant Sessions and a crowd of his friends and told to
leave town in ten minutes or sufifer the consequences, and that
if he returned he would be tarred and feathered. He was fol-
lowed across the river by a howling mob and remained there all
night and in the morning went to Independence. S. P. Adams
became provost marshal in May. Marshal Conger collected the
government revenue here. In May, 1863, Bishop Smyth dis-
approved of all secret societies and his remarks went the round
of the press. The enrollment for the draft was commenced June
I, 1863.

The Ladies" Aid Society gave a strawberry festival at the Lori-
mier House, June 11, 1863, for the benefit of sick and wounded
soldiers. There were urgent appeals at this time from the fields
and hospitals. The net proceeds were $412.20; the Herald said,
"The soldiers will probably never see a dollar of it."

"The conscription act, as will be seen by telegraphic dispatches,
has caused an insurrection in the city of New York. This was no
more than was expected and anticipated. The popular belief is
that besides being unconstitutional, the conscription act is unjust
in its discriminations. It is also regarded with disfavor by the
large portion of the citizens, who do not believe that the war is
waged for but against this Union. How can anyone who in his
heart believes that the war is only widening the breach between
the North and South give his services to fight in this war? If
there were no question about the objects of the war there would
be no more need of conscription to raise an army now than there
was when it was supposed that the war was for the Union." —
[Herald, July 14, 1863.)

The Federal successes in July greatly encouraged Union senti-
ment here and cast a damper on the outspoken opposition of the
Copperheads. The victories were duly celebrated by a large crowd
at VVashington Square. The river was soon to be opened to New
Orleans, it was said. Two men arrested in Clayton county under
the conscription act and brought here to be confined were released
on a writ of habeas corpus by Judge Hempstead. The men then
sued the sheriff for kidnapping them, but nothing came of this
suit.

"Tims at the outset of the contest under the conscription act
have the rights of the people been vindicated in Dubuque from the
attenipt of provost marshals, a deputy United States marshal, the
sheriff of Dubuque county and leading members of the S. B.
Society to trample under foot the power given by the people to
maintain the laws inviolate. * * * Was it not a brave act of
Marshal Conger, assisted by a crowd of S. B.'s, to march these
sliackled x'ictims of arbitrary power through the streets of Du-



298 HISTORY OP DUBUQUE COUNTY

buqiie on a Sunday afternoon. * * * \\r^ congratulate this
community that the majesty of the law is still respected in the
city of Dubuque and that there are some judicial officers left who
have the courage to enforce the laws even against United States
officers." — {Herald, July 21, 1863.)

The Times denounced the action of the county court in the
conscription cases and Governor Kirkwood directed the adjutant-
general to call out volunteer companies to aid the provost marshals
and serve as a posse comitatus. or bands of loyal citizens to do the
same. Generally over the state the act of Judge Hempstead was
declared to be an outrage and a direct affront to the draft and
state authorities.

"The governor of Iowa has directed the adjutant-general of the
state to issue an order which, if carried into practical effect, will
result in producing civil war. * * * \Yg have no words which
will adequately express our condemnation of this order from Gov-
ernor Kirkwood. * * * fj^e governor invites his partisan
friends to take up arms ostensibly to aid in the enforcement of
the laws — for the purpose of overawing Democrats and preventing
them from exercising their political rights. There can be no doubt
whatever that a secret understanding existed between the gov-
ernor and the organizations known as Union Leagues to furnish
tiiose organizations with public arms and to pay them for services
they might render as partisans in support of the administration.
We call the attention of the people to the infamous designs of the
order, and we undertake to tell those partisans who are expected
to comply with it that civil war will be the result should this order
of Governor Kirkwood be carried into practical eft'ect." — {Herald,
July 23, 1863.)

"The Parade of Armed Union Leaguers. — The oft'ensive exhi-
bition of about fifty Union Leaguers, Thursday, armed with gov-
ernment muskets, has created no small amount of talk and indigna-
tion. The reports are rife^reports, too, spread by themselves,
that in joining this organization they are released from the opera-
lions of the draft by pledging themselves to the service at home
against the Democracy. If the madmen at the head of affairs do
not consider the feeling of opposition to the draft already of
sufficient magnitude, they are taking the very steps to augment it.
People do not look upon the impudent display of a force ostensibly
for their own subjection with much charity or complacency. That
it is not equal to the design matters nothing. W'hile we
may not fear the fifty or sixty meniliers of the L'^nion
League, who paraded the streets on Thursday with their govern-
ment muskets, bayonetted and shotted, it does not follow that they
are (not) viewed with contemjit. The intention is plain. It is
asserted that all the members of tliis company are by their so
associating exempted from the draft: and it is also asserted that



HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY 299

still another company is being raised for the same purpose. If
this be so the provost marshal is aware of it and the people should
demand that his knowledge be made public." — (Herald, August
8, 1863.) They paraded on the special Thanksgiving day proclaimed
by the President.

In July several associations were formed to provide against the
draft : one was for each member to put up $50, which was to serve
as a fund to hire a substitute for any member of the association
who might be drafted. Pope Pius IX in a letter to Archbishop
Hughes, of New York, urged the latter to use his influence, per-
sonal and episcopal, to put an end to the war in America. Mr.
Mahony withdrew permanently from the Herald in August, 1863,
and Stilson Hutchins assumed editorial management. The Union
Leaguers at Cascade were mostly Irish Orangemen and English-
men. About August 25, 1863, the enrollment was completed, it
was announced ; the rolls were open to inspection. Those of the
first class in Dubuque county numbered 3,117.

Frank McLain, a farmer residing on the North Cascade road,
seven miles from Dubuque, was arrested as a deserter, brought to
town, put aboard the James Means and sent down to Davenport.
He had deserted, it was said, from the Thirty-seventh Wisconsin
regiment two years before.

About 8 o'clock August 12, 1863, two officers, D. E. Lyon and
Marshal Hungerford, tried to arrest Wendel and Adam Jacobi,
brothers, at their home in Peru township on the charge of deser-
tion and other offenses. They were resisted, whereupon in the
struggle the former was shot and mortally wounded and the latter
was seriously wounded. A third brother assisted, but was not
harmed. The coroner returned a verdict that he came to his death
by being shot with a pistol in the hands of an unknown person
wilfully. The Herald said: "No cause was given for such ex-
traordinary proceedings and the act can only be characterized as
it is by the jury, a most wilful murder. This horrible afifair added
to the harsh manner in which young McLain was treated lately
has stirred up a feeling in the community which is fast becoming
determined. Certainly, if something is not done to bring the
offenders to justice there is cause for alarm and independent action.
It will never do to let this affair settle into a result of military
necessity."

"The Jacobi Investigation. — We learn that the grand jury failed
to find a bill against Lyon and Hungerford for the Jacobi affair.
Dubuque will not see such a jury for many a year hereafter. As
the evidence is to be published, we make no further comment." —
(Herald, August 20, 1863.)

Governor Kirkwood at the big Union meeting, August 26, 1863,
in his speecJi said: "I have been represented as saving that I was
arming the Union Leagues throughout the state and some are



300 HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY

base enough to declare, and there are fools who believe, that it is
for the purpose of influencing the election. It is for another pur-
pose — to keep down mobs, to sustain the laws and assist the
provost marshals in the execution of the draft. I warn you people
of Dubuque to see to it that the Keokuk county mob is not re-
peated here, for if I come up here on the same errand that took
me to Keokuk county, I will bring no blank cartridges, but I will
put down the mob and put my heel upon it and keep it there even
if it causes the blood of everyone to flow concerned in it."

In answer to this statement the Herald of August 2y, 1863, said :
"We are glad that he was exhibited from the platform, because a
few men, unaware of the reckless character of the person who is
entrusted with the enforcement of the laws of the state, have come
to know him as he is_ * * * The governor of Iowa is one of
that class of persons who can safely be trusted to do just what he
says he will not do. Nor do we think that his bravery exceeds his
honesty or his cleanliness. * * * When did he see that the
laws were executed ? How did he answer when Mr. Mahony
called on him as an officer to give him the protection of the state
laws? * * * ]\Jq j^j,!-, y^\\Q is a man fears you, though you
were thrice governor. This people have learned that they have
nothing honest to expect from you, but your bluster does not in-
timidate them."

Governor Kirkwood again addressed a large audience at the public
square on September 16. So great was the feeling among the
Copperheads here against him he was guarded by two companies
of Union Leaguers — one of this city and one from Epworth. The
Herald said : "We condole with Governor Kirkwood — mob advo-
cate that he is and Copperhead that we are. * * * Wt need
not have been alarmed, however; no injury was contemplated to
his person. It might have been an act of wisdom to cover the
stand with one hundred muskets in the hands of sworn Loyal
Leaguers as he did last night, but he would have fared as well had
he not been fortified. He is a played-out card. He has bullied and
badgered Democrats until they despise him as they would a rep-
tile. The official robes which cover him and which would hide an
ordinary' amount of meanness fail to protect him. Viewed as a
man he challenges no sentiment of respect; viewed as governor of
the state, he arouses nothing but contempt. Why should we choose
soft words or seek for golden metaphors when we speak of a
governor who bids his partisan supporters assault their political
opponents and promises imnnmity for their crimes? * * * j^(,
to be treated with respect ! Rather place in the hands of every
honest man a whip of scorpions to lash the scoundrel naked through
the world." — {Herald, September 17, 1863.)

"He (Governor Kirkwood) delivered himself of his usual
bravado about the draft, told what he was going to do if any re-



HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY 301

sistance were offered, and generally deported himself as would
be expected of a filthy, low-lived creature accidentally elevated to
power. There isn't a humble laborer in Dubuque who by
hard toil bridges over his week's indebtedness by his
week's income that has not more honor, more decency,
more respect for his word, more sense of obligation to his
oath, and who is not better fitted for governor of Iowa than
Samuel J. ICirkwood. * * * There does not live a man in
Iowa so rich in lucre and with such an utter poverty of character
as the blustering, sweltering and doubtless cowardly governor of
Iowa. He is a pitiful partisan without a redeeming trait." —
(Herald, October 3, 1863.)

In September, 1863, the Herald favored the organization here of
a lodge of the Knights of the Golden Circle to oppose the action
of the Union Leagues ; but Bishop Smyth opposed this step by ad-
vising all Irish-Catholics not to join the proposed organization. At
this time there was great suffering here among the families of
soldiers. The following resolution introduced by Mr. Cort was
passed by the county board : Resolved, That a committee of five
be appointed to examine into the propriety of this board making
the necessary provisions by the issuing of bonds or otherwise by
the county for the payment of $300, either in whole or in part, for
the relief of such persons who are not able to pay the amount re-
quired by the conscription act if drafted." Carried, 14 to 4.

A large sum for their relief was raised by a gymnastic parade
of 100 ladies and gentlemen under the auspices of the Ladies' Aid
Society; it was held at City Hall; 25 cents was the price of ad-
mission and a large crowd attended.

"The Dubuque Times says that the resolution of the county board
of supervisors to exempt poor men from the draft is a weak
scheme to make the county pay their exemption fee for them. That
is just what the board meant to do and no poor man who knows
his interest will fail to support the board at the polls. Mr. Knoll,
Mr. Cort and Mr. O'Brien, who are running on the Democratic
ticket, voted for it, while Mr. Miller and Mr. Bonson, who voted
against it, are running on the Republican ticket. Every man in
Dubuque county who votes the Republican ticket votes for the
draft and against the exempting of drafted men by a tax. Every
man who votes the Democratic ticket votes for the conscription to
be paid by property and not by blood. Now, which ticket will the
poor man vote? Which ticket should he vote?" — (Herald, Octo-
ber II, 1863.)

In September, 1863, Dr. N. B. Mathews, of Peosta, was captain
of a Union League company or lodge. The Ladies' Soldiers' Aid
Society netted at the State Fair here in September $503.90. The
Herald denounced and derided the colored regiment that was at
this time being formed in Iowa. The old ferry-boat Peosta be-



302 HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY

came Gunboat 36 in 1863. .\ home for soldiers was established
in the fall of 1863 at a meeting held in the Congregational church.
of which George L. Mathews was chairman and D. N. Cooley
secretary. Doctor Guilbert. from a committee previously appointed,
reported a plan, wliich was adopted. The board of control were
Mrs. D. N. Coolev, Mrs. Solon Langworthv, Mrs. J. W. Robinson.
Mrs. F. W. H. Sheffield, Mrs. L. D. McKenzie, Mr. J. H. Thedinga.
Mr. H. L. Stout. George L. Mathews and L. A. Thomas. Mrs.
Hancock was one of the vice-presidents of the Woman's State
Sanitary Society. A large quantity of supplies was sent to the
Chicago Sanitary Fair. His friends here presented Colonel Dorr
with a fine horse. The west storeroom of the Tremont House was
converted into the Soldiers" Home ; the hotel furnished the meals,
which were paid for by the society. When D. A. Mahony under-
took to lecture to the Teachers' Institute at Epworth in October,
opposition was encountered and he was informed by a strong dele-
gation that he was not wanted. The society asked the county board
for $200 down and $100 per month for the soldiers and their fami-
lies. Mr. Bonson, of the board, moved that $190 be paid at once
and $90 a month thereafter as requested ; on this motion the vote
stood as follows: Yeas — Bonson, Hetherington, Metcalf and
Miller ; nays — Bucknam, Cort, Donovan, Duggan, Heber, Kile,
Macomber, McAleer. McCarron, Moore, O'Brien, Squires, Sweeney,
Wilder and chairman. Later the amount was fixed at $100.

"This the board has been compelled to refuse, because if the
county should once commence giving aid to associations formed
for the dispensation of charity, there would be no end to the ap-
plications made to them. They have therefore wisely abstained
from making special appropriations, but at the same time have
given the superintendent of the county poor additional instructions
for relieving the wants of those in need wherever such cases are
found, and the charitv will be dispensed to soldiers as freely as to
others." — (Herald. October 2^, 1863.)

"Whereas, The board of .supervisors of Dubuque county at their
last session were respectfully solicited to make an appropriation of
money for the use and benefit of tiie Soldiers' Home in this city,
by a petition signed by the officers of such association, which peti-
tion clearly stated the objects and aims of the enterprise, and

"Whereas, This board with only four dissenting votes refused
all aid. except upon the conditions that it be expended in the sup-
port of paupers and under the direction of the county officers
having in charge this duty, thus compelling our sick, suffering and
destitute soldiers to receive such aid as common paupers, or be
denied it entirely ; now, therefore, believing as we do that this
action of the board of supervisors is ungenerous, ungrateful and
unjust and justly merits the scorn and contempt of all patriotic
men and also demonstrates more clearly than language can tiie real



HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY 303

intentions of the board, which we beheve to have been the proscrip-
tion of our patriot soldiers who have sufifered and endured so much
to transmit to us the inheritance bought by the blood of our
fatliers, that we take this opportunity to tender to all our soldiers
our warmest gratitude for what they have done and are doing
to crush this wicked rebellion and make the flag of our country
honored and respected at home and abroad, and we pledge them
our constant aid and sympathy in sickness and health, and we
also pledge them that the Soldiers' Home in this city shall fur-
nisli all reasonable comfort to those sick, suffering and destitute
soldiers as long as there is one dollar in the treasury subject to
our control ; therefore,

"Resolved, That an order be drawn on the city expense fund
for $100 for the support of the Soldiers' Home in this city and
that the same be delivered to the mayor of this city, who is the
president of said board, to be used in such manner as in his judg-
ment may become necessary."

These resolutions of the city council of Dubuque were de-
nounced by Aldermen Mulkern, Quigley and Kiene, the former
of whom moved that all the preamble be struck out. Those voting
yea were Christman, Kiene, Mulkern, Quigley and Treanor; nays —
Cummings, Mathews, Russ, Schmidt and Stout. There being a
tie. Mayor Thedinga voted so that the whole series was adopted.

"The Hypocrites. — The Copperhead farmers of this county,
who bring their grain and other products here to sell, heap the
foulest abuse on the administration and all connected with it, as
only ignorance can abuse that which it doesn't understand. When
they receive their pay they won't take anything but the "Dirty
Greenbacks," as they call them, to carry home. This a fair sample
of the shameless hypocrisy of the party which controls the politics
of the county." — {Ti)i!cs, October 30, 1863.)

"About two thousand hard-fisted, hard-working honest men who
helped to make Dubuque just what she is and without whom her
n.ierchants could not live a month, who clog her granaries with
grain and her markets with produce, are the subjects of this petty
slanderer's abuse. The very life and trade of Dubuque city is
thus attempted to be rendered contemptible and driven from her.
We ask the merchants of Dubuque what they think of it. We
know some of them whose advertisements appear in the Times
regularly, who depend entirely on this 'ignorant class' of 'shame-
less hypocrites' for their trade." — (Herald, October 31, 1863.)

Late in October J. H. Scanlan called for volunteers to serve on
government gunboats. The Teachers' Institute at Epworth re-
solved that the government should be supported in its efiforts to
crush the rebellion. Dr. E. A. Guilbert was prominent among the
Union Leaguers; he became colonel of the Tenth cavalry. The
Methodist and Presbyterian congregations at Epworth refused to



304 HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY

permit Mr. Mahony to speak in their churches ; he addressed the
citizens in the Christian church. Stephen Hempstead had two
sons in the Confederate army. About November the officials pre-
pared tlie following statement of the number of troops furnished
by Dubuque county, as follows: Second regiment, 187; Third, 71 :
Fifth, 2; Ninth, 67; Twelfth, 78; Fourteenth, i; Sixteenth, 79;
Eighteenth, 3 ; Twenty-first, 484; Twenty-sixth, i ; Twenty-seventh,
7; Thirty-second, i; Thirty-seventh, 83; Thirty-eighth, 8; Fifty-
first, i; First cavalry, 81; Second, 24; Fourth, 6; Fifth, 109;
Sixth, yy, Eleventh Pennsylvania, 6; regular army, estimated,
500 ; total infantry, i ,063 ; cavalry, 303 ; artillery, 80 ; regulars, 500 ;
grand total, 1,946.

"There has probably no paper suffered so much for its bold-
ness, its independence, as the Herald. For daring to be free we
have paid all the penalties which proscription, intolerance and
unreason could suggest or inflict. We have been ceaselessly fol-
lowed by enemies; our patrons have been threatened and cajoled,
to induce them, if possible, to withdraw all pecuniary assistance
or support. In many places persons who would gladly take and
read the Herald have been the victims of an organized persecution
until they are glad, for their own peace, to discontinue its coming.
Merchants in this city and Chicago have withdrawn their adver-
tising favors until we could name them by scores. In some towns
in Iowa we have large amounts due us, which it is impossible to
collect, because whoever attempts their collection is most certain to
be set upon by some bully or mob. Despite all this the Herald has
lived. We need, however, the assistance of every man of whose
opinions we are the exponents."— (//craW, November 17, 1863.)
Late in October a splendid reception was given to General Her-
ron by the loyal citizens regardless of party. William B. Allison
was president of the occasion. D. N. Cooley delivered the address
of welcome. J. M. Harrison was marshal. He was received with
imposing ceremony. Under the new call i ,754 men were required
from this congressional district. Twelve lots in Linwood cemetery
were set apart for the soldiers. Prior to November 15 thirty soldiers
were assisted at the Home. In November it was claimed that there
were in Dubuque county seven branches of the Union League,
with a membership of about 2,000; of these about 1,000 were in
the city of Dubuque. An enrollment of November, 1863, showed
that 443 men were required from this county under the late call.
On November 29 the Union Leaguers paraded the streets; halted
in front of Bishop Smyth's residence and when he came out gave
him three cheers; presented arms when he delivered them a short,
loyal and eloquent speech, ending with the statement that his elec-
tion as an honorary member of the League was the highest military
honor he had ever received.

"Whereas, It is rumored and appears to be a fact that there



HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY 305

are recruiting officers in this county of Dubuque enlisting persons
in this county for the mihtary service of the United States to be
placed to the credit of other counties in Iowa; and that it is the
design to leave in this county the families of such recruited and
enlisted persons to be supported by and at the expense of the county
of Dubuque ; and i

"Whereas, It appears that families and parts of families of
persons enlisted from other counties in- Iowa come or are sent
here at the expense of this county ; and

"Wliereas, It appears to this board that Dubuque county is
sufikiently burdened with its own poor, with the destitute families
of soldiers who have enlisted or may hereafter enlist, and to its
credit ; be it therefore and it is hereby

"Resolved, That the superintendent of the poor and of the



Online LibraryFranklin T OldtHistory of Dubuque County, Iowa; being a general survey of Dubuque County history, including a history of the city of Dubuque and special account of districts throughout the county, from the earliest settlement to the present time (Volume 1) → online text (page 34 of 56)