Franklin T Oldt.

History of Dubuque County, Iowa; being a general survey of Dubuque County history, including a history of the city of Dubuque and special account of districts throughout the county, from the earliest settlement to the present time (Volume 1) online

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Online LibraryFranklin T OldtHistory of Dubuque County, Iowa; being a general survey of Dubuque County history, including a history of the city of Dubuque and special account of districts throughout the county, from the earliest settlement to the present time (Volume 1) → online text (page 35 of 56)
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poorhouse be directed to give the aid and relief provided by this
board for the families of soldiers to such families of soldiers only
as have enlisted for this county and are placed in its quota of vol-
unteers or conscripts." Adopted January 8, 1864.

The county board, which had voted in favor of the desired aid
for the Soldiers' Home, voted another $100 in its favor for No-
vember; Mulkern and Ouigley voted against it. Captain O'Neill
recruited here in December. During 1863 Mr. Kyne, superintend-
ent of the poor, assisted 113 soldiers' families; they were given
provisions in summer and provisions and wood in winter. The
draft, it was announced, would take place January 5, 1864. At
the November election, 1873, Mr. Mahony was chosen county
sheriff. Of the 122 persons who were put in jail in 1863 thirty
were deserters. By January 14 there were here 225 recruits under
the recent calls. The provost marshal's office was the liveliest
place in town, but the recruits came forward slowly. When the
Ladies' Aid Society, in January, 1864, proposed a sanitary fair
here, like the one held in Cliicago, the Herald objected unless help
were furnished to all county poor alike ; for this and other reasons
the pbns were abandoned; but the ladies continued their regular
relief work. Many recruits passed through Dubuque at this time,
bound for the front.

The large call for volunteers in January, 1864, staggered Du-
buque county, which was already behind in raising its quota. The
case of Gen. George W. Jones against Secretary Seward was
argued in the United States Supreme Court in February. The
majority of the citizens objected to negro children in the public
schools. The draft was postponed to March 10. By February i
the recruits required from this county under the former calls were
435 ; there had been raised fifty. The county enrollment was
4,932. In March serious troul^le between the soldiers of the
Ninth regiment and the Copperheads here was narrowly averted.



3o6 HISTORY Of DUBUQUE COUNTY

They threatened to destroy the Herald office, made hostile dem-
onstrations, but were finally dissuaded from such intentions largely
through the influence of Adams, Conger, AlcSweeney and others.
One man was arrested, but George W. Cummins went his bail and
in the end he was released. Many old soldiers returned singly
and in groups during the summer of 1864 on veteran furlough
and were royally welcomed. In IMarch the plan to hold a sanitary
fair was revived and the movement progressed rapidly. The draft
was again postponed to April i.

Nearly all of the churches had their own soldiers aid societies
in 1863-4. In April Governor Stone called for lOO-day men. It
had been decided to hold the sanitary fair beginning May 24, but
it was finally postponed to June 21. It had progressed to such
large dimensions that it was seen about June ist that the City
Hall and Turner Hall would be wholly inadequate ; whereupon
it was proposed to enclose all of Washington Square and hold
the fair there. Great efforts to fill the quota were made early in
1864; a dozen officers were recruiting at the same time in April
and May. By May 12 the Governor's Greys had sixty-seven men
for the 100-day service ; they filled their ranks and left about
May 17. The Union Guards were filled the same time and also
departed. About half a dozen lawyers enlisted at this time. H.
Markell was captain of the Greys and Dr. E. A. Guilbert captain
of the Guards. News of the battle of the Wilderness caused much
excitement here ; all admired the way General Grant hung to the
conllict. M. B. Mulkern was United States commissioner for this
district. The county Democracy in June, 1864, opposed the prose-
cution of the war.

Actively connected with the Sanitary Fair were the following
ladies : Booth, Langworthy, Stout, Williams. Mackenzie, Markell,
Robinson, Cooley, Clement, Dorr, Horr, Mobley, \'andever, Feni-
niore, Davis, Fellows, Tredway, Cummings, Scott, Wemott, Wood-
worth, Edsall, Gilnian, Whitaker, Burden, Shiras, Holmes, Faherty,
McBride, O'Brien, Hayden, Cornwell. Shankland, Wilson, Hill and
many others. Among the men most active were H. A. Wiltse, the
president ; F. E. Bissell, George L. Mathews, Austin Adams, O. P.
Shiras, William B. Allison, J. K. Graves, H. W. Sanford, William
Westphall, J. T. Hancock, Richard Bonson, William Larrabee and
Mr. Wood. In June Messrs, Wiltse and Wood raised in the ILast
$5,000 for the fair. Mrs. Booth and Mrs. Bissell collected a thou-
sand dollars in a single day. Every institution and industry in the
city and many throughout the county and state contributed to the
success of the fair. Long excursion trains brought immense crowds
from abroad ; e\-en the postoffice had a fair department. The whole
state had become interested and valuable contributions came from
scores of counties. All the available halls in the city were called
into use. The display was immense and magnificent. The elabo-



HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY SV

rate decorations clothed the whole city in flowers, evergreens and
holiday attire generally ; floral hall in the courtroom was made
beautiful in the extreme. Even the steamers on the river were
decorated. Boats, theaters, races, concerts, societies, organizations,
officials, arti.sts, stores, manufactories, relics, lectures, boat contests,
lotteries, auctions, prizes, contributed valuable gifts and donations
and everywhere were emblazoned banners rich with loyal phrases
and mottoes, such as, "We Welcome You," "Our Hearts Are With
Our Soldiers," "Buy and Help Our Brave Boys," "Grant and the
Army Forever," etc. The season ticket cost $2 and single admis-
sion 50 cents. Over 10,000 donated articles were disposed of at
auction ; the fair was extended well into the second week. In fact
it was many months before the last articles were disposed of. By
the middle of November the net proceeds amounted to over $86,000.
This sum exceeded the proceeds of the Chicago fair of 1864. It
was called "Northern Iowa Sanitary Fair" ; sixty-one counties of
Iowa made donations varying from a few hundred dollars to as
high as over $7,000. Clayton county made the largest donations
next to Dubuque county; Mitchell county the largest in propor-
tion to wealth, and Kossuth county the largest in proportion to
population. Over $25,000 worth of hospital stores was turned
over to the United States sanitary commission. All conflicting
interests were united in the one grand object of assisting the sol-
diers. The results reflect the highest credit on the citizens of this
city, county and state, and should stand forever in history as a
monument to the generous impulses of all the people.

No. in No. re- No. added Total

first Total maining since No. sub-

Dubuque County, enroll- dropped subject first enroll- ject to

July, 1864 — ment. from list, to draft. ment. draft.

Juhen 274 62 212 91 303

First ward 445 63 382 89 471

Second ward 317 149 168 147 315

Third ward 629 87 542 76 608

Fourth ward 674 224 450 167 617

Fifth ward 391 80 311 166 477

Peru 134 ^2 102 24 123

Jefiferson 159 35 124 21 145

Concord 136 22 114 26 140

Liberty 179 38 141 56 210

New Wine 251 67 184 43 227

Iowa Ill 24 87 9 96

Center 172 70 102 36 138

Dodge 107 37 70 27 97

Taylor 156 33 123 26 149

Cascade 148 24 124 41 165



o



08 HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY



White Water 160 51 109 23 132

Vernon 202 43 159 13 172

Table Mound 162 97 65 36 loi

Mosalem 124 22 102 29 131

Prairie Creek 178 103 75 51 126

Washington 226 152 74 32 106

Totals 5,335 1,515 3,820 1,229 5.049

In July, 1864, Governor Stone ordered that all militia of the
state should be organized into companies. In August Shubacl P.
Adams was provost marshal: J. H. Powers, draft commissioner;
Allen Phillips, surgeon. Substitute brokers did a large business
in 1864; all sorts of schemes were practiced. It was stated on
August 17 that persons here had offered as high as $300 for one-
year substitutes, but could find none at that figure. The Herald
stated that William B. Allison secured a substitute for $150. It
was said August 29 that $500 had just been paid here for a sub-
stitute.

The following was the quota, credits and deficits of Dubuque
county from February, 1864, to August 15, 1864:

August, 1864 — Quota. Credit. Deficit.

Julien township 102 64 38

First ward 162 loi 61

Second ward 112 78 34

Third ward 220 152 68

Fourth ward 232 171 61

Fifth ward 150 118 32

Peru 46 24 22

Jefferson 55 38 17

Concord 48 35 ^3

New Wine 86 58 28

Iowa 38 20 18

Center 56 38 18

Dodge 36 26 10

Taylor 54 46 8

Cascade 55 2,7 18

Whitewater 53 29 24

Vernon 68 43 25

Table Mound 49 33 16

Mosalem 46 28 18

Prairie Creek 56 34 22

Washington 63 44 19

Liberty 68 33 35



Total 1,855 1-250 60







HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY 309

"The Draft. — Tomorrow is the day appointed for as shameful
an outrage as was ever perpetrated upon a free people in any age or
in any clime. It is the day appointed by Lincoln for a draft of men
with whom to prosecute a partisan war for partisan purposes — a
war not for tlie restoration of the Union but, as the President him-
self declares, to compel an abandonment of slavery- — a war that is
liable to be turned at any time against the freemen of the North.
We have not the least doubt that many of these conscripts who are
now to be torn from their homes will be employed sooner or later in
a warfare upon their neighbors and friends at home; if not, why
all this preparation by tlie Administration for war at the North?" —
(Herald, September i, 1864.)

"Some of them (wives of soldiers) were melted to tears as they
told their sufferings, of want and famine, staring their families in
the face. Their husbands are in the army and many of them have
received no pay in seven months and consequently can send no
means home for the support of their families. Their wants were
relieved by Mr. Kyne, who is authorized to grant their request in
cases where want is known to exist." — {Herald, September 16,
1864.)

Under the new State militia law the Germans of Dubuque organ-
ized a company in September, 1864, with Frederick Gottschalk as
captain ; they called themselves German National Guards. The
100-day men returned in September. Mr. Adams notified the
county that the draft would commence in this district on the 22d
of September, and that on that day the first drawings would be
commenced in Julien township outside of the city; 23 were to be
drafted in that township and 23 more for alternates. The enroll-
ment in this township was 265 ; a boy named Monroe Amsden was
blindfolded and required to draw the names one at a time from
the wheel or box ; the first slip drawn bore the name. Michael
Carney. Further drafting was temporarily stopped at the request
of many citizens until the county board should meet to act on the
question of bounty.

At the draft meeting in the court house September 23, 1864, the
largest crowd ever convened in the county assembled to hear the
report of Messrs. Mahony and Bates, who had been previously ap-
pointed to investigate. Mr. Mahony explained that the object was
to adopt proper measures for the relief of such persons as were
subject to draft, and then asked whether the citizens were in favor
of voting a tax to be borne equally by all, or of each man drafted
to hire his own substitute or go. He stated that he and Colonel
Bates had seen a majority of the county supervisors and had
learned that they would, on October i, meet and take steps to
relieve the county from tlie consequences of the draft. Colonel
Bates stated to the meeting that it seemed that the people of the
county were willing to subscribe a stifficient amount of money to



3IO HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY

procure substitutes if volunteers were not fortlicoming. Upon re-
quest Provost Marshal Adams attended the meeting and explained
the situation and stated what his duty was. The following resolu-
tions were thereupon adopted :

Resolved. That this meeting take measures to have committees
appointed in each ward and township in the county to solicit sub-
scri]itions to raise a fund to be added to the proposed bounty to be
offered by the County of Dubuque to fill the quota of this county,
the fund received in each ward and township to be used in favor
of volunteers for each ward or township.

Resolved, That the board of supervisors of Dubuque County be
requested to take such action as they may think proper to relieve
the people of the coimty from the pending draft.

The necessary committees were thereupon appointed. Franklin
Hinds was asked to ser\'e as chairman of this meeting, but declined
on the ground that he did not understand the nature of the as-
semblage. Patrick Quigley served as chairman, and J. J. E. Nor-
man as secretary.

On September 23 the draft was carried to Delaware county. In
this county it was postponed until the county board could meet and
act. The number of men required from Dubuque City on Septem-
ber 23. 1864, was as follows: First ward 28, Second 16, Third 33,
Fourth II, Fifth 16.

"We regret exceedingly that the Times in its Monday's issue
should indulge in an extremely partisan view of the movement now
on foot to fill the quota of this county without a draft. It opposes
the whole proceeding and expresses the hope that loyal men will
give the wh.ole movement 'a wide berth,' and calls upon provost
marshals 'to let the draft go on.' Inasmuch as the movement re-
ferred to is the effort to fill our quota by volunteers, the above
would seem very much like discouraging enlistments. It is hardly
necessary to refer to the fact that a wide difference of opinion
exists between Democrats and Republicans as to the propriety and
justice, and even legality, of a draft. The former, if in power,
would avert a draft altogether, while the latter have considered
one necessary and enacted a law for that purpose. But no matter
what our opinions are as to the merits or demerits of that law, it
must be obeyed. Dubuque county is called upon for 300 men to
fill her quota. If they are not furnished voluntarily they will be
taken by draft. If the draft occurs many families will be left
destitute, in which case the county would be called on for support.
Which step, then, should the county take — offer the bounty or pre-
pare to care for the families?" — (Herald, September 27, 1864.)

Every ward in Dul)U(|ue and many precincts throughout the
county,' independent of any act that the county board might take,
raised large sums to secure recruits or substitutes. When it was
realized that the draft would now surely take place in all portions



HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY 311

of tlie county unless tlie quota was raised at once, the citizens began
work in earnest. The county board met about October i and fully
considered the subject. As it was apparent that a great majority
of the citizens favored a county bounty, they finally passed resolu-
tions approjiriating $125,000 for that purpose. County coupon
warrants bearing 6 per cent interest, payable in ten years or sooner,
were to be issued ; and not exceeding $400 was to be paid for any
recruit. The fund was to be applied to substitutes previously se-
cured under the pending call. A committee of five was appointed to
carry the order into effect. They were Arthur McCann, Dennis
O'Brien, Theophilus Crawford. F. M. Knoll and John Rugamer.
The following was one of the preambles of the resolutions of the
county board appropriating the $125,000:

"Whereas. If such draft be permitted to take place, there is
reason to believe that the peace of the county would be disturbed,
its prosperity impaired, its business in the various walks of life
suspended, and the better portion of its able-bodied population
driven into exile to avoid compulsory conscription; therefore," etc.

Many exciting incidents occurred in all parts of the county,
growing out of the efforts to escape the draft. Bounty jumpers
kindled the wrath of the people; prices of substitutes ran up to
$600 or more. In Concord township one of the recruits, after
receiving the bounty, escaped from the guards, but was pursued
by thirteen citizens armed with pistols, who conveyed him to Du-
buque and delivered him to the marshal ; he escaped again, where-
upon the aforesaid thirteen citizens cast lots to see which of them
should go in his place. There was much excitement, not immixed
with ludicrous incidents, for several months. There was great
rejoicing as township after township and ward after ward raised
its quota.

"Recruits are urged to enlist for three years, and we are told
that all in excess of the present quota will be credited on the next
draft. Another draft will surely come if Abraham Lincoln is
re-elected, and still others, each succeeding one more cruel and
remorseless than the last, until the last man shall be taken. Who
will vote for an administration so bloody in its policy and pur-
poses?" — [Herald, October, 7, 1864.)

"A negro from one of the interior towns presented himself at
the provost marshal's office as a volunteer to fill the quota of his
town, and was also authorized and furnished with the means to
buy enough men to fill the quota. He flourished among the white
brokers and was a formidable rival, bidding up in a spirited man-
ner. He got one white man for $700 and would pay the price for
several more, but he happened to open negotiations with a Copper-
head, who gave him a blow over the peeper and the darky left
for home soon after with a black eye and has not been seen since.
He is several degrees above those ranting, howling Abolitionists



312 HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUXTY

who blow war all the time but never enlist themselves. He is
going to the front along 'wid the white folks.' " — {Herald, Octo-
ber 15, 1864.)

Nearly all the townships took the county bounty warrants at
par. Jefferson and Taylor townships were drafted October 6.
By October 8 the First and Third wards of Dubuque were the only
ones behind. On October 9 Cascade, Concord and Iowa town.ships
were drafted. The Third ward cleared itself by October 10; it
raised thirty-five men in two weeks. Dodge township was an-
nounced free from the draft October 11, Liberty cleared itself
October 12. The First ward was clear the 12th, paying $550 for
its last man. Mahony and Bates did more to free the county from
the draft than any other men. They led the movement which
induced the county board to offer the bounty. Substitute brokers
did a "land office business" ; one boasted that he had cleared
$2,000 in two months. A broker furnished six men in a lump,
who were secured by Taylor township. The draft occurred in
White Water township. Iowa township cleared itself October 22.

Prior to November 19. 1864, there had been paid out in county
bounty warrants $115,800. This sum had been divided among the
several wards and townships of the city and county and to persons
who had hired substitutes, in part as follows :

First ward $10,000

Second ward 5,600

Third ward 14,000

Fourth ward 4,000

Fifth ward 4,000

Julien 2,400

New Wine 6,400

Prairie Creek 5.200

Vernon 7,600

Table Mound 4,400

Peru 5.200

Liberty 7,600

Dodge 1 ,000

Washington i ,400

Iowa 4,000

Center 4.400

White Water 5,600

Mosalem 4,400

Cascade 2,000

Taylor 2,400

Jefferson 1.200

Concord 2,800

Special 600



HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY 313

There was still due townships and individuals the sum of $13,-
250, making $129,050 in all, or $4,050 over the amount appro-
priated by the board in October.

There was a supplemental draft in one or more of the townships
in November. Sherman's march to the sea and the Federal suc-
cesses late in 1864 were fully appreciated here. "No draft" was
announced early in January, 1865, to the great relief of the whole
county. Even as late as February, 1865, the Herald clung to its
idea of peace on the basis of the old Union. Dr. E. A. Guilbert
succeeded Dr. Phillips as examining surgeon. The old Herald
died at this time, though the new one found fault with every step
of the administration. On January 6 the city council "Resolved,
That hereafter payment made to soldiers' families from the relief
fund in Dubuque county shall be paid in money instead of orders
on designated stores in the city of Dubucjue, if demanded by them."
The question of additional bounty was considered in January, in
view of the new quota and fresh calls for recruits. The Herald
had an exasperating way of noticing with great display all im-
portant events solely of interest to the South and of studiously
ignoring occurrences of interest to the North. During 1864 forty-
seven deserters were put in jail in Dubuque. Substitute brokers
again were prominent in January, 1865. As high as $700 was
paid by several individuals. The county board adopted the follow-
ing resolution on January 4 :

Whereas, The county of Dubuque has given a large bounty to
those persons who have joined the army of the United States
during the fall of 1864 and thereby liberally provided for the
families of said persons ; therefore be it

"Resolved That the families of such soldiers who have received
the county bounty, or in whose favor the warrants of the county
have been issued, are not entitled to nor shall they receive the sup-
port of the county, the same as other soldiers' families, and that
the resolution passed by this board at its last regular session au-
thorizing the members of this board to recommend the aforesaid
soldiers' families to the superintendent for support be and is
hereby rescinded.

"Babylon Has Fallen. — Richmond, the capital of the Confed-
eracy, has fallen. The news was first received by a dispatch from
Lincoln, and afterward confirmed by Stanton, when all doubts
were removed, as the event had long been expected. Signs of
rejoicing and hilarity began to manifest themselves throughout the
city, when flags were displayed and crowds of men thronged the
newspaper offices to learn the truth of the report. The Germania
band paraded Main street during the afternoon playing inspiring
airs and was followed by a crowd. The Key City battery fired a
salute from Washington Square without meeting with any acci-



314 HISTORY OF DUBUQUE COUNTY

dent. Tlie whole city was glad to know that the end draweth
nigh, for all are more or less tired of the war, and the sooner it
is ended the better it will be for all parties. With the Federal vic-
tories and the city election the town was in a blaze of excitement
last evening." — {Herald, April 4, 1865.)

"We have to record in this issue two great victories, one of
Dubuque and the other of Richmond and both of large importance.
Richmond has at last fallen; after withstanding a siege of three
full years it has at last succumbed and Federal troops are now
stationed on its streets and Federal tents cover the Shocpoe Hills.
This was the last stronghold of the rebels — the last standpoint of
the Confederacy — and with its capture goes out not perhaps their
last hope but certainly their greatest. It is a blow from which
we do not believe tliey can ever recover, and indeed, if they are ever
able to again rally a large army, tliey will disappoint us. Still it
i.<. presuming too much to believe that the war is virtually at an
end, for it is not so ; there will be a good deal of fighting vet and
many severe struggles before thev yield." — (Herald, April 4,
1865.)

The news of Lee's surrender was received a little before 10
o'clock p. m. Sunday, April 9, 1865, and immediately an impromptu
celebration was held. An enthusiastic crowd, headed by the Ger-
mania band, paraded the streets and called the people from their
beds ; bulletins conveyed the glad tidings. Bishop Smyth, who was
called out, rejoiced at the prospect of speedy peace. Mayor Thomp-
son gave permission to ring all the bells in the city. Other leading
citizens were called out, made glad speeches, and far into the next
day the rejoicing continued ; bonfires and patriotic songs closed
the celebration. But the next day the excitement and rejoicing
continued with little diminution ; nearly all business was suspended,
the people preferring to meet, congratulate and make merry. An
immense procession paraded the streets at 2 p. m., with banners,
mottoes and war reminders, amid the fire of artillery from the
bluff; speeches of joy and gladness were delivered in halls and
churches to cheering, happy-faced crowds. The Herald asked
President Lincoln to give the South all the rights it had before
the war.

"Our faith, howe\er, in Air. Lincoln doing this we must acknowl-
edge is small. If he rises from politics to statesmanship he will



Online LibraryFranklin T OldtHistory of Dubuque County, Iowa; being a general survey of Dubuque County history, including a history of the city of Dubuque and special account of districts throughout the county, from the earliest settlement to the present time (Volume 1) → online text (page 35 of 56)