And, if it (hoLild not dry quick enough, pafs a light coat
of fpiric of wine on the whole.
LV. How to colour thefe prints, in imitation of pidures in
T. To paint thefe prinrs, you muft work them on the
back in the following manner. Prepare firll your colours
on a pallet, and then proceed thus :
2. The flefh- colour is made with a little white and
vermilion, which mix with your pencil according to the
degree of rednefs you will have it. â€” For the green of
tree-leaves, you muft ha/e mourtain-green, ready pre-
pared from the colourman ; and for the fineft green, fome
verdigreafe. As for the lighter (hades of thefe colours,
you only add fome yellow to either of the above two,
more or lefs, according to the circumllances. â€” To paint
woods and trunks of trees, nothing more is required than
umber. â€” To expref-: (ky-colours and clouds, you mix
fome blue cerufe with wliite lead ; and with thefe two
colours only, you alter your blues to various degrees of
ihades, diminifliing or augmenting one of the two, ac-
cording to the darknefs or iightnefs of the fkies which
you want to exprefs. For the diftances, a mixture of
yellow and white lead, and fo on for the other colours
you may want.
3. You are to compofe them yourfelf on the pallet with
the pencil ; and to mix or unite them, ufe a little oil of
nuts, which take up with the point of the pallet-knife.
Then with the pencil, you apply them on the wron^ fide
of the print.
LVI. A 'vamijh nvhich/uits all forts of prints and pi SI ares %
Jiands 'water ^ and makes the nvork appear as Jhining as gla/s.
Dilute one quarter of a pound of Venice turpentine;
with a gill, or thereabouts, of fpirit of wine. If too
thick, add a litJe more of this; laft ; if not enough, a
little of the former, fo that you bring it to have no more
Il6 SKCRETS IN ARTS AND TRADES.
thicknefs than tie apparent one of milk. Lay one coat
of this on the right fide of the print, and when dry, it
will Ihine like gkfs. If it be not to your likings yoÂ»
ueed only lay another coat on it.
LVII. To make appear in goU the figures of a print,
1. After having laid on both fides of the print, one
coat of the varnilh defcribed in the above ^rt, Ivi. in
order to make it tranfparent, let it dry a little while.
Then before it is quite fo, lay fonne gold in leaves on the
wrong fide of the print, preffing gently on it with the
cotton you hold in your hand. By thefe means all the
parts, whereon you (hall lay thefe gold leaves, will appear
like true maflivcgold on the right fide.
2. Now when this is all thoroughly dry, lay on the-
right fide of it, one coat of the varniQi defcribed in the^
preceding Art. Ivi. it will then be as good as any crown-
glafs. You may aifo put a pafte board behind the print,.
'to fupport it the better in its frameÂ»
LVIII, A cttrious/ecret to make a print imitatt thi painU^
ing on glafu
Chufe a crown-glafs of the fize of your print ; and lajr
on it two coats of the following varnilh:
1. Piit on the fire, in a glazed pipkin, and let boil
for the fpace of one hour.^ Venice turpentine, four
ounces ; fpirit of the fame, and of wine, equal partly
one ounce arxi a half of each; maflich in tears, two
2. After It has boiled the prefcribed time, let it cool,
and then lay the firft coat on the glafs ; this being dry,
lay another; and,^ as foon as this is nearly dry, then lay
Â©nir, as neat'y as poffible, the print, previoufly prepared
3.. Have a glazed veflel fo broad at bottom as to ad-
aiit of the print flat with all eafe in its full fize. Let this
^elTel be alfo as wide at top as it is at bottom, that you
may get the print in and out of it on its flat, without
bending it iirtne leaft. Pour aquafortis in this pan or
vefljel, enough to cover all the bottom, then lay the en-
StCRETS IM ARTS AND TRADÂ£S. 1 17
graved fide of your print on that aquafortis. Take it out
and wipe the aquafortis off gently with foft rags, then
fteep it two or three limes in three different clean fre(U
waters, and wipe it each time in the fame manner.
4. This being done, lay the right fide on the before-
mentioned glafs, before the fecond coat of varnifli be quite
dry, and while it is ftill moid enough for the print to flick
upon it uniformly, equally, and fmoothly, without mak-
ing any wrinkles or bladders. When it is perfeftly dried
in that iltuation, wet.your finger in common water, and
moiftening the print on the back part in all the white
places, which have received no impreffion from the en-
graving of the plate, rub it all off. By thefe means,
there will remain nothing but fairly the printed parts. On
them you may paint in oil with a brufh, and the moft
bright and lively colours; and you will have piftures,
on which neither duft nor any thing elfe will be able to
caufe any damage. To do this, there is no need of know-
ing, either how to paint or draw.
LIX. Jnothtr to the fame purpofe,
1. Heat before the fire, a crown glafs of the fize of
the print, and then rub it over with Venice turpentine,
which, on account of the heat of the glafs, will fpread
the more eafily,
2. Boil next your intended print in fpirit of wine, for
about half a quarter of an hour; and then lay it by the
right fide on the glafs.
3. This glafs being cold, wet your finger, and molilen-
ing the back of the print, fcrape with your nail, the
paper off the glafs, fo that there remain nothing but the
ftrokes of the engraving.
4. Boil in a matrafs, for about a quarter of an hour,
or rather more, and in baUeo maria, one part of turpen-
tine with four of fpirit of wine. Then lay two coats of
this compofition on the back of the print, after you have
fcratched off all the paper, and allowing time between
each coat to dry.
5. As foon as the fecond coat is dry,_yottmay lay on
Il8 SECRETS IN ARTS AND TRADES.
water-colours on the print, according to tafte and judg-
ment, agreeable to the beauty of the prints ufed.
LX. The method of chalking y for thoje nxsho are not acquainted
They who are not acquainted with the principles of
drawing, may amufe themTelves with chalking fome beau-
tiful prints, on white paper, where they fhall have no-
thing more to do afterwards than fhade, in the fame man-
ner as they fee done in the original. When they fhall
have pradifed for a while in that way, they will foon be-
come able to flrike out themfelves fome good piece or de-
sign. And to obtain that point, the following method
1. With a foft, and one of the bell black lead pencils,
rub one fide of a white fheet of paper, cut to the fize of
the print, fo that notliing of the paper can be feen, and
only the black lead colour. â€” Lay this fheet on the clean
fide, upon the face of the print, that it may not foil it ;
and on this fheet, the black fide of which now lies upper-
moft towards you, lay another fheet of clean paper, and
fix thefe three fheets together by the four corners, and on
the edges with fine pins, fo that the fheets may not vary
one from another, \\ hich would quite confufe and mar
the whole defign.
2. Now take a blunted needle, or ivory point, and flip
it, in preffing gently all over the turns of the prints, going
gradually and orderly for fear of forgetting fome places,
v/hich may be pre\ ented by laying a flat ruler acri fs the
print under your hands. When the whole is finifhed,
un'pin the papers : and, on the under part of that which
lays at top, you will find all the outlines of the print moil
3. You may now on thefe outlines, pafs a ftroke with
India ink and a brufh, or with ink and a pen; after which,
with a crumb of flale bread, you rub off clean all the
i^felefs marks of the pencil, and leave none but thofe
marked with ink. And to fhade this defign, wafh it with
India ink, or colours, and a bruih.
SECRETS IN ARTS AND TRADES. II9
LXI. To prepare a tranfparent paper to chalk ivith.
In order to obtain the art of chalking neatly, and not
to go out of the fire turns and ouclinss of a drawing, be-
ginners fhould firft know how to prepare a tranfparent
paper, >A'hich, as it lets them fee the minuteft parts of
the ftrokes as through a glafs, gives them of courfe an
opportunity of acquiring by pradice, a corredlnefs in
the expreffion of all the turns of drawing. This prepa-
, ration is as follows.
1. Have, one or feveral, fheets of fine and very thin
paper, and rub them over with oil, or fpirit, of turpen-
tine, mixed in double the quantity of oil of nuts. To
caufe the paper to imbibe that mixture, fteep a fponge or
feather in it, which pafs on both fides of the paper, and
then let it dry.
2. When yon want to ufe it, lay it on a print. Then,
with a brufli, a pencil, or a pen, pafs over all the ftrokes,
lines, and turns of thedefign hid under. You may even
thus learn to fhade with neatnefs, if you wafli that fame
defign, v hile fixed on the original print, with India ink%
By pradifmg often you may learn to draw very neatly,
and even with boldnefs. This method will certainly
prove very ufeful, and entertaining, for thofe who have
nor the patience to learn by the common method, which
feems too tedious to fome, and generally difgufts bc^^in-
Â§ VI I. For painting on gla/s,
LXII. Ho'tv to dra^w on glafs.
Grind lamp black with gam water md fome common
fait. With a pen or hair pencil, d.aw your delign on
the glafs, and afterwards fiiade and paint it v^ith any of
the following compofitions.
LXIII. A colour for grounds on glafs Â»
1. Take iron filings and Dutch y^ellow beads, equal
parts. If you want it to have a little red caft, add a little
|20 SECRETS IN ARTS AND TRADES.
copper filings. With a ftcel mullar grind all thefe toge-
ther on a thick and ftrorg copperplate, or on porphyry.
Then add a little gum-arabic, borax, common fait and
clear water. IVIix thefe a little fluid, and put the coniv
pofition in a phial for ufe.
2. When you come to make ufe of it, you have rothlng
to do but with a hair pencil lay it quite flat on the dcfign
you had drawn the day before ; and having left this to dry
alfo for another day, with the quill of a turkey, the nib
of which (hall not be fpHt, you heighten the lights in the
fame manner as you do with crayons on blue paper.
Whenever you put more coats of the above compofition
one upon another, the fhade, you muft be fenfible, will
raturally be ftronger. And when this is finiftied, you lay
your colours for garments and complexions as follows.
LXIV. Preparation o/laket for gla/s.
Grind the lake with a water impregnated with gum and
fait; and then make ufe of it with the brulhâ€”The fhad-
ing is operated by laying a double, treble, or more coats
of the colour, where you want it darker. And fo it is of
Â«11 the following compoiitions of colours.
LXV. Preparation of the blue purple y for gJafs,
Make a compound of lake and indigo, grinded toge-
ther with gum and fait water ; and ufe it as direfted in
the preceding article.
LXVI. Preparation of the green for glafs.
Indigo mixed with a proportionable quantity of gam-
boge, and grinded together as above, will anfwer the in-
L X V 1 T . Preparation of the yelloiofor the fame.
Gamboge grinded with fait water only.
LXV I II. Preparation of the white.
You have only to heighten much the white parts with
^ LXIX. The
&ECRET3 IN ARTS AND TRADES. I 2 t
LXIX. The proper varnijh to he laid on glafs after painting
Boil oil of nuts, feme litharge, lead filings, and white
copperas calcined. When done and co'.d, lay it all over
the colours which you put on the glafs.
LXX. H.1X} to paint on gUfs nxjttbout Jire.
Take gum arabic and cifTolve it in water with com-
mon fait, bottle, and keep it. With this liquor, if you
grind the colours you intend to paint vvi h, they will fix
and eat in the gbfs. Should you find they do not enough,
increafe only the dofe of fah.
\ VIII. Preparations of colours of all forts for
oilf water, and crayons,
LXXF. Jn oil to grind colours ivith, ^vjken tJje luorks an
much expofed to the injuries of the iiejther.
- Take two ounces of maflith in drops, ve}-y cle.^r, an.l
grind it wi h linefeed oil. Then put In a >w\ell ghzed
pipkin any quantity of that o 1, and fet it on the fiie to
i)oil. By little and little introduce in that boiling oil the
above prepared maflich, llirring well the whole to mix
and incorporate the better. When done, take if from
the fire, and let it cool. â€” Such is the preparation of oil
with which you are to grir.d your cc lours, when they are
to be much expofed to the injuries of the weather, for
they will refill it.
LXX 11 To marhh and j a/per paper.
I. Grind all the colours you want to employ (fuch a^
lake, maflicot, indigo, yeiiow and red ochre, ^c. 1:3c.)
with bullock's g ill ; grind each fepTra'.ely, and keep them
f.'. Then have a large and wide pan filled with luke-
W3rm gum water. Stir well that water with a ftck.
While it is in motion, and your colours being ready under
your hand, with a large brulh, take of each feparaiely,
as much as the lip of the brulh v. ill carry, and touch
122 SECRETS IN ARTS AND TRADES,
only the furface of the water with it. The colours will
immediately expand. Each colour requires a particular
farufh to itfelf. Therefore, with another brufh, take of
another colour, and do the famej and, with another of
another, and fo on, till you have put on your water all
thofe you have deftined for the purpofe.
2. When the water ceafes to turn, you will plainly
perceive all the variety occafioned by the different co-
lours. Then, taking your fheet of paper, lay it flat oa
the water, leave it there for about two or three minutes,
and, 'vithouc taking it out, give it one tun round on
the water, then pull it by one of the edges to the fide of
the pan, wafli ir, dry it, and burnifli it afterwards.
Nofe. The paper muft be chofen good, aad the water
fixed with gum-adragant,
L X XI 1 1. To. clean piBures.
Take the picture out of its frame. Lay a clean towel
on it, which for the fpace of ten, fourteen, or eighteen
days, according as you find it neceflary, you keep con*,
tinually wetting, till it has entirely drawn out all the
filthinefs from the pidiire. Then, wi(h the tip of your
finger, pafs fome lin feed oil which has been let a long
while in the funto purify it, ar
as fine as new.
LXXIV. Another for the fame pur pofe.
Put into two quarts of the cldefl lye one quarter of a
pound of Genoa foa]?, rafpcd very fine, with about a pint
of fpirit of wine, and buii ail together on the fire. Strain
it through a clciJi, and let it C' ol. Then with a brufh
.-dipped in thgt compof.tion, rub the pidlure all over, and
Jei it dry. Do the fame agiiin cnce niore, and let it dry
too. When dry, dip a little cotton in oil cf nut, and
pafs it over ail the pidlure. Let this diy again; and,
aferwards, warm a cloth, with vhich rub the pidure
well over, and it will be as fine as juft out of the painter's
SECRETS IN ARTS AND TRADES, I2J
LXXV. Afecret to render old piSlures asfne as ne-zu.
Boil in a nev/ pipkin, for the fpace of a quarter of an
hour, one quarter of a pound of gray or Bril alh, and a
little Genoa foap. Let i: cool, to a lukc^^arm, and wafti
your pidure with it, then wipe it. Pafs fome olive oil
on it, and then wipe it ofF again. This will make it juft
as fine as new.
LXXVI. An oil to prevent pidurej from blackening. It may
ferve alfo to make cloth to carry in the pocket, againjt luet
Put fome nut, or lintfeed oil, in a phial, and fet in
tile fun to purify it. When it has depofited its dregs at
the bottom, decant it gently into another clean phial, and
fet it again in the fun as before. Continue fo doing, till
it drops no mort faces at all. And with that oil, you
make the above cotnpofition.
LXXVI I. A ivajh to clean piSluret,
Make a lye with clear water and wood afties ; in this
dip a fponge, and rub the pidure over, and it will cleanfe
it perfeftlyâ€” The fame may be done with chamber-lye
only ; or otherwife, with white wine, and it will have
the fame efFeci.
: LXXVIII. Another ivay.
Put the filings in an handkerchief, and rub the piiflure
with it. Then pafs a coat of gum-arabic water on the
f^ LXXIX. Another
Beat the white of an egg in chamber-lye, ard rub the
pidure v/ith it.
LXXX. A (very curious and fmple ivay of preuenting files
from Jitting onpiBureSy or any other furniture ^ and making
their dung there*
Let a large bunch of leeks foak for five or fix dsys in
a paiJful of water, and walh your piclure, or any other
G 2 piece
Â«5* SECRETS IN ARTi a N D TRADES*
piece offirnituie, with it. The flies uill never come
near any thing fo wafhed. This fecret is very important
and welLexperienced. j t ^ <-
LXXXl. To make indigo. ~~
â– put fome ifaiis, otherwife woad, or glaftum, witk
Hacked litije, to boil together in water. There wiJ rife
afcum, which being taken oiF, aud miaced wich a little
-ftarch, n-.akes the indigOc
LXXXII. To make ayetlowu.
What the luteola dyes .yellow, becomes green by the
>NOz^, Qx glafium. Whence we may juftly concltsde/ that
green is rot a fimple colour, but a mixture of blue and
yellow ; as the yellow itfeif is a compound of red and
LXXXIII. An azure of mother-of-pearl.
Take any quantity of fuperfine tefled filver in laminas.
Put it a litle while in vinegar; then, take It out, itrew
over the lan.inas fome pcui ce powder to akoholife them.
Next ftratify them in a crucibic ; and when red hot, take
them off from the fife, and you will have a fine azure.
LXXXIV. A nx:hite for patutersy 'ixhich may be prefer 'ved
Put into a large p^n tl.ree qnarts of lintfctd oil, with
sn equii quanriry of b'ardy, aid fcurof ihe btft double
diftilied \intgar : three dozen of ( ggs, ntw laid and whole ;
three or four pound* ef mutton fuet, chr.p; ed fmallâ€”
Coverall with a \t?A [Ite, and lite it well. L-y this
pan in the cellar for ihrre weeks, then take fi-Lilfu'ly the
white oft', then cry it. The d( fe cfthe compcfuicn fcr
ufs is fix ounces of that v\ hite to every one of bifmuih.
LXXXV. Ay.ojjcv^jshite fcr ladies paint.
To four parts of hen'., brd .ndd one rfa kid. Melt
them together, then wafti li.tin. Re-ireh ard vvafh thein
S5CR2TS IK AITi ANff T)tADÂ£Â«< IZJ
sgaln. Then add fjar ounces jf a.-nmonisc fair, and as
mjch cf fulphur, in fjbtie povvder. This white will
keep a Io:.g time.
LXXX\a. A^oul az'xre.
Take two ounces of quickfili^er; fulphur and a-nmo-
niac falc, of earh one oance. Grini ail together, ad
put ir to digsit in a mairafs over a flow heat. Increafe
th* tire a little; and, when yo.i fee an azared fuane arif-
ing, takt the mitrafs off froaa tije fire. Whe.i cool, you
wJl find in the matrifs as beauiifal an azure 35 the Vvry
L X X X V 1 1 . -
DiHoIvc in very ftrong vintgar, as much gem-fa't ard
roch-alum, as it will diffolve. Pl-: this in a new pi kin ;
and over it han^ up larainas of thi fioeft tefted filver.
Cover the pot, and late it well. Bi;ry it in the ce'la' :
and ten or fifteen days afierward? take fttne aziire, wbi h
you will find ab^ut the lamirns. Replace things as faeforr ;
and, ten days afterwards, tlie fa(ne again ; and rep:a^
this procers as nria y times a- you can get any azure by it^
LXXXV^lir. To make an azured -zi-afer,
1, Gatier wallwo-t grains between green and ripe, and
bake or ftew them in a pan. Wijcn they have boik-d
a connderable time, ftrain them through a cloth, and keep
the ju'ce in a glafs phia! ; its colour wiJ nsver change,
and will keep for ever very fine.
2, Have n xt dog*s du g very dry. Pulverife it very
fine, and fift it through a ii k fteve. Then grind it on a
marble witi t .e waJlwort juice, and a mullar, as pain-
ters do their colours, and you wi 1 find this pifle of a very
fine azure coloJf.
3, Now, if you unge any water wth this, by put ing
it in a phial to Toak, ycu may dye whatever you w4i wi.h
h, fuch as thread, cotton, clolb, ^c.
C 3 LXXXIX. jfno-
SECRETS IN ARTS AND TRADESo
LXXXIX. Another way of making azure.
Take the bilk of a filbert of ammoniac fait, which
<3ifrolve in a common half pint glafs tumbler of water.
Then pound and fift, all tcgCLher, one ouiice of vitriol
and one and a half of quick lime. Put this powder into
the water in which the ammoniac fait was diilolvcd.
Leave this to infufe for the fpace of ferry- eight hours, and
at the endoi that term the azure fhall be done.
XC. A fine axure.
Make an incorporation of three ounces of verdigreafe,
and of an equal quantity of ammoniac fait, which dilute
with tartar water, fo as to make a thick parte of it. Pus
this compofiiion into a glaf^, and let it reft for a few days,
and you will have a fins azure.
XCI. Another tvayÂ»
Pulverife r.nd mix well together one part of ammoniac
fait, and two of verdigreafe, with a little cerufe. Then"
pour over it oil of tartar enough to make a clear palle of
it. Put this in a glafs vefTei, which take care to ftop and
lute well. When done, put it in an oven along with the
bread, and takeic out with it akb, then the azure will be
XCI I. Another nvay.
Take fublimed mercury, four parts; ammoniac fait,
two ; fulphur nji'vum^ one. Pulverife the whole, and
put the powder in a matrafs, which lute well with tne
late of fapicnce. Put this matrafs on a mild and flow
fire; and, when you fee a white fume beginning to rife,
flop the fire. When the matrafs is cold, break it, and
you will find a very fine azure at the bottom. Now take
it and work it with lukewarm water fif(^, and then with
Note. There are fomc who abfurdly walh it with lye,
or a ftrong lime-water ; but they fpoil their azure entirely.
â€”What is moft advifeable, and indeed the only prepara-
tion allowable, is to boil a little white honey in the water,
SECRETS IN, ARTS AND TRADES, I 2/
amil fkim it; and when that water becomes lukewarm,
wafti the azure with it. This may contrioute lo give it a
Â£ne colour, buc the other will certainly hurt it.
XCIIl. To make an admirable -ujhlte lead, fit for oil painting
and colouring of prints.
Gand the fineiT; white lead in flake you can find, on
the ftone with vinegar. It will immediately turn black..^
WaQv it well in a panful of ^vater, and let it fettle. Poar
the water ofF by inclination, and grind it again with frelh
vinegar, then wafli it a-new. Repeat this operation four
or five times, and you will get a moft beautiful white.
XCIV. The preparation cf -verdigreafe.
Grind the verdigreafe with vinegar, and put it in a
piece of brown bread dough. Bake it as you would
bread ; and when done, cut it open and take it out.
You will then have a very fine verdigreafe, fit to work
with, either in oil or water, as you l.kc.
XCV, A fine liquid green.
Mix well together, one pound of Montpelier vcrdi.
greafe, and Haifa pound of white tartar from the fdnr.e
place. Put this a-foaking for twelve hours in two quarts
of the ftrongeft vinegar, then reduce it by boiling to one
half. Let it reft for two days, and filter it afterwards in
a bottle, wherein you will keep ii for ufe.
XCVI. To make the SiW'd^grdXny ar Brown pink.
Bfuife and boil in three quarts of wa er, four ounces cf
French berries^ to the rediidlion of one half. Strain all
through a cloth, and put in this juice a dlfcretionable
quantity of whitening, pounded and fifted into a fubtile
powder, fo as to make a thick palle, which put into
fmall tied bags, and fet to dry en tiles. When dry, it is
ufed with gum. And to render it finer, you may put
G 4 XCVII. T0
I 2C :.^Â£CaÂ£TS IN A.lTa Al-iU TRADES.
XCVII. To make a fine 'vermilion.
M3-:e a mixture of cochineal poA-der and burnt alum.
Stifle it quite hot ii rofe or plaatiin water. It will g.V2
jou the fineil vermilion in the world.
XCVIII. A ficr^t to draio ivithout either ink or pencil.
Rub a fiieet of paper with tripoly. Then, with any
hlont po'nt, form ytur drawing on it. Whatever )ou
trace will be vifiblc.
XCIX. 'To mak- A'i imitation of enamel on tiuy for chimney'
branches y &c.
G:t a (heet of b]o.k-tin very clean, and cut it in the
fo. m, fhspE, a .d figure you chafe to make your flowers
;;d other things. Grii.d what colours yo'i propofe to
;..ake ufe of, wi:h c'ean water, and each feparately, t'^en
let thvtp. dry. NVhen you w.'.nt to employ them, dil.ils
ihem, each aparr, with liquid varnilh, and lay them on
with ihe bru(h. Set the work in the open air for fear the