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LIFE STORIES FOR TOUNG PEOPLE



BARBAROSSA



LIFE STORIES FOR YOUNG
PEOPLE

Translated from the German by
GEORGE P. UPTON

12 Vols. Ready

BEETHOVEN FREDERICK THE GREAT

MOZART MARIA THERESA

BACH BARBAROSSA

MAID OF ORLEANS WILLIAM OF ORANGE
WILLIAM TELL GUDRUN

THE LITTLE DAUPHIN THE NIBELUNGS

Illustrated, each 60 cents net

A. C. McCLURG & CO., CHICAGO







Return of the Crusaders



LIFE STORIES FOR To UNO PEOPLE



BARBAROSSA

Translated from the German of
Franz Kuhn

BY
GEORGE P. UPTON

Translator of " Memories," etc.

WITH FOUR ILLUSTRATIONS




CHICAGO
A. C. McCLURG & CO.

1906



THE NEW \ORK

PUBLIC LIBRARY
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ASTCR, LENOX AND
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS.



COPYRIGHT

A. C. MCCLURG & Co.
1906

Published September ^^ > 1906



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THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, CAMBRIDGE, U.S.A.





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whatever point of view we consider
Frederick I, more familiarly known as
" Barbarossa," because of his red beard,
whether as the greatest of the sovereigns of
the Holy Roman Empire, or as one of the most
gallant of the famous crusade leaders, the story of
his life is one of absorbing interest. This little
volume includes a sketch of the events which led
up to his accession to the throne of Germany, of
his various campaigns in Italy after he had received
the imperial crown, and of the disastrous third Cru-
sade, in which he took part with Richard the Lion-
hearted of England and Philip Augustus of France.
The young reader will probably feel most interested
in Barbarossa as a Crusader, particularly because in
this connection appear the two young . knights,
Raymond and Conrad, who became the proteges of
Barbarossa after the death of their gallant father,
Conrad of Feuchtwangen, on-tiie battlefield. Their
brave exploits in battle, the advenn-rous ride of
Raymond when he carried tc the Emperor the news
of the danger of his father and his little band in the
valley, the capture of the brothers by the fleeing
Turks at Iconium, and the exciting description of
the test to which the Sultan exposed them, will



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACED

appeal to the young from the romantic side, while
their noble qualities as Christian knights and their
high manly character should make an equally forcible
appeal, in these days when knighthood can hardly
be said to be in flower.

In making this translation I have endeavored to
retain the vigorous descriptions as well as the healthy
sentiment and charming simplicity of the author's
moralizing by keeping as closely to the original as
possible. The only liberty I have taken with the
text is the omission of passages here and there,
without marring the context, however, so as to
make the volume nearly uniform in size with the
others in the series. I have invariably characterized
Frederick as Emperor, referring to him thus as
Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire rather than
as King of Germany.

G. P. U.



CHICAGO, J'4/.i, 1^06.



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[vi]



Contents



I. RETURN OF THE CRUSADERS ... n

II. FREDERICK ASCENDS THE THRONE . 21

III. THE ITALIAN CAMPAIGNS .... 33

IV. THE MAYENCE FESTIVAL AND TOUR-

NAMENT 45

V. LIFE IN THE CASTLE 52

VI. THE THIRD CRUSADE 61

VII. CONRAD'S VICTORY IN THE VALLEY 73

VIII. RAYMOND'S HEROIC RIDE .... 86

IX. CONRAD'S DEATH 100

X. CAPTURE OF THE BROTHERS . . . 112

XI. THE BROTHERS' ORDEAL .... 126

XII. THE EMPEROR TO THE RESCUE . . 138

XIII. BARBAROSSA'S VICTORY AND DEATH 153

APPENDIX 167




The Return of the Crusaders . . . Frontispiece

Raymond's Ride 92

The Test 132

Redbeard and the Lion . .' 156






Chapter I
Return of the Crusaders



If i f ^HE second Crusade was ended. 1 Ex-
ploits as heroic as those in the first
Crusade, under Godfrey of Bouillon, 2
had been performed, but no battles as
glorious as those in the first had been fought. It
was a difficult task to wrest Palestine from the dom-
ination of the Turks. Scarcely the tenth part of
the stout champions who set out from the various
provinces of France and Germany returned, and of



1 The first Crusade for the recovery of the Holy Land from the infidels, as they
were called, was led by Godfrey of Bouillon (1096-1099), and resulted in the
capture of Jerusalem. The second (1147-1149), advocated by Saint Bernard,
was unsuccessful. The third (1189-1192), in which Frederick Barbarossa of Ger-
many, Richard the Lion-hearted of England, and Philip Augustus of France were
associated, failed in the reconquest of Jerusalem, which the Mussulmans had re-
taken in 1187. The fourth (1202-1204) resulted in the establishment of a Latin
Empire at Constantinople, under Count Baldwin of Flanders. The fifth, under
Frederick II (1228-1229), the sixth (1248-1250), and the seventh (1270-
1271), under St. Louis of France, were unsuccessful.

2 Godfrey of Bouillon was born in Brabant in 1061, and died in Jerusalem in
lioo. He was made Duke of Lower Lotharingia, Germany, in 1088, and joined
the Crusade in 1096. He was the leader in the capture of Jerusalem, and was
made its King, but preferred to be known as Protector of the Holy Sepulchre. He
completed the conquest of the Holy Land by defeating the Sultan at Ascalon, 1099.



ARBAROSSA



this little remnant many were exhausted by marches,
enfeebled by disease, and doomed to speedy death.
Most of the castles resounded with lamentations over
the death of their masters. Widows and orphans
stood wringing their hands around catafalques
in front of the altars in the castle chapels, as the
chaplains prayed for the souls of the noble ones who
had given their lives for the Christian religion in the
far distant wastes of Asia. Every province mourned
its dead, for in many cases the people had lost their
lord and protector, who had restrained cruelty and
lawlessness. Even in cases where these masters had
ruled with an iron hand and, in violation of their
knightly and Christian duties, had maltreated their
inferiors, there was no rejoicing over their death ;
for during the son's minority the guardian came into
absolute control and might rob and plunder at will,
while if there were no heir, the Emperor had the
power to place a stranger over them. " It is better
to cling to the old ways ' was a German saying,
even then.

Felseck was one of the few joyous castles. A
great banner bearing the colors of its master waved
from the loftiest turret. Armed servitors stood
upon the ramparts and the guardians of his widely
scattered possessions awaited his coming at the gates
and portcullises. From the watchtower the warder
scanned the plain, which stretched a long distance



THE CRUSADERS' RETURN

from the castle heights, watching with experienced
eye every cloud of dust raised by each little passing
troop. Many a time the heart of the warder, who
had grown gray in faithful service to his master, beat
more quickly as his keen glance recognized signs of
an approaching company, and repeatedly he brushed
away a tear when he found himself deceived and saw
the company riding off in another direction, or not
displaying the colors of the house.

It was already past midday. Many a face was
clouded with anxiety and suspense, and some even
feared that the report of the safe return of the lord
of the castle might be false, especially as so many
reports had proved untrue. Rather than have their
joy turn to bitter grief, it would have been less sor-
rowful tidings had they been told at once that
Conrad of Feuchtwangen was no longer among the
living. It would have been a crushing sorrow, but
they could have submitted to the inevitable with
more courage than if they had had to realize that the
hope of his return, once aroused, must give place to
life-long disappointment.

A cloud of dust appeared again, and the warder
gave the signal. A solitary knight was seen riding
swiftly toward the castle. His colors could not yet
be made out, and the occupants of the castle, as well
as the people round about who were awaiting the
arrival of the lord of the manor, hovered between

['3]



BARBAROSSA ft



fear and hope. All watched the approaching
stranger anxiously; many insisted they could dis-
tinguish the colors of the house, but others were in
doubt. When it was certain that the former were
right, then all were eager to know whether he
brought joyous or sad tidings.

A trumpet signal was heard in the distance, to
which the warder at once replied. This interchange
of calls announced the approach of a friend of the
house. Rushing forward to meet him, the people
questioned the rider and begged for information.
They followed after his sweating steed and exultantly
surged forward to the castle gate. The nearer he
came, the bigger and more clamorous grew the
multitude, and long before the gates were opened
to him, the people were confident he was the bearer
of good tidings.

Then the castle halls resounded with joyful accla-
mations which could be restrained no longer, and
which grew more exultant as another and louder
flourish of the trumpet was heard from the watch-
tower; all rushed out to extend their welcome, for,
rapidly as the little band approached, it was all too slow
for the impatient throng. The broad plain was soon
covered with the enthusiastic multitude. All were
eager to witness the return of their good master to his
ancestral halls after the performance of such glorious
deeds in the face of such adverse circumstances.



THE CRUSADERS' RETURN

Stout hands bore the consort of the returning
knight in a litter at the front; and by her side were
her two lovely, fair-haired boys, images of their
father, who could not restrain their impatience and
were doing their utmost to keep up. At last they
met the returning knights. Conrad of Feucht-
wangen quickly dismounted from his great war-
horse, and in an instant his faithful Gertrude was in
his arms. The joy of seeing her lord once more
overcame her, and she clung helplessly to the strong
man who was again all her own after such long
absence, and spared from the dreadful dangers to
which he had been exposed daily and almost hourly.
She had hardly recovered herself before she was
greeted with passionate embraces and expressions
of joy, which the boys also shared. Frightened at
first by the stern, sun-browned face of their father
and the pallor of their mother, they soon regained
their courage. They clung to him and were loth
to desist from hugging and kissing him and calling
him the tenderest of endearing names. Universal
joy prevailed, and tears of sympathy came to
the eyes of many a bearded warrior at the sight of
such happiness. Good wishes and the heartiest
of welcomes were extended on all sides, and
Knight Conrad cordially thanked all, both high
and low.

When the first joyous outburst was over, they

['5]



BARBAROSSA



made their way to the castle. Gertrude mounted a
beautiful snow-white palfrey ; the boys were placed
on their father's war-horse, and supported by his
strong arms they passed through the joyous multi-
tude, who followed after them. The knight and
his train entered the beautifully decorated castle
halls, while the armed servitors and the people
could hardly find room in the large courtyard.
Evening came, but its cool air did not dampen the
enthusiasm. The courtyard glowed with the light
of torches illuminating the crowd, which was hilari-
ously but harmlessly celebrating the occasion with
the contents of the castle cellars. Within, in his
high ancestral hall, Conrad sat with his family and
friends at a richly furnished table, and many a
bumper of choice wine was drank in honor of the
happy home-coming. At intervals the cheerful
strains of lutes were heard, and the Minnesingers,
inspired to do their best, sang many a long-drawn-
out story of the heroic deeds of the old German
heroes, in majestic verse.

" We have had enough, noble sirs," at last said
Conrad. " Thanks for your painstaking service.
Now join us in celebrating this happy day. You
must be weary."

" Oh, my lord, how could we ever tire of relating
the great deeds of our ancestors ? Are they not the

source of all the pleasures and sorrows of the present
[16]



THE CRUSADERS' RETURN $

and future ? Do they not inspire emulation of noble
actions, and the exercise of knightly virtues? '

" Their remembrance is a treasure for all time,"
said a knight of about the same age as Conrad,
" but we have also witnessed exploits worthy of our
ancestors, even if the outcome was not as fortunate."

" Oh," said Gertrude, and many joined in her
request, " tell us of your exploits in the Holy Land
among the Turkish hordes, even though it may
temper our joy to hear the true account."

" As you see," replied the knight who was called
Frederick of Swabia, " we do not return as numerous
or as imposing as when we set out. It was then a
goodly sight to look upon, nigh seventy thousand
heavily armored knights, not including foot-soldiers,
riding to the Holy War. Hungary and Greece
were astonished when they saw the array, and ex-
ulted over the certain destruction of the Turkish
army. Oh, the treachery of these villains, who ex-
pected their deliverance at our hands and then
placed almost insurmountable obstacles in our way !
They overcharged us in the sale of supplies. Our
hungry men were often obliged to procure subsist-
ence by force when they were out of money. This
occasioned many fatal quarrels, and we reached Asia
Minor at last needy and sorely troubled. It was
there our real misfortunes began, for the Greeks
carried their knavery to the extreme. Sometimes

t'7]



BARBAROSSA



when our army, which unfortunately had chosen the
shorter but more dangerous route, arrived at cities,
we were not allowed to enter. There was no way
of obtaining food except in baskets let down from
the walls, for which extortionate prices were de-
manded. It was c Money, or your life ! ' Often,
when the money was sent up, the rope was not
lowered again, and the unfortunate one, who perhaps
had parted with his last penny, was only laughed at.
Even when we obtained anything for our money it
was wretched stuff, barely fit to eat, and sometimes
poisoned. In some cases lime was found in the
bread, which caused the death of several of our
half-starved warriors."

" Terrible ! ' cried Gertrude, shuddering at the
thought of such suffering, " was that Christian-like ? '

"The Greeks treated us even worse than the
heathen Turks did, and it will always be remem-
bered to their shame. Their guides purposely led
us astray. More than once they disappeared at
daybreak, when they were most needed. Once, to
our great surprise, we found ourselves well-nigh
delivered by those scoundrels into the hands of the
Saracens. For Turkish gold they led us into an
arid waste, where the Turks suddenly attacked us
and, favored by the almost limitless stretch of level
country, surrounded us and used their fatal skill at
fence so dexterously that in a few days the greater



THE CRUSADERS' RETURN

part of the German army was sacrificed. Hardly
the tenth part of it returned to Byzantium. We
were among the fortunate ones, but our friendly
reception at the hands of the Greek Emperor was
poor compensation for our misfortunes. Shame
upon the people of a country who would rather
see their champions perish than aid them against a
dangerous foe !

" Little grateful for this hospitality, we continued
our retreat as soon as possible. At Nicea we met
the French, who at the outset had as large a force
as our own, and who had met with similar misfor-
tunes. The most of them had been slaughtered by
the Turks. An agreement was made to take the
remainder to Antioch, whither the King of France
had gone by vessel. Instead of keeping their word,
however, the Greeks detained them in dark hovels,
and left them a prey to hunger and disease."

" Horrible ! " exclaimed all.

" But true," said Frederick. " Will you believe
me when I tell you that thousands voluntarily sur-
rendered to the Turks, for they expected and re-
ceived better treatment from them than from those
of their own faith ? '

These dreadful revelations brought tears of sorrow
to the eyes of Gertrude and many of the listeners.

" At last," continued Frederick, "we reached
Jerusalem, where also both sovereigns came.

C'9]



BARBAROSSA $



Reduced in numbers and half-starved as we were, we
nevertheless ventured to besiege Damascus, but were
baffled again by these Eastern Christians, who, in
consideration of Turkish gold, helped the enemy
and obstructed us."

" So you see/' interrupted Conrad, " we came
back rich in exploits, but not crowned with victory."

" That is not our fault," replied Frederick, " and
yet it is not just to lay the blame upon Providence.
It is just as unreasonable also to reproach the Abbe
Bernard of Clairvaux, 1 who advocated the Crusade,
as to charge us with responsibility for the failure of
the movement which he was certain would be suc-
cessful. The highest human skill cannot avail
against treachery. The grand work of rescuing
the Holy Sepulchre will not succeed until all en-
gaged in it are animated by Christian love and
harmony, and work together for the common pur-
pose, allowing nothing to divert them from its
attainment."



1 Saint Bernard, a French ecclesiastic, was born in Burgundy in 1091, and
died at Clairvaux in 1153. He became abbot of Clairvaux in 1115, and held that
position until his death. He had great influence in ecclesiastical politics, and
preached the second Crusade in 1146.



[20]



Chapter II
Frederick Ascends the Throne



\r



German Empire suffered many grave



calamities the following year. 1 Henry,
who already had been designated successor
of Conrad III, suddenly died, and all
hope of filling the vacancy on the throne without
exciting dangerous quarrels among the princes and
their adherents seemingly was gone. The serious-
ness of the situation was soon apparent. Two years
passed, and no successor was found. Then the
sudden death of Conrad occurred, causing great sor-
row and even dismay in the German provinces ; for
he had been a good ruler, even though he had not
always been successful in securing peace.



1 The succession about this period was as follows : The Saxon dynasty (Henry
I, Otto I, Otto II, and Otto III) reigned from 919 to 1002. At the death of Otto
III, no representative of that dynasty was left. He was succeeded by Henry II,
who reigned from 1002 to 1024. After his death the Franconian dynasty
(Conrad II, Henry III, Henry IV, and Henry V) occupied the throne from
1024 to 1125, the dynasty ending with the death of Henry V. The latter was
succeeded by Lothair, Duke of Saxony, who reigned from 1125 to 1137. At
his death, Conrad III of the Hohenstaufen dynasty was elected. He reigned from
1137 to 1152, and was succeeded by Frederick Barbarossa, his nephew, and son
of Frederick, Duke of Swabia, who reigned from 1152 to 1190.



BARBAROSSA



The situation was alarming. In Lombardy, on
the other side of the Alps, the great and rich cities
were struggling for absolute independence. Each
of them demanded exclusive privileges and individ-
ual freedom. They refused to pay taxes or take
commands from any one. Each sought to dominate
the others and make them tributary. At one time
they formed alliances to subjugate others, and when
this was accomplished they turned against each
other. One day in alliance with the Pope, the next
with the Emperor, as soon as they were on good
terms with each other, which was not often the
case, they would join hands against both. Every
device was employed to prevent a lasting agreement
between Church and State, and nothing gave them
greater delight than the desperate conflict between
the Emperor and the representative of Christ, when
excommunications and edicts of outlawry were
hurled from the respective thrones. They favored
the one who would concede the most to them,
though perhaps a few days before they had bitterly
detested and harassed him. They pretended to
submit to the victor, with the secret determination
to throw off his yoke at the first opportunity. In-
deed, in the very act of making an agreement, they
were often planning to break it. Many a ruler had
vainly exerted his utmost power to end this wretched
business. After the death of Conrad, Italian affairs



FREDERICK



were in almost inextricable confusion, and the Ger-
man fatherland was in almost as desperate a condi-
tion, growing out of lust for power, and oppressive
restrictions. The grand dukes repeatedly defied
the imperial power, and forcibly extorted from weak
rulers privileges and immunities which they used
for their own profit in dealing with their inferiors.
Their vassals, the knights, were humiliated, de-
prived of all authority, robbed of their possessionSj
and even church and convent property did not
escape spoliation. Many resorted to arms to de-
fend their rights against the feudal lords, or indem-
nified themselves at the expense of the common
people. The freedom of the latter grew continu-
ally less, and their humiliation greater. The regu-
lar taxes were increased and new ones were levied,
until at last the peasant had little left but life. The
industrious workers of the cities hardly ventured to
carry their products to the nearest market without
first purchasing protection from the nobles. Even
then, they were often plundered by having to pay
ransom to save themselves from being dragged to
some dungeon.

This is but a feeble description of the wretched
plight of the mightiest Empire in Christendom. To
redress these evils and restore order required almost
superhuman ability, and the princes looked around
in vain for a deliverer. The haughty Henry the



BARBAROSSA ft



Lion, 1 an aggressive, ambitious prince, had no one's
confidence. Some were only solicitous to increase
their personal power, while others lacked the abil-
ity to protect themselves successfully against any
assailant.

The dying Conrad, however, took every precau-
tion. He had experienced the difficulty of ruling
such an Empire, and had decided upon the right man
for the place. His own son Frederick was still a
boy, and Conrad knew the Empire would not be
safe in his hands. He proposed his nephew, Fred-
erick of Swabia, whom we have already met. In a
full assembly of the princes at Frankfort-on-the-
Main, one praised the heroic courage he had dis-
played in the Crusade, another his judgment and
wisdom, a third his knightly virtues, and a fourth
was confident he would shortly put an end to the
Jong and bloody conflicts of the Guelphs and Ghi-
bellines. 2 He was unanimously elected, March 4,
1152. All the German provinces voluntarily and

1 Henry the Lion was the son of Henry the Proud. He was of such haughty
disposition and so ambitious that he was generally disliked, but Frederick succeeded
in making him Duke of Bavaria and Saxony. He did much for these duchies by
building new towns and colonizing them, and by founding bishoprics.

2 The Guelphs, or Welfs, as they were called in Germany, were the papal
party in Italy in the Middle Ages. They were the founders of the house of
Brunswick and Hanover to which the present English royal family belongs. The
Ghibellines were the imperial and aristocratic party in Italy who derived their name
from Waiblingen, an estate in Franconia. The conflict between the two parties
was begun in Germany and transferred to Italy, where it raged until the end of the
fifteenth century.



$ FREDERICK



enthusiastically endorsed the choice of the princes,
and a vast multitude of all classes and conditions
exultantly greeted him when the coronation cere-
mony took place at Aix-la-Chapelle, on the tenth of
the same month.

No complaint was made this time of irregularity
in the election. 1 Some slight regret was expressed
that it had not been conducted publicly instead
of in the Frankfort town-hall, but this was of
little moment. The choice satisfied every one.
All hoped to see the glorious old period of Charle-
magne restored, and considered it auspicious that
the selection was made in a city which, according
to tradition, owed its origin to that great hero of the
olden time ; for, when hard pressed by the Saxon


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