Fred. (Frederick) Carlisle.

Chronography of notable events in the history of the Northwest territory and Wayne County online

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History of the Northwest Territory


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Copyrighted, 1890,


'. i S'RE^i C!a<rlt8le, Detroit, Mich.

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This comp
The Wayne

objects —to pre
Wayne Coun
and brought ♦
second, in the i

on wp<5 undertaken and is completed in the interest of
Historical and Pioneer Society, for two
, >rd of those through whose instrumentahty
3 vi.ole lake country was discovered, occupied

present populous and prosperous condition; and,
that the profits from the sale of the publication
would furnish the means to provide a suitable depository for the
historical relics, papers and mementoes heretofore and hereafter
presented to the Society.

In the arrangement of the work it is divided into four periods or
epochs, viz., from 1603 to 1760, when France ceded to England; from
1760 to 1796, when Great Britain ceded to the United States; from
1796 to 1837, when Michigan was admitted aS',a. 'State, and from that
period to the present, narrafing in rh^oncilogicdl order noted historical
events and short sketches of the pro-ii'^hen^. 'characters who figured as
principal factors during those several p^enods. ,

So far as the matter con-ain^d herein, there is but little that is

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original with the compiler, hence is subject to criticism only as to the

The historical references are : Lanman and Tuttle, Lanman's
Red Book, Parkman, Albach, State Pioneer Records, Territorial
Laws, Mrs. Sheldon, County Records, Directory of 1836-7, Detroit
Free Press, Tribune and News, Geo. L. Whitney, Mrs. Hamlin, Col.
James W. Knaggs. The biographical sketches were written and
submitted to each of the subjects for correction and revision.



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The Wayne County Historical Society

Was organized in 1824, Lewis Cass being its first President, and
Major Isaac Rowland its first Secretary. The late Judge B. F.
WiTHERELL was its last President, and Judge H. B. Brown its last

The object of the Society was the collection of historical matter
concerning the Northwest, and the formation of a library. The
sketches of Michigan owe their existence, as does a large collection of
old memorials and relics now in the State Library, to it.

These collections, owing to the lack of a proper room to preserve
them, and a loss of members interested in their care, were deposited at
Lansing, in the expectation that at some future period a suitable place
for their safe keeping would be provided in Detroit, when they would
be brought back. While frequent efforts were made to this end at
different times, nothing was accomplished, and April 21st, 1871, pur-
suant to public notice, a number of the members of the Wayne
County Historical Society assembled at the Biddle House in the city
of Detroit to consider the recent action of the State Society, by which
the Historical Society of Michigan was merged into the Pioneer
Society of Michigan, and all records, papers, memorials and other
property was transferred by the former to the latter.

Owing to the death of Judge Witherell, the last president of the
Historical Society of Detroit, the Hon. Levi Bishop was chosen to
preside and Mr. Samuel Zug was made Secretary of the meeting.

After some discussion a preamble reciting the foregoing facts and
action of the State Society, and resolutions were passed recommending
similar action on the part of Wayne County Historical Society, and
directing the transfer of all papers, files and other documents to an
organization to be known as the Wayne County Pioneer Society. Upon
the adoption of the preamble and resolution, it was moved to proceed
to the election of officers, which resulted in the choice of the Hon.
Levi Bishop, President, and Mr. Samuel Zug as Secretary. Such
was the origin of the present Wayne County Historical and Pioneer

Mr. Bishop continued as President until death, and Mr. Zug as
Secretary until ill health compelled his resignation.

Professor J. C. Holmes succeeded Mr. Bishop as President, and
James Girardin as Secretary, upon whose decease they were in turn

— 6 —

succeeded by J, Wilkie Moore as President, and Fred. Carlisle, Secre-
tary and Treasurer, who are the present incumbents of these offices.

The publication of the present work is in accordance with the
following, adopted April 4, 1888:

" Resolved, That the Secretary collect and compile all information
relating to individual members and their early experiences as relating
to this State, and as soon as practicable have the same printed in book
form for presentation and sale."

Those who have become life members of this Society by comply-
ing with the provision exempting from the payment of future annual
dues, are : Gen. Russell A. Alger, Judge Henry Brevoort, Doctor
William Brodie, Christian H. Buhl, James F. Joy, Gen. James Pittman,
Elliot P. Slocum, Dr. James Fanning Noyes, Cyrus Johnson, Allan





That a more correct understanding may be had as to the processes
and circumstances which led to the occupation and development by
the white man of the territory embraced in the present State of
Michigan, it is well to consider briefly the early voyages and explora-
tions of Europeans.

The discovery, by Columbus of the Bahamas and the West
Indies in 1491 convinced that daring navigator that larger bodies of
land existed farther west, and immediately upon his return to Spain he
sought, and, after vexatious delay and disappointments, obtained the
permission and assistance of Philip and Isabella to fit out three small
vessels with which he put to sea, and, pursuing a westerly course, first
saw the land now constituting the continent of America, on the morn-
ing of the I2th of October, 1492. This discovery excited a spirit of
emulation in other European nations, and soon Spain controlled and
planted colonies in the West Indies, Mexico and Central America,
with the boundaries of the present United States along the Atlantic
coast and the Gulf of Mexico. England occupied the middle region
lying between Florida and the Bay of Fundy, while France entered
the Gulf of St. Lawrence and that grand river of the same name
which furnishes an outlet for the waters of the great lakes of the
Northwest, penetrated to the Ohio and Mississippi, and took posses-
sion of the whole territory embraced in these boundaries, naming it
New France.

The discovery of the island of Newfoundland was made by John
Cabot, an Englishman, in 1497, who, instead of pursuing a westerly
course, returned to England.

In 1 501, Labrador, and what is known as the Gulf of St. Law-
rence, was discovered by a Portuguese named Cortereal. He does not
appear to have reached the river St. Lawrence, and it was left for
Francis ist. King of France, to complete the discovery of and name
the gulf and river St. Lawrence, and what subsequently became Canada
and the Northwest Territory, and authorized

1534- — Jacques Cartier to prosecute discoveries. He fitted out and set
sail with two vessels of 60 tons each, leaving the port of St. Malo
April 20th. He reached Newfoundland and returned to France
September 15th, and reported.

— 8 —

1535- — Jacques Cartler fits out a second expedition of three vessels, the
"Great Hermenia," 120 tons, "Little Hermenia," 60 tons, and
" Herminellion," 40 tons, and sailed from St. Malo May 15, passed
Newfoundland, crossed a gulf and entered a river, both of which
he named St. Lawrence, after a saint of that name. Sailing up the
river, he anchored in front of an Indian village called " Sta-da-
co-na." The natives met him with their chief, Donacona, whose
speech was interpreted by a Gaspe Indian, and who in turn trans-
lated Cartier's response. This led to amicable relations. October
24, taking the smaller vessel, he proceeded to Lake St. Peter, and
finding shallow water, took row boats to the Huron village named
" Hochelaga," now Montreal.


1535-6. — Jacques Carder returned to Stadacona and wintered on the
St. Charles river, below the present site of Quebec, and in the
spring, taking Donacona and two other chiefs and eight warriors,
returned to France.

1540. — Cartier fits out a third expedition with five vessels. On reach-
ing Stadacona, on the St. Lawrence, the natives showed such hos-
tility as to compel him to move up the river, where he built a fort
and named it Charlesbourg. He then sent three of his vessels
back to France.

1542. — Cartier leaves thirty men in the fort and returns to France.
Francis I granted patents for all of New France to Seignor
Roberville, who met Cartier at Newfoundland, when on presenta-
tion of his authority, Cartier surrendered all rights acquired by
him. Roberville returned to France, fitted out a large fleet, and
started for his new territory with his brother Achille, but neither
were heard of afterwards. His fleet was supposed to have foun-
dered. The loss of Roberville's fleet discouraged Francis ist, who
never sent out another expedition to colonize Canada.

1598. — Marquise de la Roche, a nobleman of Brittany, France, fitted
out an expedition, but no notable results were accomplished by
him, except the leaving at Nova Scotia of some convicts, who were
subsequently taken back to France and pardoned.

1599. — M. Chauvin, a naval officer, and Pontgrave, a merchant of
Rouen, organized an expedition. Chauvin reached Charlesbourg
with two vessels, and built a new fort, called Tadossac.

1603. — Chauvin died, and his companions returned to France.

1604. — Two more unsuccessful attempts were made, by Chatte, Gov-
ernor of Dieppe, and by Champlain, under the patronage of Rouen

1607. — Jamestown, Virginia, founded.

1608. — Through the influence of the merchants of Rouen, France,
Champlain was induced to undertake a second expedition, and
founded the present Quebec, then called Quebo, or Quebian (Strait,)
by the natives. He also discovered the long stretch of water now

— 10 —

known as Lake Champlain. (Quebec was the third permanent
settlement made in North America. St. Augustine was founded
in 1565, and Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607.)

1610. — Meantime the present site of Detroit was visited by the French
missionaries, of the Jesuit order. They found a village of the
Ottawas near Parent Creek (afterward named " Bloody Run "),
and " Conner's Creek." The Hurons occupied the present site of
Detroit. The Ottawas also controlled Belle Isle. The Pottawa-
tomies were the most powerful and not only controlled Grosse Isle,
but also the lake country, embraced in the present county of Oak-
land. The whole territory of what became Michigan was inhab-
ited by the following Indian tribes: Ottawas, Ojibewas, Chip-
pewas, Pottawatomies, Hurons and Miamis, The Iroquois
composed the five nations, and called themselves " Leni Leapes "
(original men), and claimed to be grandfathers of over forty Indian
nations. The " Delewares " were always allies of the English,
and were considered by the English as representing the intelligence
and were the most cultivated of all the other tribes. Their dialect
and methods of communication w^as not gutteral, but melodious,
liquid, smooth, and their utterance musical and refined. (The
venerable Col. James W. Knaggs, now living in Detroit, attests to
the foregoing.) They were the controlling influence among the
tribes constituting the five nations, and were direct opponents of
those constituting the tribes favoring French supremacy. The
name given to Detroit by the Indians was Waweatonong.

1611-13. — Champlain founded Montreal.

161 5. — Champlain brought from France four Recollet fathers, who
established the order in Canada.

1 616. — Champlain visits France the third time. The first missionaries
among the Indians were Lecaron, Viel and Sagard. Champlain
returns to Canada, labors with the Indians and secured great bene-
fits. Was appointed Governor. The Indian tribes were : The
Ottawas were originally from the Ottawa river in Canada, from
which they were driven by the Iroquois ; the Ojibewas, natives of
Lake Superior ; the Chippewas, of the east shore of Lake Michi-
igan, and the Hurons or Wyandottes on the eastern shore of Lake
Huron, and the Neutral nation occupied all the region on the
north shore of Lake Erie, with their left flank on the Niagara river.
The Hurons were supposed to number 10,000, and by some esti-
mated at 30,000. The Hurons and Iroquois spoke a dialect of the

1629. — War broke out between England and France. Charles I of
England, sends Sir David Kirkt who compelled Champlain to sur-

— 11 —

render Quebec. The Iroquois nation, being allies of the English,
contributed to the surrender, and Champlain returned to France
via England.
16^2. — Champlain was again made Governor of Canada. Peace hav-
ing been made between France and England he returns and
assumes control.

1635.— Champlain died, after having been for thirty years actively exer-
cising authority in Canada.

1640.— Jean D. Breauf, Daniel and Gabrial Lallemand, Father Raym-
bault, Isaac Jogues and Pizard, established missions at Sault Ste.
Marie, St. Joseph (Fort Gratiot), St. Louis and St. Ignace. The
war between the Iroquois and Hurons involved the missions at
all these points.

1641. — The missionaries Raymbault and Jogues hold a council with the
Chippewas at Sault St. Marie, where they first heard of the
Nedounneoiea or Soux, who dwelt eighteen days' journey west of
the lake.

1642. — Fathers Jogues and Bressani were taken prisoners by the Iro-
quois, tortured and put to death.

1648. — The mission of St. Joseph (Fort Gratiot) was destroyed by the
Iroquois, and Father Daniel Lallemand slain.

1649. — The missions St. Louis and St. Ignace were destroyed, and
Gabriel Lallemand and Jean de Brebauf brutally murdered. (The
Iroquois declared war against the Hurons, captured and destroyed
their villages, slaughtered and scattered^the entire nation.)

1658.— Cadillac born, March 5th.

1660. — Father Reni Mesnard established a church at the Bay St. The-
resa, on the south shore of Lake Superior. He was lost in the
forests of Keweenaw. Subsequently his cassock and breviary
were found in the possession of the Soux. The Indian tribes
about Detroit were the Hurons, Ottawas, Ojibewas, Pottawat-
omies, Ollogamies and Mascoutins.

1665.— The " Company of the Hundred Associates," which had ruled
Canada since 1632, resigned its charter, and New France passed
under the jurisdiction of The Company of the Indies. Tracy was
made viceroy, Courcelles governor, and Talon intendant. Father
Allouez was sent to the Sault St. Marie and the south shore of
Lake Superior, and landed at the Bay Chegoimegon, a village of
the Chippewas. He established a permanent mission, and made
an alliance with the Pottawatomies, Sacs, Foxes and Illinois against
the Iroquois.

1666, — Allouez crossed to the north shore of Lake Superior, at its

— 12 —

western extremity, where he met the Soux, who first described a
great river flowing to the south, called by them " Missippi."

1668. — Claude Dablon and Jaques Marquette established a permanent
mission at Sault St. Marie, and during the succeeding five years
AUouez, Dablon and Marquette explored the south shore of Lake
Superior and west of Lake Michigan, founded the missions at
Michilmackinac and Green Bay, (the " Baie-des-Puens " of the
French.) Dollier and Galina erect a cross at the foot of Belle Isle,
engraving thereon the French coat of arms. They left Pierre Roy
and Francois Pelletre.

1671. — Nicholas Perrot held a council of the Indian tribes at Sault St.
Marie, when the whole northwest was taken under the protection
of France.

1673. — Marquette and M. Joliet, under authority of France, passed
through the lakes to Michilmackinac (derived from the Indian word
Mich-i-mack-i-nac, meaning great turtle, or in the Chippewa,
Mich-ine-mank-i-nonk, signifying the place of giant fairies), from
thence up Green Bay and the Fox river, over the portage of the
Wisconsin (Ouisconsin), down the Mississippi to the river A-ka-
mocas (corrupted to Arkansas), and then returned to Green Bay,
via the river IlHnois and the present Chicago. Their discoveries
were the most important of the age.

1679. — La-Sall, who made the notable settlement of Detroit, Detroit
river first navigated by a vessel of European construction, " The
Griffin," built at Black Rock, Niagara river, and launched August
7th. She was of brig build, sixty tons measurement. La-Sall,
the commander, was accompanied by Boronidet, Tonti, Autray,
Meterie, Jean Michael, surgeon, and Father Hennepin. They were
met at the foot of Belle Isle by Roy and Pelletier.

1687. — Tonti was at Detroit.

1691. — Father Basle, a noted French missionary, visited this territory
this year. He found priests of his own order at Mackinac, Arb7'e
Voc/ie, Green Bay, St. Joseph (Mich.), and also among the Indians
in Illinois, near the Mississippi. This divine was murdered at the
foot of the cross at the missions in Boston by the British troops,
August 20th, 1724. f

1701. — Detroit founded by Cadillac, July 24. Foundation of St. Ann's
church laid the 26th. He was accompanied by Alphonsi Tonti,
captain; Dugue and Charcondal, his lieutenants; Jacob Marsac,
Francois and Jean Fafurd, interpreters. Father De Halle, fifty
soldiers and the same number of artisans. Henry Bellisle was the
physician. First* St. Ann's church built. Detroit was ceded to the
Canada Company.

— 13 —

1704. — Mana Thersu, the daughter of Cadillac, was formally baptized
by Father Constant De Halle. This was the first time the cere-
mony was ever performed at Detroit. Bertrand Arnault was her
god-father, and Genevieve La Jendre god-mother. Robert Naverre
w^as the civil officer. Indians set fire to the town, which w^as par-
tially destroyed, including the houses of Cadillac and Tonti.

1706. — First St. Ann's church burned.

1 7 10. — Cadillac left for Mt. Deseret, Maine.

171 2. — The Fox or Pottawatomies attempted to destroy the post again,
and laid seige to it for nineteen days, when they were driven off
and almost annihilated. Tonti commanded the post.

1713. — De La Forit succeeded Cadillac, he being appointed Governor
of Louisiana. (In 1717 Cadillac returned to France, was made
Governor of Castle Sarassin, and died October i6th, 1730, and
was buried in the church vaults.)

1715. — Dr. Jean Chapoton, ranking as major, succeeded Dr. Bellisle.
(He was an ancestor of Dr. Chapoton of the present day.) The
following, w^hose descendants are worthy and well known citizens,
were prominent at this time, viz. : The Godfreys, Campaus,
Chenes, Cicottes, Le Fertes, Lafontains, Riopelles, Dubois,
Morans, Dequindres and Thebaults.

1 72 1. — Charlevoix visited Detroit June 6th, and found a fort, com-
manded by Tonti.

1722. — Second St. Ann's church erected.

1728. — Louis the Fourteenth, King of France, granted leases of farms
in and near Detroit.

1749. — Emigrants were sent to Detroit at the expense of the French
government, and furnished with subsistence and farming utensils.
About 50 famihes.

1755. — Second St. Ann's church destroyed by fire. The third rebuilt
same year.

1759. — Quebec surrendered by the French to the English.

1760. — Montreal and the whole of Canada ceded to the English, and
on the 29th of November they occupied the fort at Detroit under
Major Robert Rogers. The French troops were sent to Philadel-
phia, and from thence to France, the civilians taking the of oath
allegiance to the English king. Major Campbell succeeded Major
Rogers in December of this year, which closes the first period.

Note 1703 to 1763. — The following is a list of priests at Detroit, begin-
ning with 1703 to 1763: Rev. Constantine De La Halle, who
was subsequently butchered by the Indians, and whose remains

— 14 —

were first deposited in the vaults of St. Ann's church, and subse-
quently transferred to the new St. Ann's church; Rev. De La
Marche, 1706; Rev. Cherubin Denieau, 1707 to 17 14; Rev. Hia-
cynthie Pelifresne, 1715 to 1718; Rev. Calvarin, V. G., Missions
of the Tamarnas; Jean Mercier, of the Foreign Mission of Paris;
Rev. D. Thaunier, Rev. Pantoin Delius, Rev. P. Bonaventure, who
removed the body of Father De La Halle to the new St. Ann's
church; Rev. P. Daniel, Rev. De La Richardie, who resided for
a time at the island of Bois Blanc, and the Rev. Simple Bouquet.



These two priests were born in France, and were sent out to
assist in establishing their order in the Mississippi valley, the informa-
tion obtained by AUouez in regard to that river and its tributaries hav-
ing attracted attention to that region as presenting a grand opening for
founding an auxiliary to their branch of the church at Rome. Soon
after their arrival at Quebec, 1673, they proceeded upon their remark-
able and romantic voyage by way of the Ottawa river, crossing to
Michilmackinac through the straits and the head of Lake Michigan
to Green Bay, which they reached in September. The discoveries
made by Marquette and Joliet were among the most important of that
age and increased, which eventually culminated in the still more
remarkable of La Salle and Hennepin. They died soon after their
return from this voyage of exploration, leaving the northwest territory
greatly indebted to them for their discoveries, which led to the speedy
developments of its valuable resources.

Marquette, Lake Superior, takes its name from the former, and
Joliet, Indiana, from the latter.


Samuel Champlain was born in the seaport of St. Malo, France, in
1582. History states that his parents were people of quality, and edu-
cated him for the priesthood, but before reaching his majority he
decided not to take orders, and while his religious zeal was not dimin-
ished, he felt that his duty to both his church and its cause would be
best subserved by extending its influence over new territory, for at that
period the continent of America had been discovered. Jacques Cartier,
M. Chauvin, De Chuste and De Mast had already established settle-
ments in the new country. He therefore entered the navy and soon
became recognized a'S an expert navigator, and in 1607 was commis-
sioned by the King of France to fit out an expedition and found a col-

— 15 —

ony, and establish his authority over the territory discovered by Car-
tier and his contemporaries. He sailed from Harfluer, France, April
13th, 1608, and arrived at Tadoussac, at the mouth of the St. Lawrence
river, on the 3d of June, and leaving an ofhcer named Pontgrave with
a small force to traffic with the Indians, sailed up the river to the prom-
ontory covered with a fine grove of trees and a luxuriant growth of
vines, called by the natives Quibo (or Quebec), and the 3d of July,
1608, founded Quebec. This was the third permanent settlement
established in the i\tlantic region of North America, the others being
St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565, and Jamestown in 1608. In the spring
of 1609 he discovered and explored the long, narrow lake bearing his
name (Lake Champlain). He thoroughly explored it, the St. Lawrence
and the Ottawa rivers, selected the site and founded the City of Mon-
treal in 161 1 and 1613. He made repeated voyages to France, and in
1615 brought with him four fathers of the RecoUet order, who came
to locate and labor among the Indians. These were the first priests to
settle in Canada. In 1616 Champlain returned to France, and in 1620
made another visit to Canada, where he labored to promote the growth
of settlements and the establishment of missions among the Indian
tribes, until the surrender of Quebec to the English under Sir David
Kirkt, a French refugee, whom Charles I. sent out in 1629. Champlain
was sent first to England, and being exchanged, returned to France.
The English held possession until peace was declared, when it was

Online LibraryFred. (Frederick) CarlisleChronography of notable events in the history of the Northwest territory and Wayne County → online text (page 1 of 51)