Fred. (Frederick) Carlisle.

Chronography of notable events in the history of the Northwest territory and Wayne County online

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sales of lands were made. Lewis Cass re-appointed Governor,
December 24th. Site of Fort Shelby sold at auction. Jackson,
President. John de Gray, the author of Morgan's book on Masonry,
was a resident. Daniel LeRoy kept the Steamboat Hotel; he was
the author of the paraphrase, " In Adam's fall we are Jackson, all."

1829. — Major John Biddle, elected a delegate to Congress. He was a
brother to Nicholas Biddle, the President of the United States
Bank. Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank incorporated. Cholera
made its first appearance in Moscow, Russia.

1830. — January ist, James Witherell, Secretary and Acting Governor.
First theatre in Detroit ; Capt. Benj. Wood worth converted the
barn loft in rear of the Steamboat Hotel into a comfortable theater.
Mr. Parsons, Mr. Dean (father of Julia Dean), Wm. Forrest and a
Miss Clark, were the first actors. Corner stone of Territorial
capitol laid September 22. County Bible Society organized. At
this period there were but 41 miles of railroad in the United
States. Gen. John T. Mason, Secretary and Acting Governor,
Sept. 24. Last execution for murder in Michigan.

1831. — Gen. John T. Mason, Secretary and Acting Governor, May 27.
Stevens Thompson Mason, Secretary and Acting Governor, Aug.
ist to September 17th. George B.Porter, Governor, August 6th;
Stevens T. Mason, Secretary and Acting Governor, October 30th,
was Virginian born, but appointed from Kentucky. Austin E.

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Wino-, elected delegate to Congress. Gen. Lewis Cass appointed
Secretary of War by Jackson, in July, and resigned as Governor
August 31st, and General George B. Porter, of Pennsylvania,
appointed Governor in July. The first Baptist Church were ad-
mitted to the Michigan Baptist Association, and erected their first
church building on the corner of Fort and Griswold.

1832. — The Legislative Council authorized the construction of roads from
Prairie du Chien to Fort Gratiot, Battle Creek to mouth of the
Kalamazoo river, Pontiac to Ann Arbor, Pontiac to Adrian, from
Jackson to the mouth of St. Joseph river, from Monguagon to St.
Joseph, and from Vistula (now Toledo) to Indiana. It passed an
Act for the establishment of common schools, and one incorporat-
ing the Lake Michigan Steamboat company, with a capital of
$40,000; also incorporating the Detroit & St. Joseph railroad com-
pany, and the Bank of River Raisin, with a branch at Pontiac.
Detroit's population of 2,500 were interested in the prosecution of
the Black Hawk war. Previous to the arrival of General Scott,
Governor Mason directed Major General Jno. R. Williams to pro-
ceed to the seat of war with the First Regiment of Michigan
Militia, under the command of Col. Edward Brooks, a company
of mounted dragoons under Captain Chas. Jackson, and Mayor
Isaac Rowland tendered the services of the City Guard. The
infantry proceeded as far as Saline, when they were ordered back;
The dragoons proceeded to Chicago with General Williams. The
ten days' service of the City Guards so decimated their ranks
that they soon disbanded. The Council authorized a vote of the
inhabitants to determine the question of forming a State Govern-
ment. Vote taken on the first Tuesday in October, and resulted
in a majority favorable to State organization. No further steps
to this end were taken at this period. Young Men's Society
formed. Wayne County Hospital and poor house established
under the direction of the Rev. Wm. Kundig. Cholera struck
Detroit, brought by General Scott's troops en route to Black Hawk
country. Father Gabriel Richards died in July.

1833. — March ist, first edition of the Detroit Advertiser appeared:
Mayor Thos. Rowland, editor. Stage route established between
Detroit and Chicago, advertised to make the trip in five days. In
June, Thomas Blackburn and wife, fugitive slaves from Kentucky,
were arrested. The woman escaped from jail, and the man
was rescued by colored people, and sent to Canada. Great
excitement prevailed, and the sheriff, Jno. M. Wilson, was badly
beaten. The mechanics of Detroit and workingmen resolved they
would work but 10 hours a day. Engine house located on Fort St.,
on site of present City Hall. On the Michigan Avenue side the

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Detroit & St. Joseph Railroad fixed its Depot. Catholic diocese
for Michigan erected. Right Rev. Dr. Frederick Rese, bishop.
Consecration sermon preached by the Rev. J. Mullen. He was
consecrated at Cincinnati by Dr. Rosati, bishop of St. Louis, Oct.
6th. Rev. John P. Cleveland succeeds Rev. Noah M. Wells, as
pastor of the First Presbyterian church.

1834. — January 7th, the Rt. Rev. Dr. Frederick Rese, bishop of the
diocese, arrived. Rev. Mr. Cleveland arrived in June, and
entered as pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. Baptists
completed their brick church on the corner of Fort and Griswold;
Rev. Robt. Turnbull, pastor. Detroit Female Seminary founded.
The census of Detroit showed a population of 4,973 persons : 2,904
males, 2,069 females, 477 dwellings, 64 stores and warehouses.
Stevens T. Mason, ex officio Governor. Preliminary steps to pro-
vide State rights to the territory. Sept. 6th, the Legislature
passed an Act directing a census. Resulted in showing a popula-
tion of 87,275 free white inhabitants. (The ordinance of 1787
provided that the Northwest territory should be divided into not
less than three nor more than five States, as Congress should deter-
mine. Three States had already been formed from it, viz. : Ohio,
Indiana and Illinois. By subsequent Acts of Congress, Michigan
was entitled to admission when her white population numbered
60,000). Cholera appeared again, and among its victims were
Ex-Governor George B. Porter, Col. Chas. Larned, Francis P.
Browning, the deaths reached 319 from August to the ist of
September. The City Hall completed, where now stands the
market building. Detroit and Pontiac R. R. chartered (now the
Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee).

1835. — January, the Council passed an Act calling a convention to be
held at Detroit on the second Monday of May following. At this
convention there were 89 delegates. It continued in session until
June 24, adopted a form of constitutfon, and provided for its sub-
mission to the people at an election in October following, also
provided for the election of State officers, and a legislature to act
under its provisions. In November following, the machinery for a
State Government, so far as the people of the Territory could pro-
vide, was in working condition. At the election, Stephen T.
Mason was chosen Governor of the State to be. Geo. W.Jones,
who was a resident of that portion of the territory now known as
Wisconsin, was elected a delegate to Congress, to succeed Lucius
Lyon. A riot occurred in Detroit occasioned by dissatisfaction
among the workmen engaged in grading the water front on the
Cass Farm. It assumed such proportions that the militia were
called out. Soon after the Brady Guards were organized. John

— 97 —

S. Horner was the Territorial Governor, although the people had
submitted to the new State form of government. The boundary
question between Michigan and Ohio began to cause disturbance.
Michigan claimed that under the ordinance of 1787, it was entitled
to a line taking in Maumee Bay, now Toledo, Ohio resisting. The
Legislature elected in October met at Detroit in November and
chose John Norvell and Lucius Lyon as U. S. Senators, but trans-
acted no other important business. Members from Wayne of the
first Constitutional Convention, May nth : John Biddle, John
Norvell, John R.Williams, Alpheus White, Amos Stevens, Conrad
TenEyck, Louis Beaufait, Peter VanEvery, Jonathan D. Davis,
Caleb Herrington, Ammon Brown, T. E. Tallman, George W.
Ferrington, Asa H. Otis, Charles F. Irwin and William Wood-
bridge, held at Detroit; adjourned June 24. Members from Wayne
of the 6th and last Territorial Legislature : John McDonald, Chas.
Moran and Elon Farnsworth.

18^6. — ^June 15th, Congress passed an act of admission upon condition
that the people, by and through a representative convention to be
called for that purpose, should accept the state boundary on the
south claimed by Ohio, and as a compensation for such surrender
should receive the upper peninsular. Said convention was called
to meet at Ann Arbor, September 26. The delegates chosen from
Wayne county were Titus Dort, D. C. McKinstr}^ Louis Beau-
fait, B. B. Kercheval, Ammon Brown, EH Bradshaw, Horace A.
Noyes and John McDonald. On the assembling of the delegates
William Draper, of Oakland, was chosen president and Charles A.
Jeffries, Samuel York, A. Lee, secretaries, and Martin Davis,
sergeant at arms. This convention, after considering the ques-
tion, refused to accept the proposition suggested by the act of Con-
gress and adjourned. Meanwhile the excitement ran high. Both
Ohio and Michigan had organized a force of 10,000 militia, pro-
posing to settle the question by force of arms. Wiser counsel,
however, prevailed, and a second representative convention was
called and delegates were elected December 6th who met at Ann
Arbor Dec. 14th. The delegates representing Wayne in this
convention were John R. Williams, Ross Wilkins, Charles Moran,
M. J. Bacon, Daniel Goodwin, B. F. H. Witherell, John E.
Schwartz, R. Gillett, EH Bradshaw, Horace A. Noyes, Elihu
Morse, Warren Tuttle, A. Y. Murray, John BuckHn, Josiah Mason
and Charles F. Irwin. On convening. General John R. WilHams
was chosen president and Kinzing Prichette and J. E. Fields,
secretaries. The convention, after one day and night's discussion,
adopted a resolution giving assent of the State to the congressional
proposition. The resolution being signed by the delegates and

— 98 —

ratified by the people settled the Toledo war and the machinery
of the state government began to be put into successful operation^
which ends the third epoch in the history of Michigan and Wayne
county. The Detroit Advertiser first issued.


Were the merchants of the present period compelled to encounter
the privations and labor experienced by Joseph Campau in the business
transactions of his da}^, we fear they would shrink, and become dis-
couraged. Joseph Campau was born in Detroit, February 20th, 1769.
His grandfather came to Detroit with Cadillac in 1701. He located
what was subsequently known as the James Campau, Chene and Pou-
pard farms.

Joseph Campau received his primary education from his devoted
mother, to whose great care and anxiety for the proper Christian train-
ing and early education of her son, we are indebted for those traits of
benevolence and great leniency of which Mr. Caupau's life was after-
wards characteristic. At the age of ten he was sent to school at Mont-
real, where he remained five years. He received a good French
education, and returned to Detroit in 1786, one of the most accom-
pHshed Frenchmen of the old aristocratic town. Nor did he lack any
of those qualities which make Frenchmen attractive in society. His
name was an acknovvdedged title to French nobility, and his polished
manners and finished education invested him with much interest.

On his return from Montreal, his father having died during his
absence, he entered into the employment of Mr. McGregor, a store-
keeper at Sandwich, Canada. He remained in this capacity for some
time, or until the commencement of his Maiden enterprise. Having
accumulated some funds, he entered into a contract with the British
Government to erect a fort at Maiden. He proceeded to execute this
work, collecting a vast quantity of timber for the building of the Fort,
when a freshet came and swept it all away, leaving him quite penniless.
He then returned to the employment of Mr. McGregor, and shortly
afterwards entered into the mercantile business on his own account,
his first place of business, being on what is now Atwater street, his prin-
cipal customers the Frenchmen of the town, and the Indians farther
away. Afterwards he moved to the south side of St. Ann street, now
known as Jefferson avenue, on the site of the house in which he died.
His success was great, and he soon established branch trading posts at
Saginaw, St. Clair, and on the Chnton (the Huron of St. Clair). Mr.
Campau continued in trade for upwards of forty years. He had a
large and profitable Indian trade. He generally procured his goods in
Montreal, but was the first merchant of Detroit who purchased goods

— 99 —

in Boston and transported them to the western settlements. Joseph
Campau was indeed the great pioneer merchant of Michigan. He was
not only the leading spirit in mercantile pursuits in his day, but through
almost unparalleled success, the result of his own great energy and
exemplary integrity, he accumulated a large fortune, and was, at an
early day, the most extensive dealer in Detroit.

As early as 1786 he commenced buying and selling real estate.
In this business Mr. Joseph Campau rendered his country an invalu-
able service. It was his rule to purchase uncultivated lands, erect
comfortable dwellings upon them, and dispose of the lots after they
had been prepared for the reception of civilization. On almost all
these lots he placed buildings costing from $3,000 to $4,000, and paid,
on an average, $50 an acre for clearing the land. He displayed almost
matchless enterprise in this work, providing attractive homes for
hundreds of the early settlers of Detroit and Michigan. It was his
custom either to sell or rent these places, after clearing a large portion
of the land and placing comfortable dwellings upon it. His customers
were, for the most part, poor people who, with but a few dollars, had
come to develop a home among the pioneers of the northwest. Mr.
Campau's books show that many were the tenants who depended upon
his charity for a home. When times were hard and money was
scarce, and rents and mortgages came due, it was Mr. Campau's pride
to visit his debtors and encourage them with words of good cheer,
assuring them that the kind Providence who had intrusted so much
property to his care and disposal had taught him to " do unto others as
he would that others should do unto him." In this way many a
mother's aching heart was made glad, and hundreds of little children
were permitted to enjoy the fruits of a father's industry, that, with a
less benevolent master than Mr. Campau, they would have suffered
for. Hundreds still live and thousands have gone to their graves, who
have borne testimony to the great philanthropy and willing charity of
this good old pioneer and patriarchial citizen.

On Detroit becoming incorporated in 1802, Mr. Campau was
elected member of the first Board of Trustees. He was also one of
the dispensation members of Zion Lodge of Free Masons. In 181 2 he
received a commission as major from President Madison. The fire of
the nth of July, 1805, destroyed nearly all the buildings in Detroit,
including Mr. Campau's. He immediately rebuilt the home on the
same site in which he died, and which was purchased by the late
Francis Palms, who erected the large brick block now occupied by the
Heavenrich brothers.

As a merchant Mr. Campau was the soul of integrity. It is said
that his account books are perfect models for neatness and accuracy.
His customers are described in them with great particularity, as to

/,, f' - ^ .rj T"' ^*N .fl

— 100 —

name, genealogy and residence, and sometimes their habits are slyly
hinted or openly described. Of themselves they afford a correct
history of many of the early incidents of Michigan. Mr. Campau took
pride in schooling his sons in all the details connected with his vast
business. His rent books describe every house, as well as the ante-
cedents, recommendations and character of his tenants, and every lease
granted or receipt taken from 1792 to the day of his death was filed
in alphabetical order, and carefully preserved. Mr. Campau's personal
habits were simple and plain. He was temperate, abstemious, indus-
trious, frugal and cautious. He never gave alms to be seen of men,
but was liberal and indulgent toward his tenants to a degree that won
their affection and esteem. Mr. Campau took great interest in raising
stock, especially in horses, and was as early as 1798 a member of the
Board of "Trade Britannic." In 181 2 he was connected with the
Northw^estern Fur Compan}' with John Jacob Astor, James Abbot and
L. S. Schwarz. In 1809 he had ten branch stores in the territory, and
was one of the original stockholders of the first banking institution in
the city, the "Territorial," of which General John R. Williams was
president, and was associated with General Williams in the establish-
ment of the Democratic Free Press (now the Detroit Free Press).
They purchased for that purpose the material used in the publication
of the Oakland Chronicle in Pontiac. He was an original owner in the
stock of the Detroit and St. Joseph R. R. (now M. C. R. R.) and a
member of this Society at its organization.

In 1808 Mr. Campau married Adelaide Dequindre, daughter of
Antoine Ponchartin Dequindre and Catherine i^Desmirere) Lemoine-
dieu a brother of Mrs. Campau. Major Antoine Dequindre distin-
guished himself at the battle of Monguagon in 181 2. He died May
20, 1862.

James Campau, the father of Joseph, married Catherine Menard
in 1760. They had two sons; Jacques, born 1762, Joseph, the subject
of this sketch, and one daughter, Cecile, born 1765. In 1781 she
married Judge Thomas Williams, the father of General John R.
Williams. The childi-en of Mr. Campau living at the time of his
death were Daniel J., Dennis J., James J., Alexander T., Adelaide,
Catherine D., Emily and Matilda, all of whom have since died.

Joseph Campau died July 25, 1863. The attendance at his funeral
was the largest ever witnessed in Detroit up to that period. He was
buried in Elmwood cemeter}^ July 27th, 1863.

Mr. Campau was a connecting link between the wars of the
Revolution of 1812-1^, and that of the great Republic of 1861. His
life was full of events in which he was an active participant.

— 101 —


Anthony Wayne, from whom this County takes its name, is
entitled to a place among the pioneers of the third period in
this work. The grandfather of this gallant soldier emigrated from
Ireland to America in 1722. By birth he was English, but siding with
William, the Protestant, he fought at the battle of the Boyne, and
broke up his residence in Ireland, on account of the ingratitude, as he
thought, of that prince. This experience also turned him to the New
World, and located him in Chester Co., Pa., where his grandson, the sub-
ject of this sketch, came into the world, January ist, 1745. His father,
Issac Wayne, a farmer, was for many years a representative of the
county in the Colonial Assembly. His first preceptor was his uncle
Gilbert, who, writing to his father at this time, says: "'Anthony
neglects his books, and sets the school topsy-turvy with his redoubts,
entrenchments, and skirmishing with the boys out of school, from
which the boys come in with broken heads and black eyes. He may
make a soldier, but one thing I am certain of, that he will never make
a scholar," and concludes, " I must be candid with you, brother Isaac,
that unless Anthony pays more attention to his books, I must dismiss
hjm from school." Upon being appealed to by his father, he rallied his
mental powders and applied himself to his books with such diligence
as to be soon prepared for the Philadelphia Academy, which he entered,
and from which he graduated in his eighteenth year, and opened a
land surveyor's office in his native town.

At the close of the old French war, he was employed by a com-
pany of Philadelphia land speculators (of whom Benjamin Franklin
was one) to superintend the colonization of some land investments in
Nova Scotia. Anthony was twent3'-one when he was entrusted with
this duty, at the special recommendation of Franklin. Anthony
remained in the employ of this Company until 1767, when the affairs of
the country became so unsettled as to induce his return to Pennsyl-
vania. He married a Miss Penrose, the daughter of a Philadelphia mer-
chant, and devoted himself to his farm and surveying in Chester

In 1773 he succeeded his father as a representative in the Assembly,
and took an active, patriotic part in the political questions of the day. He
was the first in the field after Independence was declared, and a call for
troops was made, and raised a company of volunteers. In 1776 Con-
gress commissioned him as Colonel, and sent him with his regiment to
the northern army on the borders of Canada, when he found himself
under the command of General Sullivan, and was detached to accom-
pany General Thompson in what proved an unfortunate raid into
Canada. The latter proved inefficient. The force became entangled,

— 102 —

the officers were wounded or taken prisoners, and the honor of con-
ducting a successful retreat fell to Wa3^ne. In the winter of 1776 Gen.
Gates left him in command of Ticonderoga and Congress created him
a Brigadier General. In the spring of 1777, he joined Washington, and
was placed in command of a brigade ready for active service against
Howe. Wayne took part in the movement between New York and
Philadelphia which preceded the landing of Howe's army on the shore
of Chesapeake Bay, August, 1777. Washington pushed his forces for-
ward to meet him for the defence of Philadelphia, and Wayne's
brigade was stationed at Chadd's Ford, on the Brandywine, where the
main fighting was expected to take place; but the right wing of the
American army was attacked and defeated first, which left Wayne to
sustain a prolonged attack and ultimately retreat from his position.
Wayne was next sent in conjunction with General Smallwood to
harass Howe's army, and took his post in the rear.

On the 4th of October he made an advance on Germantown and
•took the enemy by surprise "and drove them from their position, but in
the confusion occasioned by a dense fog and the smoke, which made the
day as dark as night, his troops mistook an advancing body of American
troops for the enemy, and fired upon them. This created confusion and
forced him to retreat. During the following winter his brigade was
employed in foraging for the army at Valley Forge. Philadelphia was
evacuated by the British in the spring of 1778. Washington followed
them through New Jersey, and at Monmouth overtook and gave them
battle, June 28th. In this battle Wayne was again placed in the front,
and just as he was about to meet the attack upon his position General
Lee ordered a retreat, but Washington coming up, ordered him to
hold his position, which he did successfully, repulsing the repeated
attacks by the enemy. This success of Wayne brought on a general
action, and during its progress, Wayne ordered his men to " pull off
their coats, roll up their shirt sleeves and charge." This service decided
the contest in favor of the Americans. Washington in his despatch to
the President of Congress singled out Wayne for commendation.

His next exploit was the capture of Stoney Point, on the Hudson,
July 16, 1779, with the bayonet. Not a musket was fired by his troops.
He himself was wounded in the hand by a musket ball, and was sup-
ported into the works by his aides. The daring exhibited by him on
this occasion gave him the title of " Mad Anthony."

During the summer of 1780 he was actively co-operating with
Washington on the Hudson. In the summer the latter ordered him to
storm the works near Bull's Ferry (opposite the present Hmits of New
York City), and drive the cattle collected there by the British into the
American lines; and although his attack was repulsed, he succeeded in
capturing the cattle, which he drove into camp.

— 103 —


The winter following he was stationed at Morristown, and the
summer of 1781 found him with Lafayette in Virginia. From thence
he was ordered to join Green in Georgia. In this campaign he defeated
the British and their Indian allies, the Choctaws and Creeks, which led
to the capture of Savannah. As a reward for his services in that State,
Georgia made to him a valuable grant of land, which subsequently
proved an unprofitable gift, owing to the pecuniary embarrassments
occasioned by his attempted improvements.

On his return to Pennsylvania he devoted his time to his farm,
until called by Washington to retrieve the disasters of General St. Clair
against the Western Indians. He took the field in Ohio in the autumn
of 1793, and erected a fort on the site of St. Clair's defeat, which he
named Fort Recovery, where he wintered. In the summer of 1794 he

Online LibraryFred. (Frederick) CarlisleChronography of notable events in the history of the Northwest territory and Wayne County → online text (page 10 of 51)