Fred. (Frederick) Carlisle.

Chronography of notable events in the history of the Northwest territory and Wayne County online

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restored to France in 1632, when Champlain was sent out again as
governor. He died in 1635, after spending 30 years in the active con-
nection with the French possessions in North America.

Champlain was somewhat of a religious enthusiast, and esteemed
the salvation of an Indian soul of more value than the conquest of an
empire. He recognized an Indian convert as a citizen of France, and
the Franciscans were chosen to conduct his missions, but the more
active order of the Jesuits subsequently took possession, and soon
became dominant. Among the most prominent of the latter order was
Jean D. Bredaeuf and the brothers Daniel and Gabriel Lallemand, who
established missions at St. Joseph, St. Louis and St. Ignace in 1634-40,
and were subsequently, in 1648, captured and cruelly massacred by the
Iroquois Indians.


Father Claude AUouez was born in France, and educated in the
Jesuit schools of that country. He came to Quebec some years after
the death of Champlain, and was sent out among the Indians of the
Lake Superior region in the interest of the government as well as of
the order. Taking a canoe on the Ottawa, he reached Lake Huron, fol-
lowed its shore to and up St. Mary's river, reached the Sault, remained

— 16 —

there a short time, then taking the south coast of Lake Superior, vis-
ited the Indian villages of the Chippewas, among whom he established
a mission in August, 1665. This was the first permanent mission on
this lake. He also formed an alliance between the Chippewas, Potta-
watomies, Sacs, Foxes and Illinois against the Iroquois tribes. In 1673,
in company wdth Joseph Marquette, Fr. Dablon he explored the region
south of Lake Superior and west of Lake Michigan, founding the
missions of Michilmackinac and Green Bay.

He is said to have possessed great executive ability and a high
order of intellectual capacity, and endowed with all the qualities of a
ruler and dictator, either in matters of church or state, by both of
which he was invested with such great powers as excited the fear and
jealousy of the representatives of the other orders of the church. He
first discovered the existence of copper in the Lake Superior region, of
w^hich he made large collections of samples, which he sent to Montreal.
He died about 1683.


Francois DoUier de Casson was a native of France and after com-
pleting his education entered the army, when a mere boy, and served as a
cavalry officer, winning much distinction. Becoming tired of the soldier's
life, he laid aside his sword and taking up the crosier, determined to carry
it to the inhabitants of the Western continent. Abbe Brebant de Galinee,
a great student versed in a knowledge of surveying and of the geo-
graphy of the world, came with Dollier to Quebec in 1668, and there
learning that many of the Indian tribes of the northwest had never been
visited by the priests, these two associated with the determination to
carry to these people the knowledge of the true God.

On the 6th of July, 1669, they left Montreal in company with La
Salle and Joliet, going as far as an Indian village on Lake Ontario, where
they separated. La Salle going on to Niagara, Joliet to Lake Superior
and Dollier and Galinee with seven men proceeded to Long Point, on
Lake Erie, where they wintered.

In the early spring of 1670, leaving their winter quarters, they pro-
ceeded up Lake Erie, to the mouth of Detroit river, and landed on the
present site of Detroit opposite Belle Isle. Here they remained for
some time laboring among the Indians and planted a cross at the foot
of the island upon which they affixed the coat of arms of France with
the following inscription :

"In the year of grace 1670, Clement IX being seated in the chair
of St. Peter, Louis XIV reigning in France, Monsieur de Courcelles
being Governor of 'New France and Monsieur Talon being the intend-
ant of the King, two missionaries of the Seminary of Montreal, accom-

— 17 —

panied by seven Frenchmen, arrived at this place and are the first of all
the European people who wintered on the land bordering on Lake Erie,
which they took possession of in the name of their King as a country
unoccupied, and have affixed the arms of France at the foot of this
cross. [Signed] Francois Dollier,

Priest of the Diocese of Nantes, France.

De Galinee,
Deacon of the Diocese of Rennes, Brittany.

From this point these two explorers journeyed over Lake St.
Clair, up the river of thatname and along the west shore of Lake
Huron to the Straits, and from thence returned to Montreal by way
of Sault Ste. Marie, Georgian Bay and the Ottawa river.


In 1670 there were some who believed that a passage to China
might be found through the American continent to China and the east.
Among those whose thoughts and dreams were occupied in its discovery
was Robert Chevalier de la Salle, who was a native of Rouen, France,
and was educated in a seminary of the Jesuits, being designed for the
church his father left him no property. The church, however, not
being to his taste, with the consent of his superior he left the Seminary
in 1667, came to Quebec and at first engaged in the fur trade. The
details of this business not suiting his active mind and ambitious spirit,
after the report of Marquette and Joliet he conceived a plan for the
discovery of that route to the east which had not only engrossed his
thoughts but those of Marquette, Talon, Allouez and other explorers.
He at once laid his views and plans before Frontenac, then Governor-
General of New France. His idea was to explore the country lying
between Canada and the Gulf of Mexico, by way of the Mississippi, and
as he progressed to erect block houses at different points and thus
establish a chain of communication as well as possession. Frontenac
enthusiastically indorsed his plans, and upon his advice La Salle pro-
ceeded to France and submitted them to Colbert, then Minister of
Finance of France, and so favorably was he impressed with La Salle
and his representations that La Salle was made a chevalier and in-
vested with the Seigniory of Fort Frontenac or Cataroceny, on condi-
tion that he would rebuild it, and received from the princes of the king-
dom assurances of aid and good will. On his return to Quebec he im-
mediately accomplished the reconstruction of Fort Frontenac, and the
second time returned with a report of the progress made, and was
again received with favor and granted new letters patent with addi-
tional privileges, and on the 14th day of July, 1678, in company with
Henri de Tonti, sailed from Rochelle and reached Quebec on the 15th

— 18 —

of September. His first steps were to send forward agents to trade
with the Indians and to prepare the way for his coming; and November
i8th, 1678, he went up the St. Lawrence river and crossed Lake
Ontario to the mouth of the Niagara river, in a small brigantine of ten
tons burthen, which is said to have been the first "ship" that ever
sailed upon that lake. Near the Iroquois village of Niagara, La Salle
began to erect a block house and magazines for supplies, but the jeal-
ousy of the Iroquois being aroused, he for a time was compelled to sus-
pend, and it was not until January, 1679, that he was able to complete
his arrangements for laying at the mouth of Ca3^uga creek the keel of
the first vessel built by Europeans on the Western waters. Leaving
men to continue the work he returned to Frontenac to collect and for-
ward the necessary supplies, stores, cables, chains, sails, anchors, for
the new vessel. On the 20th of January he started with his supplies
from Frontenac, but in crossing Lake Ontario his little brigantine was
wrecked and most of his supplies lost. Early in the spring he made a
trip to Frontenac and from the proceeds of a quantity of furs was able
to purchase a new outfit, while Tonti went forward to explore the
coast and make ready for the voyage into the upper waters of the lake
region. August 7th, 1679, the vessel, which he had christened the "Grif-
fin," was ready to sail. Crossing Lake Erie he entered the Detroit river.
Stopping at Detroit he was met by two Frenchmen who had been left
by DoUier and Galinee ten 3'ears previously. Against the advice of
Hennepin (who urged him to establish a post here), he proceeded on
his voyage across Lake St. Clair, up the river of that name and across
Lake Huron, and reached Michilmackinac at the end of 20 days,
August 27, 1679. ^^^ remained here until the middle of September,
during which time he constructed a fort. From thence he proceeded
to Green Bay, at this place finding a large quantity of furs. He loaded
them on board the Grifhn, and starting her on the i8th of September
for Niagara under the command of a skillful pilot, he with fourteen
men skirted the shore of Lake Michigan by way of the present site of
Chicago and Michigan City and arrived, November ist, 1679, at the
mouth of what is now called the St. Joseph river (then known as
the Miamie), where he built a fort. At the end of a month (December
2d), leaving a garrison of ten men, he started again on his explorations,
following the course of the St. Joseph river to the present site of the city
of South Bend, Ind. He there struck across to the portage of the The-
a-Ki-Ki, since known as the Kan-Ka-Kee, making his way through its
marshy waters to the Illinois river, where he arrived January 4th, 1680, at
a point since known as Peoria Lake, and at which he erected a fort which
he named Crevecceur (Broken Heart), for at this place he first heard
of the loss of the Grithn, which occurred upon Lake Huron. Remain-
ing here until the last of February, he started on his return to Canada
for more men and supplies, traversing twelve hundred miles through

— 19 —

the wilderness, from Illinois to Frontenac, on the borders of Lakes
Michigan, Erie and Ontario.. He arrived at his destination to have the
loss of the Griffin confirmed, that his agents had proven false and that
his creditors had seized upon all his remaining property. Most men
would have been disheartened. Not so La Salle. He procee^ded
to gather supplies and enlist men, and before July was on his way to
rejoin those he had left in Illinois; but on his arrival in December, 1680,
he found the fort at Peoria deserted and no tidings of the men he had
left behind. It subsequently appeared that soon after his departure a
war party of the Iroquois Indians had made their way from New York,
to make war upon the Indians of the prairies. This caused Tonti, who
had been left in command by La Salle, to fear being surrounded and
massacred; and becoming disheartened, in September, 1680, he made
his way to Michilmackinac, where he was found by La Salle in June,
1681, on his return from the deserted fort in Illinois, on his way to
Canada. After La Salle met Tonti at Michilmackinac they returned
to Frontenac together, where they fitted out another expedition, and by
the I St of August, 1681, were once more on their way to the Missis-
sippi. On the 3d of November they reached St. Joseph, from whence,
with twenty-three Frenchmen, eighteen Indians, ten squaws and three
children, they skirted the southerly shore of Lake Michigan to the pres-
ent site of Chicago, made the portage, thence to the head waters of the
Illinois river. Passing down it, they reached Fort Crevecoeur, which
they found in good condition, and proceeding onward along the Illinois
river struck the Mississippi February 6th, 1682, about where the city
of Caro, Illinois, is situated and at a point on the Chickasaw Bluff.
They erected a fort and named it Proudhomme, after one of their
number who was supposed to have been lost there. Passing down the
river on the 6th of April, 1682, they discovered the three openings by
which this great stream discharges its waters into the sea. On the 7th
they examined the coast and on the 9th erected a cross, to which was
affixed the arms of France, with the inscription, " Louis Le Grand, Roi
de France et de Navame Regne, Nieuvieme Avril, 1682," and took
possession of all the lands watered by the great river in the name of
the king of France. The ceremony ended by a salute of fire arms and
cries of " Vive le Roi."

Thus did this intrepid explorer lay the foundation for France to
claim a vast and fertile region, embracing the largest and most valuable
area of land upon the face of the globe drained by a single river.

The expedition did not remain long in the lower Mississippi, but
returned up the river to Fort Proudhomme, where La Salle was taken
violently ill and compelled to stop. He sent forward Tonti with dis-
patches to Count Frontenac, while he himself followed as soon as con-
valescent, and arrived at St. Joseph on the loth of September, from

— 20 -

which point he sent Father Zenobe to represent him in France, while
he engaged in the fur trade in the northwest.

La Salle returned to France in the autumn of 1683, when he was
received and entertained with great honor by the king and his courts.
In July, 1684, twenty-four vessels left the harbor of Rochelle for New
France, four of which were placed under the control of La Salle, and
destined for Louisiana. Through erroneous calculations of his naviga-
tor, they missed the mouth of the Mississippi, and finally landed at
Matagora Bay, Texas, where he built a fort out of the wrecks of his
vessels, which he named "St. Louis." Here he remained until the
spring of 1687, exploring the country and fighting the Indians, and on
the 20th of March, 1687, while on one of his exploring expeditions, was
waylaid by one of his men and brutally shot.

Thus ended the life of the boldest, most persevering and sagacious
man of that or any other age. He was the first to build and explore
the waters surrounding Michigan in a sail vessel, and to construct two
prominent fortifications within its territory, Michilmackinac and Miamie
(or St. Joseph), and in his journey from Fort Crevecoeur to Fort Fron-
tenac, during the winter of 1680-81, made on foot through the wilder-
ness, he passed via the territory along the St. Joseph river to the head
waters of Lake Erie through Michigan. For these and other reasons
he is entitled to, and should receive, a prominent place in its history.


In the year 1678 there was a Franciscan priest or fi-iar of the order
of RecoUets, who, born and educated in France, imbued with a desire
to extend the power and influence of his order, had emigrated to
Quebec, and was quietly at work acquiring information of the country
and its native inhabitants, with the view of establishing missionary
stations among them. At the time La Salle returned from his second
visit to France, Hennepin (the name of this priest) had also just
returned from a visit among the Iroquois Indians, and had made him-
self familiar with their habits, customs and dialect. He had at the
same time sought, and in a degree had succeeded, in weakening their
confidence in the English, so much so that some of the tribes had aban-
doned the confederation and allied themselves with those tribes friendly
to the French. These results made him prominent, and induced his
selection to accompany La Salle on his exploring expedition to the
unknown west.

Father Louis Hennepin is said to have been a man of cool, equit-
able temperament, thoroughly devoted to his church and order, and in
all his plans his sole object was to promote their interests.

He was the companion of La Salle from Frontenac to Niagara,

— 21 —

sailed with him across Lake Erie, and on reaching Detroit, vainly
urged him to establish a settlement and the erection of a fort at this
point; but La Salle, in his anxiety to reach the Mississippi, would not
consent to the delay.

Hennepin continued with La Salle in all his journeys to Michil-
mackinac, St. Joseph, Green Bay, to Fort Crevecoeur, on the Illinois
river. He remained with him there until February, 1680, when he
proceeded down that river and the Mississippi, and arrived at the
mouth of the Wisconsin river on the nth of April following. At this
point Hennepin was taken prisoner by a band of northern Lidians,
who treated him and his companions kindly, and took them up the river
to St. Anthony's Falls. They were so named by Hennepin in honor
of his patron saint. This was on the first of May. From this point
they traveled by land to a village of the Soux two hundred miles north-
west of the falls. Here they remained until rescued by a band of
French explorers under the command of Siur de Luth, after whom, it
is said, Duluth was named, he having passed that point before in reach-
ing Hennepin. With this otiicer, Hennepin and his fellow capdves
returned to Canada in November, 1680, soon after La Salle, for the
second time, had returned to the wilderness ; so that they never met
after their parting at Fort Crevecoeur, as Hennepin proceeded at once
to France, where, in 1684, he published a history of explorations and


Antoine de la Motte Cadillac was born at Toulouse in 1661, and
was the son of Jean and Jeanne Mal-enfant. He entered the army at
the age of 16, was made a lieutenant at the age of 21, and came with
his regiment in 1683 to Quebec, where the following year he married
Maria Therese Guyon. Shortly after this he was sent to Acadia,
where he distinguished himself so greatly that he was commissioned
by the government to report the condition of the English colonies,
and displayed so much knowledge and ability that he was made the
commandent of Fort Buade, at Michilmackinac, in 1694, the most
important point in the northwest.

In 1699 he visited France, and having himself previously passed
the Straits of Detroit, strongly urged the establishment of a settlement
at Detroit, and being supported by Hennepin's history of 1684, as well
as by his own observation as to its importance. Count Ponchartrain,
prime minister of Louis XIV, approved his plans, and, armed with the
necessary authority, he returned to Quebec. Preliminary to carrying
out his plans, a grand council of the Indian tribes from the St. Law-
rence to the Mississippi rivers, including the Iroquois, was held at
Montreal in the spring of 1701, at which the matter was fully pre-


sented and discussed. It was strongly opposed by the Iroquois, who
stated they had refused aquiescence to similar propositions from the
English ; but the governor-general declared that the land belonged
neither to the Indians or to the English, but to the King of France, and
would at once be occupied and in force. Immediately after the council,
Cadillac, who had been granted a tract of land on the site of the pro-
posed post by the king, started from Montreal with one hundred men
and a Jesuit priest, and arrived at the straits July 24, 1701, where he
immediately began building fortifications, and to provide for a perma-
nent settlement. He named the fortification Ponchartrain, in honor of
the prime minister of France, the name of Detroit being from the
French word d'etroit, signifying the straits. The results achieved by
Cadillac at Detroit continued him in favor with the government at
home, which subsequently conceded to him the island of Mount Deseret
(which has since become a great watering place), also a grant on the
mainland near and along the river Plantagoet, called Douaguet, from
whence he took his title. From thence he removed to Louisiana as
governor, and a few years after to Castle Sarasin, France, where he died.
Through the intrigues of enemies, he was once arrested at Montreal
on the charge of treasonable designs, and although honorably acquitted,
was compelled to sell his Seigniory in Detroit to pay the expense of his
trial. His children never inherited an acre of his lands.


The French commanders of Fort Pontchartrain were as follows :
Cadillac, 1701 to 1714 ; temporary, D, Bourgmont, 1706 ; De la
Ferte, 1711 ; De Buisson, 1712 ; Tonti, 1717-1724 ; Boisbert, 1725 to
1730 ; Pean, 1734 ' Courtmanche and Fleurimont, 1739 ; St. Ours,
Douville de Noyan, Saberois, Celeron and Longwell to 1743 ; de May
and Bellestre to 1760. Surgeons — ist, Antoine Forestier, Jean Bapti
Chapeton, 1718 to 1755 ; Gabriel Christopho Le Grand, 1755 ^^ 1760.


Jean Bapti Martin was born at Montreal in 1689. He came to
Detroit in 1709. He married Marie Louise Dogon and had five
children. Jacques St. Martin married, in 1760, Mariann Navarre. He
was very familiar with the Indian dialect and employed as interpeter by
Major Campbell, and accompanied him to Pontiac camp. The Eng-
lish suffered very much through the treachery of some of the interpre-
ters employed, but they had great confidence in St. Martin. Bradstreet
and Sir Wm. Johnson always made an honorable exception in favor of
St. Martin, Whitmore Knaggs and Henry Conner in their strictures

— 23 —

upon the Indian interpreters. St. Martin died in 1768 leaving a widow,
one son, St. Martin St. Martin, who died in early manhood, and two
daughters, Finon, who married Phillip Fry, and Archange, who mar-
ried Angus Mcintosh, who inherited the estates without the title of the
earldom of May. The two sons of Angus and Archange (St. Martin)
Mcintosh returned to Scotland, while the two daughters, Mrs. Henry
Hunt and Miss Kittie, died in Detroit. The widow of St. Martin
(Marianne Navarre) married the second time, Doctor George Christian
Anthon. She died in October, 1 776, aged 39 years. She was the daugh-
ter of Robert Navene, sub-intendent, who accompanied Cadillac to
Detroit in 1701. She had no children by Dr. Anthon.

The old Cass House, which until recently stood on Larned street,
near Second, was the house of Jean Bapti Martin, the site having been
deeded him in 1750. Having no male heir the name, "St. Martin,"
figures only in the female branch of the family. The Anthon branch,
which in the female line is still represented in Detroit and in the city of
New York, demands a sketch of Doctor George Christian Anthon.
He was born at Salzugen in 1734, studied medicine in his native town
and at Gerstugen and passed his examination at Eisenbach, Germany.
He then went to Amsterdam, passed two examinations before the col-
lege of surgeons and was appointed surgeon in the Dutch West India
trade, during which period, while on a voyage to the West Indies, he
was captured by a British privateer and carried to New York. At the
age of 23 he found himself in a new country and under new influences,
and confident in his ability, he applied and received a position in the mili-
tary hospital at Albany. Soon after he was appointed first assistant
surgeon in the First Batallion, Sixteenth Regiment Royal Americans.
In 1760 he was attached to the detachment under Major Rogers, who
took possession of Detroit, and thus became acquainted with the widow
of Jean St. Martin, Marianne Navarre, whom he married in 1768. She
was the guardian of Genevieve, the daughter of her sister, Marguerite,
who in 1758 married Colonel Louis Jadot, an officer in de May's regi-
ment, who was killed in 1765 by the Indians ; and after the death of Mrs.
Anthon (Marianne Navarre Manders) he married Genevieve, she being
15 years and he 45. In 1786 Dr. Anthon removed to New York.
Three of Dr. Anthon's children were born in Detroit. George, bom
in 1781, died in New York in 1865 ; John, who became an eminent
lawyer and author, born in 1784, died in New York in 1863 ; Rev.
Henry Anthon, of St. Mark's Church in the Bowery, was born in New
York in 1795. Charles Anthon, another son, was said to be the most
accomplished Greek and Latin scholar in America. Dr. Anthon died
in 1815.

— 24 —


Jacques Baby, the founder of the family of that name in Detroit,
was born in 1673. He married Madeline Veron de Grandmisnil in
1709. He came to America with the Carignan regiment.

Jacques Duperon Baby, the son of Jacques Baby, who settled in
Detroit, will be remembered as prominently associated in the siege of
Detroit, in 1760, and enjoyed the respect and confidence of the French,
English and Indians. He married Susanna Reaume. He died in 1796,
leaving eleven children. One of his daughters married the Hon, Chas.
Casgrain, grandfather of the present city attorney, Charles W. Cas-


Charles Barthe was the son of Theophile Barthe, armorer of the
French king at Montreal, and Charlotte Alavoine, whom he married in
1718. Charles, the subject of this sketch, was born at Montreal in
1720. After receiving a commercial education, he left Montreal, and
for a time engaged in trade. In 1747 he came to Detroit, and married

Online LibraryFred. (Frederick) CarlisleChronography of notable events in the history of the Northwest territory and Wayne County → online text (page 2 of 51)