greater probability, to have represented the horns of the Amuionmn
Wedge. The wedge is a solid piece of wood or metal, generally made
in the form of a triangle prism, of which the two ends or bases are eqiml
and similar plane triangles and the three sides rectangular parallelo-
grams: and it is called rectangular, isosceles, or scalene, according as its
equal and similar bases are composed of right-angled, isosceles, or sca-
lene triangles. As a mechanical power, the wedge performs its office,
sometimes in raising heavy bodies, but more frequently in dividing or
cleaving them; hence all those instruments which are used in separating
the parts of bodies, such as axes, adzes, knives, swords, coulters,
chisels, planes, saws, files, nails, spades, etc., are only different modifi-
cations that fall under the general denomination of the wedge.
Wedging. The insertion of triangular prisms into the end of a tenon,
to make it till the mortise so completely as to prevent its being with-
Well. The place occupied by the flight of stairs. The space left be-
yond the ends of the steps is called the well-hole.
Well-Staircase. A winding staircase of ascent, or descent, to differ-
ent parts of a building, so called from the walls enclosing it resembling
a well; called frequently a geometrical staircase.
Winders. Stairs, steps not parallel to each other.
The winders are supported by rough pieces called bearers, wedged
into the wall, and secured to the strings.
When the front string is ornamented with brackets, it is called a
PUBLISHED AND FOR SALE BY
THE INDUSTRIAL PUBLICATION CO.
" KNOWl^EDOE IS POWZK."
ry Any of these Books may be obtained from any Bookseller or Newsdealer, or will b
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Remittances should be made in Bank Drafts, Postal Order*, or Registered letter*. Frac-
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and Canadian postage stamps are of no use to us. Canadian currency and British postage
stamps will be received in any quantity, imt only from forttfn corrttfinultnU.
New Editions of this catalogue, containing descriptions of New Books, are issued from time
to time, and will be sent free to any address on appl.cation. Addreta all order, to
INDUSTRIAL, PUBLICATION CO.,
294 Broadway, New York.
TWO IVET^ BOOKS
STAIR-BUILDING MADE EASY.
BEING A FULL AND CLEAR DESCRIPTION OF THE
ART OF BUILDING THE BODIES, CARRIAGES, AND CASES
FOR ALL KINDS OF STAIRS AND STEPS,
Together with Illustrations showing: the Ulainiier of
Laying 1 Out Stairs, Forming Treads and Risers,
Building Cylinders, Preparing Strings,
With Instructions for Making Carriages for Common,
Platform, Dog-L.egged, and Winding Stairs.
To which is added an Illustrated Glossary of Terms used iu Stair-Build-
ing, and Designs for Newels, Balusters. Brackets, Stair-
Mouldings, and Sections of Hand-Rails.
By FRED. T. HODGSON.
work takes hold at the very beginning of the subject, and
carries the student along by easy stages, until the entire subject of Stair-
Building has been unfolded, so far as ordinary practice can ever require.
This book, and the one on HAND-RAILING, described below, cover nearly
the whole subject of STAIK-BUILDING.
A NEW SYSTEM OF
Or, How to Cut Hand-Railing for Circular and other
Stairs, Square from the Plank, without tip,
aid of a Falling Mould.
THE SYSTEM IS NEW, NOVEL, ECONOMIC, AND
Rules, Instructions, and Working Drawings for Building Rails for
Seven Different Kinds of Stairs are given.
BY AN OLD STAIR-BUILDER.
Edited and Corrected by FRED, T. HODOSON,
JUST PUBLISH KD.
A New and Important Work for Architects, Builders, Plumbers,
Sanitary Engineers, and all House-Holders.
A HISTORICAL, MECHANICAL,
AND SANITARY TREATISE.
By GLENN BROWN,
Architect. Associate American Institute of Architects.
Neatly Bound in Cloth, with Gilt Title, Price, - - - $1.00
This book contains over 250 engravings, drawn expressly for the work
by the author. The drawings are so clear that the distinctive features
of every device are easily seen at a glance, and the descriptions are
particularly full and thorough. The paramount importance of this
department of the construction of our houses renders all comment upon
the value of such a work unnecessary.
Sent Iot Paid on Re-ei|H ol* Irlce.
INDUSTRIAL PUBLICATION CO,,
29* BROADWAY, NEW YORK.
Second ana Enlarged Edition.
The Steel Square
AND ITS USES.
By FRED. T.
This is the only work on THE STEEL SQUARE AND ITS USES ever
published. It is Thorough, Exhaustive, Clear, aucl Easily Understood.
Confounding terms and scientific phrases have been religiously avoided
where possible, and everything in the book has been made so plain that
a boy twelve years of age, possessing ordinary intelligence, can under-
stand it from end to end.
The New Edition is Illustrated with over Seventy-five Wood cuts,
showing how the Square may be used for solving almost every problem
in the whole Art of Carpentry.
The following synopsis of the contents of the work will give some
idea of its character and scope.
History of the "Square." Descrip-
tion, with Explanations of the Rules, Fig-
ures, Scales, and Divisions shown on good
Brace Rules. Octagonal Scale, Board,
Plank and Scantling Rules, fully explained
How to lay out Rafters, Hips, Jack-
Rafters, Purlins, Bevel Works, etc., etc.
Backing for Hips, Lengths and Bevels
of Valley Rafters. Laying out Stairs and
How to describe Circles, Ellipses,
Parabolas and other figures, with the
How to obtain Bevels for Hoppers
and all kinds of Splayed Work and Spring
Mouldings, by the Square.
Bisecting Circles, Proportion of Cir-
cles, Division of Widths, Bisection of
Angles, Diminishing Stiles, Centering
Circles, etc., etc.
Theoretical Rafters, Cuts for Mitre
Boxes, Measurement of Surfaces, including
Painting, Plastering, Shingling, Siding,
Flooring, Rough Boarding, Tinning and
Rules for describing Octagons and
Polygons of every description, and how
to find their angles and areas.
Rules forfinding the lengths of Rafters
and Hips of Irregular Roofs. Cuts for
Equal and Unequal Mitres, Trusses and
Bevel Timber Work.
The Development of Hip and Curved
Roofs; Veranda Rafters, Straight and
Curved ; Hopper Cuts of all kinds, Angle
Corner-pieces, Splayed Work for Gothic
Heads, etc., etc., and many other things
useful to the Operative Mechanic.
Handsomely Bound in Cloth with Gilt Title.
Price OWE DOLLAR,
The Carpenter's Steel Square,
AND HOW TO USE IT.
OPINIONS OF THE PRKSS.
This little work consists of a republication of some papers contributed by its talented
author some time ago to the A ineruau BmUer, and which were received with so much
favor by anisans, for whom they were written, as to induce their author to collect them
into the present volume." * * "The work is well illustrated by
upwards of fifty cuts which have been well engraved, and can hardly fail to gixe any
one an idea of the capabilities of the steel square, and what can be accomplished from
it when in skilful hands." Journal of Franklin Institute, I'hiui.
" A most valuable little treatise of 70 pages upon that commonplace subject, the
'steel square,' being a description of that useful tool, and its uses in obtaining the lengths
and bevels of rafters, hips, groins, braces, brackets, purlins, collar beams and jack i afters,
and its application in obtaining the bevels and cut* forhoppers, spring moldings, octa-
gons, stairs, diminished stiles, etc. , illustrated by over 50 wood cuts. Mr. Hodgson has
succeeded admirably in demonstrating that the study of the value and use of the
square is by no means the dry subject one would suppose, and that as a tool in the
hands of an intelligent workm.in, its possibilities are far beyond the standard usually
concetk-d to il. Itis a valuable book for theuseof the carpenter, and should be upon
the office dskof every retailer of lumber, from the valuable hints it will give him as a
guide to his negotiations with his customers in figuring out their wants. It is, in fact,
uell adapted to the wants of every man who has a shed or fence to erect upon his
premises, or who wishes to keep a check upon his builder." Xcirth-svtstern Lumber-
man, Chicago, fit.
"This is a little book that no carpenter, joiner, cabinetmaker, or amateur wood-
worker, can do without, if they wish to keep up with the times in their several branches
" We believe this is the first and only book that has been written on this subject
:dGne, and we must say, that the duty of writing it fell into good hands as he author
has handled his subject in a masterly manner. One is struck with astonishment at the
number of difficult and apparently intricate problems this simple instrument the square
is made to solve, and in such a manner that any mechanic who can read the figures .m thr
lool can work out the solutions. The lengths and bevels of rafters, hips, braces,
trusses purlins, collar beams, and jack rafters are obtained as if by magic, and without
thought or calculation.
" The work R handsomely gotten up, printed on heavy white paper, substantially
bound, and cleanly turned out. The some fifty odd wood cuts are almost equal to steel
engravings, and the whole get-up is a credit to both author and publisher, and the IM
price at which it is sold, (75 cents), places it within reach of every w.xxl u -rkcr. nu
matter how poor he may be." Enterprise, Collingwood, Out.
" It is a timely book on the subjectm hand, and we can safely recommend it I
petent to fill a long felt vacancy in the mechanics' library. The work present', a valu-
able collection of rules and data connected with the framing square, to the *!
roofing problems, br.,ces, hoppers, etc.,ac."OriMa Packet, Ont.
" Some fifty engravings aid in the description of the square and its uses in obtaining
lengths and bevels of all kinds; also, its application in obtaining the beveta and cut*
for all conceivable shapes used in the wood shops. Any wood-worker poMewnr thw
book will find its cost, seventy-five cents, is not to be compared with us real vaL. M.J
usefulness in the shop." The Carriage Monthly, Fhila.
" The work is a very valuable one, and should be in the haods of every
Messenger, Collingtvood, Ont.
"The work will be of very great service to carpenters and builders "
UKING A GUIDE TO THE
Correct Workins and Laying Out of all Wuds
of Carpenters' and Joiners' M ork.
. RaUing Mouldings, Circular
Work, Etc., Etc.
TO WHICH IS PREFIXED A THOROUGH TREATISE ON
ILLUSTRATED BY OVER 3OO ENGRAVINGS.
By FRED. T. HODGSON,
Handsomely Bound in Cloth, Frice $1.OO.
This is the most complete book of the kind ever published. It is
Thorough Practical and Reliable, and at the same time is written
in a style so plain that any workman or apprentice can easily un-
derstand it The annexed table of contents will give a better idea
of its scope and value than can be had from any amount of notices
or descriptions :
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
GEOMETRY. Straight Lines. Curved Lines. Solids. Compound Linos.
Parallel Lines- Oblique or Converging Lines. Plane Figures.
Angles. Bight Angles. Acute Angles. Obtuse Anglos. Right-
angled Triangles. Quadrilateral Figures. Parallelograms. Rect-
angles. Squares. Rhomboids. Trapeziums. Trapezoids. Diag-
onals. Polygons. Pentagons. Hexagons, -r Heptagons. Octa-
gons. Circles. Chords. Tangents Sectors. Quadrants. A res.
Concentric and Eccentric Circles. Altitudes. Problems I. to XXlA.
Drawing of Angles. Construction of Geometrical Figures. Bisec-
tion of Lines. Triseetion of Lines and Angles. Division of Lines
into any Number of Parts. Construction of Triangles, Squares and
Parallelograms. Construction of Proportionate Squares. Con-
struction of Polygons. Areas of Polygons. \reas of Concentric
Rings and Circles. Segments of Circles. The use of Ordinates
for Obtaining Arcs of Circles. Drawing !tn Ellipse with a Trammel.
Drawing an Ellipse hy means of a Sr ring. Same by Ordinates.
Baking Ellipses.Ovals. Sixty-two Illustrations.
ABCttES, CEXT&ES -Window and Door Heads.-Somi -circular Arch.-
begmental Arches. -Stilted Areheti. Horseshoe An-h.-Lanoet Arch.
-Equilateral Arch.-Oothic Tracery.-Wheei-Wiudows.-Eauila-
teral Tracery. Square Tracery. Finished Leaf Tracery. Tweuty-
ROOFS. Saddle Roof. Lean-to or Shed Roof. Simple Hip-Roof.
Pyramidal Roof. Theoretical Roof. Roof with Straining Beam.
Gothic Roof. Hammer-Beam Roofs. Curved Principal Roofs.
Roofs with Suspending Rods. Deck Roofs. King-post and Prin-
cipal Roof. Queen -post and Principal Ro< f. Roof s wit h Laminated
Arches. Strapped Roof Frames. Tic-beam Roofs. Roofs for Long
Spans. Theatre Roof. Church Roof. Mansard Roof. Slopes ol
Roofs. Rules for Determining the Sizes of Timbers for Roofs.
Acute and Obtuse Angled Hip-Roofs. Development of Hip-Roofs.
Obtaining Lengths and Bevels of Rafters. Backing Hip-Rafters.
Lengths. Bevels and Cuts of Purlins. Circular, Conical and Seg-
mental Roofs. Rafters with Variable Curves. Veranda Rafters.
Development of all kinds of Rafters. Curved Mansard Rafters.
Framed Mansard Roofs. Lines and Rules for obtaining various
kinds of Information. Thirty-four Illustrations.
COVERING OP ROOFS. Shingling Common Roofs. Shingling Hip-
Roofs.-Method of Shingling on Hip Corner. Covering Circular
Roofs. - Covering Ellipsoidal Roofs. Valley Roofs. Four Illustra-
THF MTTERING AND ADJUSTING op MOULDINGS. Mitering of Spring
Mouldings. Preparing th Mitre-box for Cutting Spring Mould-
Ings Riilos for Cutting Mouldings, with Diagram*. Mitre-boxes
of various forms. Lines for Spring Mouldings of various kinds.-
- AN-D SKYLiGHTs.-Raised Skylisrhts.-SkylighN with H!n-
gon Skylights with Spgrnontnl Rib'* .-Angle-bars, with
yctagon Hkyllgnts witn segmenrni IHO^. anni^-M". "
and Dingrnms. showinghowto obtain the Anc PS Forms. etc.-Sasn-
Bars, Hints on their Construction. Twelve Illustrations.
Lines for Circular
IEKY. Dovetailing. Common Dovetailing. Lapped Dovetailing.
31ind Dovetailing. Square Dovetailing. Splay Dovetailing.
.tegular and Irregular Dovetailing. Lines and Cuts for Hoppers
and Splayed Work. Angles and Mitres for Splayed Work. Nineteen
MISCELLANEOUS PKOBLEMS. Bent Work for Splayed Jambs. Develop-
ment of Cylinders. Rules and Diagrams for Taking Dimensions.
Angular and Curved Measurements. Eight Illustrations.
JOINTS AND STEAPS. Mortise and Tenon Joints. Toggle Joints. Hook
Joints. Tongue Joint. Lap Splice. Scarfing. Wedge Joints.
King-bolts. Straps, Iron Ties, Sockets, Bearing-plates, Rings
Swivels and other Iron Fastenings. Straining Timbers, Struts and
King-pieces. Three Plates, Sixty-five Illustrations.
HINGING AND SWING JOINTS. Door Hinging. Centre-pin Hinging.
Blind Hinging. Folding Hinging. Knuckle Hinging. Pew Hing-
ing. Window Hinging. Half-turn Hinge. Full-turn Hinge. Back
Flap Hinging. Rule-joint Hinging. Rebate Hinging. Three
Plates, Fifty-one Illustrations.
USEFUL RULES AND TABLES Hints on the Construction of Centres.
Rules for Estimating. Form of Estimate. Items for Estimating, -
Remarks on Fences. Nails: sizes, weights, lengths and numbers.
Cornices, Proportions and Projections for Different Styles of Archi-
tecture: and Tall and Low Buildings, Verandas, Bay Windows and
Porches. Proportion of Base-boards, Dados, Wainscots and Sur-
bqses. Woods. Hard and Soft, their Preparation, and how to
nish. Strength and Resistance of Timber of various kinds.
los, showing Weight and other qualities of Wood and Timber.
.iirs. Width of Treads and Risers; their Cost; how to Estimate on
them, etc, Inclinations of Roofs. Contents of Boxes, Bins and
Barrels. Arithmetical Signs. Mensuration of Superficies. Areas
of Squares Tri.-mglps, Circles, Regular and Irregular Polygons.
Properties of Circles. Solid Bodies. Gunter's Chain. Drawing
and Drawing Instruments. Coloring Drawings. Coloring for
Various Building Materials. Drawing Papei-s. Sizes of Drawing
Papers. Table of Board Measure. Nautical Table. Measure of
Time. Authorized Metric System. Measures of Length. Mea-
sures of Surfaces. Measures of Cnpaeity. Weights. American
Weights and Measures. Square Measurp. Cubic Measure. Cir-
cular Measure.-Decimal Approximations. -Form of Building
A NEW BOOK
CABINET MAKERS, UPHOLSTERERS, FlIfMTl HE MEN, AMA-
TEUR WOOD FINISHERS, ETC,, ETC,
CABINET-MAKEES, UPHOLSTERERS, AND
FURNITURE MEN GENERALLY.
A DESCRIPTION OF ALL KINDS OF FINISHING, WITH
FULL DIRECTIONS THEREFOR VARNISHES POL-
ISHES-STAINS FOR WOOD DYES FOR WOOD-
GILDING AND .SILVERING RECEIPTS FOR
THE FACTORY LACQUERS, METALS, MAR-
BLES, ETC. PICTURES, ENGRAVINGS,
This work contains an Immense Amount of the most Useful
Information for those who are engaged m Manufacture, Superin-
tendence, or Construction of Furniture or Wood Work of any
Kind. It is one of the Cheapest and Best Books EV.T Publish. . I.
Over 1,000 Hints, Suggestions, Methods,
And Inscription* of Tool*,
nnd ^l:i i. i i;i u.
All the Recipes, Rules and Directions liav.- IMTII rjirrfnlh K.
vised and Corrected by I'ra.-tiral Mm of Rn-at rxp-n.-ii.T. so that
they will ! found thoroughly trustworthy.
Priw, Koiiinl in Cloth, with Sid.' Title in fiolil. #1.00.
SENT TO ANY AI>IKI>- >\
THEIR USE, CARE AND ABUSE.
HOW TO SELECT, AND HOW TO FILE THEM.
Being a Complete Guide for Selecting, Using and Filing all kinds of Hand-
Saws, Back-saws, Compass and Key-hole Saws, Web, Hack and
Butcher's Saws ; showing the Shapes, Forms, Angles, Pitches
and Sizes of Saw-Teeth suitable for all kinds of Saws, and for
all kinds of Wood, Bone, Ivory and Metal ; together with
Hints and Suggestions on the Choice of Files, Saw-
Sets, Filing Clamps, and other Matters pertain-
ing to the Care and Management of all
Classes of Hand and other Small Saws.
ipie work is intended more particularly for Operative Carpenters,
Joiners, Cabinet-Makers, Carriage Builders, and Wood- Workers
Generally, Amateurs or Professionals.
ILLUSTRATED B\ OVER SEVENTY-FIVE ENGRAVINGS.
By FRED. T. HODGSON,
AUTHOR OF " THE STEEL SQUARE AND ITS USES." " THE BUILDER'S GUIDE ATD
ESTIMATOR'S PRICK BOOK," PRACTICAL CARPENTRY," ETC., ETC.
Price - 01.00.
TABLE OF 1 CONTENTS.
History of the Saw. Saws of the 'J reeks. Invention of the First Saws.
Eygptian Bronze Saws in the British Museum. Antiquity of Saws. -
Mention of Saws in Holy Writ. Saws of the Stone Age. Saws of the
Bouth-sea Islanders. Saws for Cutting Stone. Japanese Saws. Dif-
ferent Varieties of Saws. Manner of Using Saws by the Ancients.
Assyrian Saws. Invention of Circular and Band-Saws. First Circular-
Saws in America.
Philosopny 01 the Cutting Qualities of Saw-Teeth. The " Why and Where-
fore" of the Cutting Pitch and Angles of Kip-Saw Teeth. The Round
Gullet-Tooth. Chisel-Teeth and their Action on the Wood. On
the Various Angles Required for Cutting Hard and Soft Woods, with
Explanations of Space, Pitch, Gullet, Gauge, Set. Rake and Points.
Names of Saws, with Dimensions. Form of Teeth, Descriptions and
Explanations. How to Choose a Saw ; with Hints as to Form, Quality,
Make and " Hang " of a Saw. with Remarks Concerning Different
Makers Sash-Saws. Dovetail-Saws, Rip-Saws, Panel-Saws, Cross-cut
Saws, Bow-Saws, Web-Saws, Key-hole Saws, Compass-Saws and Tenon-
!Iow to Use Hand-Saws. How to Saw Well and Easily. Hints for Sawing
Straight. Rules for New Beginners. French, German and American
Workmen. Saws Filed to Work on the Pull-Stroke Changeable
Key-hole Saws. Use of Back-Saws. Use of Web-Saws. Care of
Buck-Saws._The Buck-Saw; the Terror of Boyhood, and Whv. The
Butcher's-Saw. the Hack-Saw, and the Surgeo'n's-Saw with Descrip-
tion of Each, and Hints a^ to their Management,
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued).
Filing and Setting Hand-Saws. The Qualities Required to make a GOOQ
Filer. Rules in some Old-lime Joiner Shops.- Can-less Filine and ite
Consequences. Clamping Saws for Filing The Line of Teeth
Angular Groove on Cutting Edge of Saw. Filing Backs of Teeth
Jointing the Sides of Teeth. Shape of Teeth for Cross-cutting Hard
Wood. Medium and Soft Wood. Cutting. Angles Required for Various
Degrees of Hardness in Woods. Angle to Hold the File. The True
Theory of Saw-Filing. Buckling and "Twisting Saws; How Done and
How Avoided. " Hook and Pitch." Careless Use of Saws, and the
Injuries Done to them in Consequence The Filing of PinVivnt Saws,
and why One Class of Saws Require Different Treatment from Another.
The Saw that Scrapes, and the Saw that Cuts ; the " Why " ot tlii.- in-
ference. Why Some Men do Much More Work than Others, and with
Greater Ease, when Sawing.
Miscellaneous Saws ; their Uses, How to Care for Them, and How to Use
Them. The M Tooth, Teeth that Cut Both Ways, Crenate Teeth,
Brier Teeth, Gullet Teeth, Parrot-bill Teeth. Hog Teeth, the Lancet
and other Fancy Forms of Teeth, Described and Explained. The Old-
style u Peg Tooth," for Two-handed Cross-cut Saws. Various Exam-
ples of the u Peg-Tooth Saw. Hack-Saws ; How to Use and How to
Keep in Order Butcher's-Saws, Surgeon's-Saws, Saws for Cutting
Combs, Ivory, Brass, Gold, and Silver. -Circular-Saws for Cutting
Metal, Ivory, Tortoise-shell, and other Hard Materials Jig-Saws,
Band-Saws ; their Uses and How to Keep them in Order ScrolkSaws ;
their Uses and Care. Progress of the Band-Saw ; its Future ; How to
Make them do Clean Work Heating Saws; Rules for their Manage-
ment. Why Circular-Saws Burst.
Remarks on Saws, Files. Sets, and other Appliances Saw-Files; what
Constitutes a Good One, and How to SelectDifferent Qualities of
Saw-Files and How to Know the Various Grades Why there are
Different GradesHints on the Use of Fllrs.-Cimilar-Saws that an-
not Circular.-How to Become an Expert Sawyer, s, I ot riivnlur-
Saws; Table of Same. -Speed of Reciprocal ing-Saws, or JIff-gft
Speed of Feed for SameWorking Action of Ban. -saws.- How Band-
Saws Became Possible.-French and American Band-saw Blac *
Inside Sawing with Band-saws Detachable Band-Saws A ids .
Saw-Filing. -Saw-Clamps. -Saw-Filer* ***&, Haml->.'ti:i
with Punch and Hammer. Setting will. "Set-." Mar him. Band-Saw
Setters Devices for Holding Saws wl.ile b.-in-_' x-t and Filed.
Mill-Saws. Saws with Few Teeth.
Plaster and Plastering.
MORTARS AND CEMENTS.
IIOU TO MAKE, AND HOW TO USE.
BEING A COMPLETE GUIDE FOR THE PLASTERER IN THE PREPARATION
AND APPLICATION OF ALL KINDS OF PLASTER, STUCCO, PORTLAND
CEMENT, HYDRAULIC CEMENTS, LIME OF TIEL, ROSENDALE AND
OTHER CEMENTS, WITH USEFUL AND PRACTICAL INFORMA-
TION ON THE CHEMISTRY, QUALITIES AND USES OF THE
VARIOUS KINDS OF LIMES AND CEMENTS. TO-
GETHER WITH RULES FOR MEASURING,
COMPUTING, AND VALUING PLASTER
AND STUCCO WORK.
TO WHICH IS APPENDED
AN ILLUSTRATED GLOSSARY OF TERMS
USED IN PLASTERING, ETC.
Besides numerous Engravings in the text, there are three Plates, giving some
forty figures of Ceilings, Centrepieces, Cornices, Panels and Soffits.
By FRED. T. HODGSON,
$ 1 .OO.
Description of Plates,
TOOLS AND MATERIALS.
The Hoe or Drag,
The Hawk, . . . ' .
The Scratcher, .
The Pointer, .
The Paddle, . '
The Slack Box
Lath, . .'.*."
Out off Saw
MATERIALS EMPLOYED IN PLASTERING.
Fine Stuff, .
Substitutes for Sand,