THE ORIENTAL RASPBERRIES
At least four species of oriental or Japanese rasp-
berries have found their way into the United States,
the best known probably being the one re introduced a
few years ago under the name of Japanese Wineberry.
Unfortunately they have not proved so valuable as
many other Japanese fruits, and have comparatively
little to recommend them, so that they are never likely
to become very popular nor to be grown to any great
extent, though two of them have some value as orna-
The Mayberry (Japan Golden Mayberry). This
was raised by Luther Burbank, of California, and is
said to have been produced from seeds of Rubus micro-
phyllus, a Japanese species, crossed with the Cuthbert
raspberry. It is claimed to produce a bush six to
eight feet high, bearing numerous large white blos-
THE STRAWBERRY-RASPBERRY 147
soms, which are followed by "large, sweet, glossy,
golden, semi-transparent berries," which ripen in ad-
vance of strawberries. It appears to have developed
little value as yet. Thus far we have not succeeded
in making it live in Nebraska.
The Straivberry - Raspberry . This peculiar fruit be-
longs to a species found wild in Japan, China and the
East Indies, and known to botanists as Rubus roscefo-
lius. It has been commonly referred to in horticultural
literature under the name R. sorbifolius, but this ap-
pears to be only a synonym of the older name rosasfo-
lius. The double form of this same species has been
long known as a greenhouse plant, cultivated for its
flowers, though apparently but little grown. As re-
cently introduced from Japan under the name straw-
berry-raspberry, it is of interest chiefly as a curiosity,
and may be worth growing for that purpose or as an
ornamental plant. It is herbaceous in our climate,
dying down to the ground each winter and springing up
from the roots in spring. It throws up innumerable
suckers, making a perfect mat of bright colored foliage.
The leaves have a central stalk with five to seven oppo-
site narrow leaflets, and are really very pretty. The
mat of plants is so dense that it will keep down nearly
all weeds, and the plants continue to bloom and fruit
throughout the greater portion of the season. The
blossoms are white, pretty and sweet-scented, and the
berries bright and showy, a clump of the plants making
an attractive bed. It is unproductive, and the fruit
in its fresh state is rattier unpalatable, varying from
sour and insipid to somewhat bitter. When cooked,
however, it is said to develop a pleasant flavor midway
between the strawberry and the raspberry, and to give
a brilliant, rich garnet color to the syrup. The illustra-
tion (Fig. 28), life size, is adaped from "The Eural
New-Yorker," 1897, page 257.
The Wineberry (Japanese Wineberry). This is a
raspberry which is found wild in the mountains of
central and northern Japan. Its botanical name, now
well known, is Rubus pJmnicolasius . It forms a bush
three to seven feet high, with somewhat spreading and
rambling canes, which are thickly covered with bright
red hairs and weak prickles, standing out at right
angles to the stem. The leaves are light green and
whitish below. The flowers are very small, white, with
large, hairy, viscous sepals, which close over the fruit
again after blooming and keep it entirely covered until
about ripening time, when they again open. The
berry is then white, but turns bright red within two
or three days, becoming sweet and agreeable ; said to
be somewhat intermediate in flavor between the red
and the black raspberry. Seeds were sent from Japan
to J. T. Lovett, in the summer of 1887, by Prof. C.
C. Georgeson, now of Kansas. In 1889 the stock
raised from this seed was sold to John Lewis Childs,
who introduced it under the name of Japanese Wine-
berry.* The berry is of good size, firm and hand-
some, and owing to its peculiar covering is exempt
from insect attacks. It has not proved to be of
any real commercial value in the United States,
being generally tender and unproductive. It is a
*Amer. Gar. 1891, 204.
Fig. 28. The strawberry-raspberry.
peculiar and attractive plant, and well worth grow-
ing as an ornamental. It had been known in this
country and sold under its true botanical name by
Ellwanger & Barry, and perhaps by other nursery-
men, long before its dissemination by Mr. Childs.
It was described in "The Gardener's Monthly" for
January, 1880, and received soon after by the edi-
tor, Thomas Meehan, under the name Ruins Hoff-
The Chinese Raspberry (Rubus cratcegifolius) .
This raspberry possesses very little value as a fruit-
producing plant, but makes a handsome ornamental
shrub, and is well worth growing for that purpose.
Its flowers are inconspicuous, but its foliage and habit
are attractive, and its autumn coloring is often su-
perb. It is more fully described among the orna-
mental species (page 152) and in the botanical section
We are accustomed to think of the members of this
family only as fruit -producing plants, yet many of
them possess considerable attractiveness as ornamentals,
and are well worthy a place in any grounds. Some of
them are beautiful in themselves, especially if grown in
free and natural clumps, but more especially are they
valuable for grouping with other trees and shrubs.
Many of the most desirable species are natives of
America, and possibly because of this are better appre-
ciated in Europe than here. It is a well-known fact
that we are wont to pass by beautiful things growing
ORNAMENTAL RASPBERRIES 151
at our doors for something less desirable which comes
from a tropical or foreign country.
The ornamental qualities of most of these species
have been mentioned in connection with the description
of each under the botanical section (Chap. XI.), so
that, in most cases, a brief mention of them is all
that need be made here.
Rubus odoratus, the Purple -flowering Raspberry,
or Thimbleberry, is so common throughout the greater
portion of the eastern part of the United States that
we scarcely think of it as being ornamental. Yet it is
a very pretty and attractive shrub. It is beautiful both
in flower and fruit, and doubly desirable because it
continues its blossoming and fruiting period over so
long a time. The foliage alone is attractive, regardless
of the blossoms. This species is frequently mentioned
among ornamentals in European journals.
Rubus parviflorus, the Rocky Mountain Thimble-
berry, erroneously called Salmon -berry, is closely re-
lated. It is better known as R. Nutkanus, but since
the former name has been found to be the older it
must now take the preference. This species and its
varieties are found in the region of the great lakes
and westward to the Pacific coast. Its fruit seems to
have been rather more important in the wild state than
that of R. odoratus, but, in general the species is much
the same, except that the flowers are white. Few
attempts seem to have been made to cultivate it.
If it could be made to succeed well, it would un-
doubtedly be a most desirable plant to group with the
By far the most desirable and attractive member of
this section of the genus is undoubtedly Eubus deli-
ciosus, of the Rocky Mountains. This, like the two
species already mentioned, has simple leaves, three to
five-lobed, serrate, but more rounded than in those
species. The flowers are large, pure white and attrac-
tive. So far as reported, it has generally proved suc-
cessful, though it does not flourish under the hot sun
and drying winds in Nebraska. It is unquestionably
well worthy of more general cultivation than it has yet
received. It is somewhat difficult to propagate, which
will naturally render it more expensive and harder to
get than it otherwise would be. There are nurserymen
in the West, however, who make a specialty of collect-
ing these mountain plants, growing them until accus-
tomed to cultivation before offering them for sale, or
even propagating them wholly in the nursery. Plants
from such sources can readily be obtained, and will
generally prove satisfactory.
Rubus cratcegifolius is an oriental species of some
ornamental value which has been grown somewhat in
this country. Its chief merit lies in its foliage. The
flowers are small and inconspicuous, and the fruit small,
though bright red when ripe. The foliage is dense and
bright green, coloring well in autumn, and the bush
is pleasing in its habit of growth, so that it possesses
considerable value as an ornamental plant, although
there is nothing striking about it. It is generally hardy,
and will mass well with other plants and shrubs. In
Nebraska it has proved disappointing in regard to
hardiness, being injured by the winters thus far, even
ORNAMENTAL SPECIES 153
when protected. The rich autumn color developed by
the foliage on the young shoots thrown up from the
root in spring has offset the loss of the older canes,
Rubus arcticus, though a very pretty little spe-
cies, .can hardly be expected to succeed in cultivation,
for it is a native of the far north, and only extends
southward upon the high mountain ranges. It is the
most delicate and one of the prettiest members of the
family, and would be very desirable if it could only
be made to succeed.
Rubus phcenicolasius , the "Japanese Wineberry,"
has been brought more prominently before the public
than most other ornamental species (page 148). Its
chief attraction lies in the peculiar reddish hairy char-
acter of the plant. Except in favorable localities, this
is all there is to recommend it, for the canes are killed
to the ground every winter, and there are consequently
no flowers or fruit. The oddity of the fruit is one of
its attractive features, whenever any is produced. It is
not at all adapted to planting in clumps and masses,
like most of the species previously mentioned.
Rubus spectdbilis, the Salmon -berry, is a showy
member of the family, found native from California
northward along the Pacific coast. It is a vigorous-
growing shrub, with leaves made up of three sharp-
pointed, sharply toothed leaflets, or occasionally deeply
three-lobed only. The flowers are red or purple, large
and showy, and the fruit large and good, though prob-
ably not abundant enough to render it worthy of cul-
tivation on that account. It seems to succeed well
in England, and there seems to be no reason why it
should not do equally well in many parts of our own
country. It propagates rapidly from suckers, so that
means are sometimes needed to keep it in check. It
ought at least to be given a thorough trial, for it is
really a very attractive plant.
Rubus laciniatus, the Cut -leaved Blackberry, has
been brought to notice from time to time as a desir-
able ornamental, and heralded as a wonderful fruit-
bearing plant. Its names have been numerous, in-
cluding Parsley -leaved, Oregon Evergreen, Oregon
Climbing and Sandwich Island. Sometimes it has been
styled a dewberry, and sometimes a blackberry. It
is interesting from the peculiar subdivision of its
leaves, and an occasional plant will prove useful in
certain places, but aside from this feature it possesses
no ornamental qualities worthy of special note. In
this case the order of things is reversed, for this is a
European species, and Americans have given it more
attention than is given to it across the water. In
some sections there, however, it seems to be prized
for its fruit production. As a general rule, at least,
it produces little or nothing in this country, though
it is reported productive in the North Pacific states.
The plant is so desperately thorny that it would be
well-nigh hazardous to attempt to pick its fruit, if
there were any.
The form commonly offered for sale may be de-
scribed as follows: Stems nearly round, more or less
trailing, fertile ones erect, prickles small at the base,
but recurved and strong above, very numerous; leaves
ORNAMENTAL SPECIES 155
much dissected and sharply serrate ; fruit roundish,
black, grains large, sweet, with a peculiar musky
flavor, borne in loose panicles.
The Double White and Double Pink Brambles are
referred to at some length in the botanical section.
(Chap. XL) These are also European species, but
they have been long known in this country. The
flowers are said to resemble miniature roses more than
they do those of the other members of the family.
They are reported to be admirably adapted to being
grown as single specimens, and it is only when thus
planted, giving them a chance for full and symmet-
rical development, that their beauty is to be fully
appreciated. These pretty forms have never become
so popular and common as they deserve to be, and
apparently they ought to be better known.
There are several other species, not so well known
as the above, which may in time prove themselves
worthy of being planted for ornamental purposes. One
of these is Rubus trifidus, or Fire Raspberry, the name
applying to the bright red color of the foliage in
autumn. This has been tried at the Arnold arboretum
and recommended for wider planting.
Another very interesting species, which might per-
haps be made to succeed here, is Rubus Henry i, from
China. It belongs to the simple -leaved section of the
genus, and is described as "a tall, climbing shrub, with
deeply three -lobed, thick leaves, glabrous above and
clothed with a white tomentum below ; flowers small,
red, in terminal racemes'." It may be that this would
prove more interesting to botanists, owing to its dis-
tinct character, than* it would to plant -lovers in general
from any strictly ornamental qualities.
From the above list it will be seen that the genus,
though not considered an ornamental one, is far from
being destitute of ornamental qualities. In addition to
these more strictly so-called ornamental features, the
fruit -producing members of the family possess charms
to the true lover of fruits which are by no means to
be despised. A well grown row of red raspberries, with
the scarlet fruit peeping out from among the green
foliage, or a row of blackberry bushes covered with
clusters of shining black berries, is a sight so attractive
that it will be appreciated by man}' a person on whom
the charms of a strictly ornamental plant would fall
unheeded, and is not beneath the attention of the
VARIETIES OF RASPBERRIES
Varieties of most of the bush -fruits have long since
become so numerous that to attempt to describe them in
such a manner as would enable the grower to there-
by determine them is utterly impracticable, even if it
were possible for any one person to have access to
all the varieties. The reader may well ask, therefore,
Why attempt to describe them at all? There are
several reasons why a complete list of all varieties
which are or have been grown in this country, in so
far as it can be obtained, with brief descriptive notes
concerning them, is needed and likely to be of use.
Perhaps the most important of these is the need of
some means to prevent duplication of names and con-
sequent confusion, which must inevitably happen when
varieties become so numerous as they are now and
will continue to be.
Then, too, it is of interest and profit to know
something of the history of varieties, how they have
originated, and the sources from which they have
sprung, in order that we may thereby trace the evolu-
tion of our fruit-growing and the progress which has
been made. Furthermore, a brief description, with a
note concerning its origin and parentage, when these
are known, may at times enable the grower to decide
whether a certain variety which may give excellent
results in some other region of the country, is likely
to do the same under his conditions. While the
succeeding lists are as full as it has been possible
to make them by a careful search through the litera-
ture available, there are doubtless many omissions.
Any additions or corrections which others can make
will be gladly welcomed by the author.
The varieties in this historical record are arranged
alphabetically under five heads:
I. Black raspberries.
II. Pur pie -cane raspberries.
III. American -type red raspberries.
IV. European -type red raspberries.
V. Unclassified varieties.
I. BLACK RASPBERRIES
Although the youngest group of raspberries in cul-
tivation, this has come to be the most important one.
Immense strides have been made since Nicholas Long-
worth first transferred the Ohio Everbearing to his door-
yard in 1832. The species adapts itself so readily to
cultivation, and is so uniformly hardy and productive,
ripening its fruit in a comparatively short space of
time, and withal is so good to eat, that the wonder is
not so much that it has gained in popularity so rapidly,
but that it did not come into cultivation sooner. Its
adaptability to being grown as a farm crop for evap-
BOTANY OF THE BLACK-CAPS 159
orating purposes has also given a great stimulus to its
cultivation in recent years. The future of the black
raspberry is assuredly a promising one.
Very little need be said concerning the botanical
characters of the black -cap, since the species to which
it belongs, Rubus occidentalis, is so distinct from the
other cultivated species of raspberries. The color of
the fruit and method of propagation are alone sufficient
to distinguish it from all the others. There is a western
wild type, however, very closely related to this one,
which has long stood as a species, though apparently
more properly ranked as only a variety of Rubus oc-
cidentalis. This is the form known as Rubus leuco-
dermis, found in the mountains of California and
adjoining states. It is distinguished from Rubus occi-
dentalis chiefly by the color of the fruit, which is yel-
lowish red or wine -colored, by the coarser toothed
leaflets and the stouter and more hooked prickles.
The Ohio Everbearing appears to have been the first
named variety of black -cap introduced into cultivation.
It was found in the state of Ohio, and introduced to
public notice by Nicholas Longworth, of Cincinnati,
who began its culture in 1832. Next came the Amer-
ican Black, also named Joslyn's Black-cap, Joslyn's
Improved, Joslyn's Improved Black -cap, American
Improved, etc., which finally came to be known the
country over as Doolittle. This was found growing
wild by Leander Joslyn, of Phelps, Ontario county,
N. Y., and introduced by H. H. Doolittle, of Oaks
Corners, about 185CK, It is said to have owed its
especial prominence and value to the method by
which it was propagated, only the tips from one-
year-old plants being used. This variety did much to
spread the cultivation of the species throughout the
country, and the impetus then gained has steadily in-
creased, until the fruit has become one of the most
important. Until its immense increase led to a still
more rapid increase and consequent destructiveness on
the part of injurious insects and fungi, it was one of
the easiest grown and most uniformly successful fruits
in cultivation. The development of the evaporating
industry has done much to add to its importance,
and increase the extent of its cultivation.
Recently the industry has been seriously threatened
by the spread of fungous diseases, notably the anthrac-
nose. Further experience, however, seems to promise
a feasible plan for keeping it in check, so that the in-
dustry need not be crippled.
As this is the youngest member of the raspberry
family, there is good reason to hope for much improve-
ment in it. There is a very marked improvement in
the best varieties of the present day over the wild plants
of the woods, or those first introduced. This improve-
ment seems to be going on rapidly, and there is no rea-
son why it should not continue. We want not only
better size and better quality than we now have, but we
want equally reliable varieties which will come in both
early and late.
VARIETIES OF BLACK RASPBERRIES
Ada. A chance seedling which originated with Henry Young,
of Ada, Ohio, about 1882 or 1883. Thought by him to be a cross
between Doolittle and Mammoth Cluster, Reported as vigorous,
BLACK-CAP VARIETIES 161
very hardy, productive, and comparatively free from thorns.
Fruit large, jet black, and of good quality. Said to bloom later
than other varieties, thus being more liable to escape frosts.
Season as late as or later than Gregg.
Ak-Sar-Ben.A seedling accidentally discovered by Ex-Gov.
Robert W. Furnas, of Brownville, Nebraska. From the original
plant three years old Gov. Furnas picked 113 clusters in 1897,
averaging thirteen berries to a cluster. Hardy. Fruit large, of
good color and fair quality. Not yet introduced.
Alden. A name proposed for the Ohio, to better distinguish it
from the Ohio Everbearing, but never adopted. Mich. Exp. Sta.,
Bull. Ill : 256.
American Black (Common Black-cap, Black Raspberry, Thimble-
berry, Bubus occidentalis) . This is the common black raspberry of
the eastern United States. It was described by Downing as fol-
lows: "This raspberry, common in almost every field, with large
rambling ptfrple shoots, and flattened, small, black berries, is
everywhere known. It is frequently cultivated in gardens, where,
if kept well pruned, its berry is much larger and finer. Its rich,
acid flavor renders it perhaps the finest sort for kitchen use, tarts,
puddings, etc. It ripens a little earlier than most of the European
American Everbearing. An everbearing black-cap sent out in
1890, by the Cleveland Nursery Company, of Rio Vista, Va. It was
named and brought to notice by Mr. Hatfield, of Indiana. Said to
be fairly vigorous and hardy, but inferior to some others in pro-
ductiveness, quality and firmness.
American White (Yellow Cap, Golden Cap, White Thimble-
berry). Similar in all respects to the black-cap, but with yellow-
ish fruit and canes. It is found wild from time to time, and has
often appeared in cultivation, though never very popular.
Arctic. A variety growing at the New York State Experiment
Station. Described as vigorous, early, not very large, moderately
firm, juicy, and sweet.
August Black. Produced by Thomas Rivers, England. Down-
ing speaks of the fruit as dark red, which would indicate that it
might be a Purple -cane variety, but Mr. Rivers himself, in the
Gardener's Chronicle for 1897, p. 516, calls it black. Apparently
never cultivated to any extent.
Autumn Black. Another variety produced by Mr. Rivers, and
said by him to propagate only from seed, he evidently not under-
standing the tip -rooting habit of the species.
Babbit. Originated about 1883 as a chance seedling, near Col-
lege Springs, Iowa. Sent to the United States Department of
Agriculture, in 1892, by W. E. Laughlin. Said to be very hardy,
vigorous, and productive. Fruit medium size, roundish oblate,
drupes small and rather numerous ; dull black, without bloom,
moderately firm, juicy, and good. Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 259.
Bdbcock Nos. 3, 5 and 9. Mentioned as on trial at the Geneva
(N. Y.) Experiment Station. Bull. 91: 201.
Barnes. Mentioned as having nothing peculiar to recommend
it. 111. Hort. Soc. Eept., 1880: 78.
Beckner. A chance seedling, which originated in Tippecanoe
county, Indiana, about 1855.
Beebe (Beebe's Golden, Beebe's Golden Prolific). Originated
in New York about 1886, with James Beebe, of Cassadaga. Said
to be productive, but not different from the common yellow-cap.
Belle. Sent to The Eural New-Yorker by L. C. Carlow, of
Batavia, 111. Eeported to be hardy, vigorous, and productive ;
very early. As large as Gregg, but lacking in flavor. Mich. Exp.
Sta. Bull. Ill: 260.
Belmont. Originated by John Scobs, of Barnesville, Ohio, and
introduced in 1879.
Bluffton. A seedling raised at Bluffton, Mo. Mo. Hort. Soc.
Eept., 1886: 48.
Bonanza. Originated on the grounds of W. C. Freeman, North
Springfield, Mo., about 1888. Said to be large, with a long season.
Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 260.
Bronze Queen. A variety cultivated and named by Mr. Holman,
of Missouri. Said to be a strong grower, hardy, productive. Fruit
sweet, of good quality, of a peculiar bronze color. Mo. Hort. Soc.
Eept., 1886: 182.
Burns. A seedling produced by A. M. Burns of Manhattan,
Kans. Fairly productive; medium size, and of good flavor.
Claimed to have great ability to withstand drought and heat.