Canada. Mentioned by William Parry, in 1869, as no longer
popular.* A variety sold under this name by Prince & Mills, of
Flushing, Long Island, in 1822, and also known as Purple Eose-
flowering, indicates that it may have been Bubus odoratus.
Carman. Originated by A. H. Sherwood, Southport, Conn., and
named in honor of E. S. Carman, Editor of The Eural New-
Yorker. Introduced by G. H. & J. H. Hale. An early variety,
ripening about with Tyler, rather more dwarf in habit, but rea-
sonably productive. Fruit of good size, fine quality, and high
flavor. A good extra early variety.
*Gar. Month. 11:237.
BLACK-CAP VARIETIES 163
Carpenter Seedling. A seedling originated by Charles Carpen-
ter, of Kelley's Island, Ohio. It closely resembles Beebe's Golden.
Vigorous. Fruit small to medium, ripening early. Sixth Ann.
Eept. Geneva (N. Y.) Exp. Sta., p. 336.
Centennial. Samuel Miller speaks of two varieties under this
name: one found by George Husman, near Hermann, Mo., about
1860, and one found by Mr. Grayhill, near Carthage. Both early,
productive, of good quality, and firm. Mo. Hort. Soc. Eept.,
Champion. An early sort, found growing wild in Clark county,
Ohio. Sent out by Frank Murphy, of Donnelsville. Mich. Exp.
Sta. Bull. Ill: 263.
Chapman. A chance seedling found on the grounds of Mr.
Chapman, near Cincinnati, and carried to Boss county, Ohio, by
F. E. McLean, about 1864. Thought by Matthew Crawford, Prof.
W. J. Green and others, to be the same as Ohio.
Chesterfield. Discovered in successful cultivation in 1884, on a
farm in Tidewater, Va. It originated from a wild plant found in
Chesterfield county, that state. The Eural New-Yorker, 1884: 18.
Conrath. Discovered in 1886 as a chance seedling near a
patch of Gregg, near Ann Arbor, Mich., by C. H. Woodruff, who
sold the stock to Conrath Bros., for whom it was named. Early,
vigorous, productive, large, moderately firm, coal black, ripening
early, with a long season. A promising new variety.
Corinth. Mentioned in Bulletin 22 of the Mass. Hatch Ex-
periment Station, as fairly hardy and productive, late, of medium
quality and size.
Cottier Everbearing. A variety originating with M. T. Thomp-
son, of Eio Vista, Va. Eecommended as especially valuable on
account of its autumn-fruiting qualities.
Crawford. Mentioned as moderately productive and hardy at
the Mass. Hatch Experiment Station. Bull. 21: 11.
Cream. A yellow-cap mentioned by William Parry in 1870.
Mich. Exp. Bull. Ill: 265.
Cromwell (Butler). Originated by G. S. Butler, of Cromwell,
Conn. Introduced by G. H. & J. H. Hale. Closely resembles
Tyler. A berry of fair size and good color, but rather acid.
Cumberland. A new black -cap recommended from Pennsyl-
vania. Of very large size. Originated by David Miller, Camp
Hill, Penn. The Eural New-Yorker, 1896: 624.
Daily Bearing. Originated with Mr. Griggs, of Perry county,
Ohio, from seed of the Ohio Everbearing, and claimed to be an
improvement on that variety. Canes almost without thorns.
Davis. A yellow-cap, said to be a few days earlier than
Golden Queen. Found on the banks of the New River, North
Carolina, some years ago, by an old lady named Davis. It was
brought to notice by L. P. Hodges, of Sands, that state. Mich.
Exp. Bull. Ill: 268.
Davison (Davison's Thornless). Said to have originated in
the garden of Mrs. Mercy Davison, of Gowanda, N. Y. Sent out
by Joseph Clinton some time prior to 1866. Probably the earliest
variety grown. This, together with the sweetness of its fruit
and its freedom from thorns, gave it popularity for the home gar-
den. Not a vigorous grower, and deficient in productiveness.
Doolittle (Joslyn, Joslyn's Improved, Joslyn's Black-cap,
American Improved, etc.). This was the first variety which
really gave prominence to the black raspberry as a commercial
fruit. It was introduced by H. H. Doolittle, of Oaks Corners,
N. Y. Said to have been found wild by Leander Joslyn, of
Phelps, Ontario county, N. Y. Mr. Doolittle seems to have taken
great interest in selecting and improving this fruit. The start-
ing point may have been from this plant, found by Mr. Joslyn,
or it may have been from wild plants in general. What gave
the American black -cap especial value under this name was,
perhaps, not so much the variety itself, as the improved method
of propagation adopted by Mr. Doolittle, in which only the tips
from one-year-old plants were used. Whether his stock was de-
rived from one original plant, or from various selected sources,
it is certain that the Doolittle raspberry acquired a fixity of
type which made it long the standard cultivated black raspberry.
It is even yet not far behind many more popular varieties.
Doomore.A seedling found between two rows of Doolittle,
by Gustus Swabley, of Tiffin, Ohio, in 1884. Described by him
as tall, erect, with deep blue canes. Fruit without bloom,
about the size of the Ohio, ripening somewhat earlier; very
productive. Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 270.
Dorchester. Mentioned in Bulletin 27 of the Guelph, Ontario,
Duncan (Kentucky Prolific, Kentucky Mammoth, Kentucky).
Said to have been a chance seedling found on the farm of Jack
Smith, in Jefferson county, Kentucky, by a man named Duncan.
Apparently a popular variety in Kentucky. Said to be as large as
Mammoth Cluster; better in color, firmer, and a better shipper,
succeeding on all soils. Country Gentleman, 1876: 175.
Earhart.A variety of Illinois origin, introduced by Hale
Brothers about 1886. Described as vigorous, hardy, and quite
productive. Glossy black, rather small, ripening very early.
Produces a small second crop in September,
BLACK-CAP VARIETIES 165
Early Cluster. Mentioned in the Report of the Michigan
Pomological Society for 1875, p. 197, as a new and promising
Early Prolific. Mentioned by Dr. Stayman as "the best early
black-cap that we have seen. It is a very strong grower, nearly
thornless, very hardy, healthy, enormously productive, and of the
best quality. It is as large as Souhegan, and has proved three to
four days earlier." Missouri Hort. Soc. Eept. 1883: 79.
Ebo.n Beauty. Found by F. L. Piers in a piece of woodland in
Indiana, in 1887. Reported inferior to Gregg in every respect,
except hardiness, at the Indiana Experiment Station. Mich. Exp.
Sta. Bull. Ill: 272.
Ebony (Farns worth). Originated as a chance seedling, about
1885, on the farm of W. W. Farnsworth, of Waterville, Ohio.
Said to be vigorous and productive. Medium to large, firm, seedy,
of good quality.
Elsie. A. seedling raised by Samuel Miller, of Bluff ton, Mo.,
who described it as very large and excellent. Said to be nearly
identical with Surprise.
.Emperor. Mentioned in the Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill, p. 273.
Eureka. Said to have been discovered wild on the farm of
Jacob Smith, in Miami county, Ohio, by J. C. Kester, of New
Carlisle. Brought to notice by W. N. Scarff, of the same place.
Said to be equal to Gregg in size. Nearly as early as Palmer.
Everlasting. Described in The Rural New-Yorker for 1882,
p. 669, as an autumn -fruiting variety, from Lawrence Co., Pa,
Every Day. Commonly thought to be identical with the Ohio
Everbearing, but considered by Dr. Warder to be a much more
continuous bearer, fruiting almost continuously until frost.
Faddy. Received at the Pennsylvania Experiment Station
from Joshua Fadely, of Sassafras, Va. Claimed to be everbear-
ing. A single year's test showed no great tendency in that direc-
tion. Pa. Exp. Sta. Bull. 32: 11.
Fay (Fay's Thornless). A variety similar to Davison, bearing
few thorns. Fruit of good size, firm, black, with little bloom.
Ferndale.A chance seedling found by W. B. K. Johnson,
Allentown, Pa., along the Delaware River. Described as vigorous,
with large but not numerous thorns. Productive. Fruit large,
black, with heavy bloom. Drupes large; berry rather close, but
firm, moderately juicy, of good quality and a good shipper, ripen-
ing a little earlier than Gregg.
Florence. A yellow varrety, originating in New Jersey. Intro-
duced about 1881. Said to be hardy and vigorous, with greenish
166 B USE-PR [TITS
or yellowish white canes and strong white spines. Of medium
size, orange yellow, moderately firm, juicy and sprightly.
Thought at the time to have been one of the best yellow varieties.
Gault. Found by W. C. Gault, of Euggles, Ashland county,
Ohio, growing by the roadside near his place, in 1887, and intro-
duced by him in 1893. Described as medium to large, dull black,
with a slight bloom, moderately juicy, and a good shipper. Sea-
son very late. Tends to produce a second crop in autumn.
General Negley. Mentioned by Mr. Arnold, before the Ontario
Fruit Growers' Society, as a perpetual bearing black-cap.* Un-
der this name Crozier quotest from Dr. J. A. Warder as follows:
"A seedling, probably from one of the large foreign varieties,
Pilot, Hornet or Franconia, originated by General Negley, of
Pittsburg. It is vigorous, of foreign aspect and foliage. Stood
the past winter well; is productive, rather early. Fruit large,
roundish oblong, juicy, high flavor, and very good."
Golden-cap. A seedling of the American White -cap, originat-
ing in Cedar county, Iowa ; seems to have received some special
notice under this name.
Golden Tlwrriless. Introduced from Minnesota, by Purdy &
Johnston, of Palmyra, N. Y., previous to 1869. Described as
moderately vigorous and productive, with few spines. Fruit large,
dull orange color, rather darker than American White. Moderately
firm, juicy, sweet, pleasant.
Gray. Mentioned in the Report of the Worcester Horticultural
Society for 1881, p. 24.
Green. Discovered on the grounds of Green's Nursery Com-
pany, of Rochester, N. Y., about 1890, and described by them as
large, productive and early. Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 278.
Gregg (Great Western, Hoosier Mammoth, Western Tri-
umph). Found growing wild in a ravine on the Gregg farm, in
Ohio county, Indiana, in the latter part of June, 1866. It was
most thoroughly tested and widely exhibited before being intro-
duced, and has borne out in a remarkable way the early promises
it gave. It was largely introduced by N. Ohmer, of Dayton, Ohio,
who first saw the fruit on exhibition in 1875. He bought two hun-
dred plants the following spring, propagated them for three years,
then introduced it to the public. Canes large, upright, very vig-
orous, possessing an abundance of bloom and a peculiar clean,
smooth appearance which always makes them noticeable. More
difficult to propagate than many other sorts, owing to its upright,
*Gar. Month. 12: 278.
tMich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 277-
BLACK-CAP VARIETIES 167
vigorous habit. Fruit large, roundish oblate, with a very decided
gray bloom. Flesh very firm, only moderately juicy and sweet.
Season late. This is by far the best known and most popular late
variety at the present time. It is uniformly healthy and produc-
tive, though slightly lacking in hardiness, especially on heavy
soils. The plant is slower to attain its full productiveness than
most other varieties, but is also slower to decline, so a plantation
will remain longer in profitable condition. Though not of the
highest quality, it is still a good berry, and its excellent shipping
qualities render it especially adapted to market. It is also an
excellent variety for evaporating, especially where fruit is picked
by hand. It clings so tightly to the receptacle that it is not easily
gathered with the berry harvester.
Hale Early. Sent out for trial by G. H. & J. H. Hale, of South
Glastonbury, Conn., but not proving valuable, was never intro-
Hamilton. Mentioned by Downing as from Shelby Co., Tenn.
Hannibal (Extra Late) .Described in the Report of the United
States Department of Agriculture for 1892 as a large, fine berry
of excellent quality. Apparently vigorous and productive, being
several days later than Gregg. Originated with W. J. Bradt, of
North Hannibal, N. Y.
Harrison. Named in honor of President Harrison by Henry S.
Harris, of White Lane, Salem county, N. J., who found it in a
neighbor's garden many years ago. Described as medium to
large, rather dry, firm, black, with less bloom than Gregg ; good,
promising for market. A variety which apparently has never been
in the nursery trade to any extent.
Haskell Yellow. Taken from Massachusetts to Illinois by Dr.
Haskell, about 1836. Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 281.
HawJceye. A berry found in Iowa, which is thought to have
come originally from Indiana. Said to be better than Doolittle, as
firm as Gregg, and as large, but earlier. Iowa Hort. Soc. Kept.
Hayne Seedling. A new variety brought to notice by H.
Hayne, of Delphi, Indiana.
Hilborn. An accidental seedling found in an old raspberry
plantation, and introduced by W. W. Hilborn, of Leamington,
Ont., in 1886. Described as a sturdy grower, very hardy, pro-
ductive. Fruit nearly as large as Gregg, clear, glossy black, rich
and juicy. A favorite variety in many parts of Ohio and Ontario.
Hixon (Hixon's Everbearer) . Mentioned in the Report of the
Kansas Horticultural Society for 1886, p. 290, and appears to have
attained some prominence in that state.
168 -# USH-FR (JIT 8
Hoag (Harkness) . According to A. W. Sias, formerly of
Minnesota, this originated with Charles R. Hoag, at Kasson,
Dodge county, Minnesota. Later it was disseminated by J. W.
Harkness. Wyman Elliot, one of the earliest presidents of the
Minnesota Horticultural Society, says that at one time it was
named Harkness by their society, but the name of the originator
was preferred. Said to resemble Gregg, but to have been more
hardy in Minnesota.
Hopkins. Found wild in the woods, within the present limits
of Kansas City, Mo., in the year 1872. Later brought to notice by
G. W. Hopkins, of Springfield, Mo., and introduced by Frank
Holsinger, of Eosedale, Kans. Described as similar to Tyler, and
ripening with it. Fruit medium to large, round, black, with little
bloom ; texture soft, flavor mild. A good shipper. Considered a
valuable variety in the region where it originated.
Idaho. Mentioned by Crozier,* as possibly a variety of Eubus
leucodermis, though he says nothing regarding its color. Said to
have come from the mountains near Lewiston, Idaho. It was sent
out for trial by F. B. Palmer, of Mansfield, Ohio, but did not
Ideal. A seedling found near the Gregg plantation, in 1890, by
C. P. Augur, of Connecticut, who described it as nearly as good as
the Sougehan, and larger and better in every way than the Gregg.
The Eural New-Yorker, 1893: 430.
Indiana. A black-cap from Indiana, introduced in 1884. De-
scribed as vigorous, hardy, and productive. Fruit of good size and
quality, very firm.
Ironclad (Smith's Ironclad). A note taken without mention-
ing the reference says that this originated with Mr. Wilson, of
Forest, Ohio, about 1885. Said to be very vigorous, productive,
and healthy. Earlier than Tyler, of good quality. Under the
name "Smith's Ironclad," Crozier records a variety,t brought to
notice in Kansas by a man named Smith, some years ago, he hav-
ing found a single raspberry plant among a bill of trees ordered
from an agent. This was probably some old variety, but still
seems to be known in Kansas under the names mentioned.
Kagy Everbearing. Mentioned in the Ohio Experiment Sta-
tion Eeport for 1886, p. 190, as apparently of no value.
Kansas. Originated as a chance seedling on the farm of A.
H. Griesa, Lawrence, Kans., in 1884. Although he had grow-
ing, at the same time, several hundred other seedlings from
selected stock, this proved more valuable than any of the others.
*Mich, Exp. Sta., Bull. Ill: 284.
tMich. Exp. Sta., Bull. Ill: 309.
BLACK-CAP VARIETIES 169
Described as a vigorous grower, very hardy, and exceedingly
thorny, rooting at the tips with unusual ease. Fruit similar to
Gregg, fully as large, ripening a week earlier, with less bloom;
juicy, of excellent flavor, and firm enough to ship well. One of
the promising newer varieties.
Kellogg. A. chance seedling, originally found by George J.
Kellogg, of Wisconsin, about 1875. Claimed to be hardy, vigor-
ous and productive. Similar to Doolittle.
Kerr Wliite. Reported as on trial in Michigan, where it
proved to be large, of moderate vigor and productiveness, with
light yellow, pubescent fruit.
Key Prolific (Johnston's Sweet). A black-cap found in the
Ozark Mountains, Ark. Grown in Iowa since about 1881. De-
scribed as vigorous, very hardy, productive ; not nearly as large
as Gregg ; jet black, without bloom, medium to late ; of good
flavor, very sweet, and excellent for drying. Reintroduced by
Robert Johnston, of Shortsville, N. Y., in 1886, as Johnston's
Sweet. la. Hort. Soc. 1887: 98.
Kimball. Reported from Rhode Island in 1885 by Joseph H.
Bourne, of Providence, as a promising new variety, earlier than
Souhegan. Found by him growing wild on the farm of James
Kimball, near Providence. Never introduced. Mich. Exp. Sta.
Bull. Ill: 287.
Lindsey.A. variety said to have originated in Michigan.
Fruit of medium size, between Doolittle and Gregg, and said to
be better and firmer. la. Hort. Soc. Rept. 1882: 478.
Little (Little's Black-Cap). Originated with John Little, of
Ontario. Sent to T. T. Lyon, of Michigan, in 1881. Described
as hardy, moderately vigorous, with rather slender, reddish brown
canes, almost without spines, which are purplish white. Fruit
small, roundish, glossy black, firm, seedy, juicy, acid, rich.
Much like Davison's Thornless. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rept. 1882:169.
Lotto, (Brackett's No. 101). Originated on the farm of G.
C. Brackett, of Lawrence, Kans. A vigorous, hardy and pro-
ductive variety. Fruit large, round, black, with slight bloom ;
quality good; as large as Gregg and somewhat earlier. This is
one of the really promising varieties of recent introduction. As
on trial at the Cornell University Experiment Station, it appeared
to lead all others in productiveness.
Lovett. Found among a lot of wild seedlings on the grounds
of Ezra Wood, of Ohio. Introduced by J. T. Lovett Co., of
New Jersey. Said to be vigorous, productive, and to ripen early.
Fruit firm, of good size, black, with only slight bloom; apparently
thornless. Resembles Tyler in general characteristics.
1 70 B USH-FR UITS
Lum Everbearing (Autumn Black Raspberry, Lum's Fall
Bearing). Raised by H. B. Lum, of Sandusky, Ohio. Much
like the Ohio Everbearing, of which it is a seedling.
Lum Yellow Canada. An everbearing variety, mentioned in
Michigan Experiment Station Bulletin 111: 289.
Macomber. This name, with numbers or letters appended,
has been applied to various seedlings sent out on trial by J. T.
Macomber and L. M. Macomber, of Vermont, though apparently
not retained as a permanent name of any variety. Mich. Exp.
Sta. Bull. Ill: 289.
Manwaring No. 1. Sent out by C. H. Manwaring, of Kansas.
Found by the Geneva (N. Y.) Experimental Station to be small to
medium, black, firm, mildly subacid, of good quality, hardy.
May King. A variety similar to and ripening about with Sou-
hegan, although recommended especially for its earliness.
McCracken. Originated by William McCracken, of Sunnydale,
Kans., and distributed under the name Kansas, though not the
same as the better-known variety of that name.
McCormick (Mammoth Cluster, Miami Black-cap, Collins -
ville Miami, etc.). For many years the leading black-cap in
cultivation. It appears to have originated in Indiana, from the
Old or Small Miami. A thoroughly hardy and very productive
variety ; a vigorous grower, bearing fruit of medium size, but of
a slightly reddish black color. Quality good; season medium.
Miami (Miami Black, Old Miami, Small Miami). A common
black-cap, originally found growing along the Miami River, in
Ohio. A vigorous, productive variety; of less value than the
McCormick, more brownish red, not quite as sweet nor quite as
late in ripening. Downing.
Miller Daily (Miller's Daily Bearing). Apparently a local
variety near Dunreith, Ind. A large, everbearing black-cap;
vigorous, hardy, productive. Fruit large, juicy, excellent.
Mills (Mills No. 15) .Introduced by Charles Mills, of Fair-
mount, N. Y. Raised from seed of the Gregg said to have been
fertilized by Tyler. A strong, healthy, upright grower, moder-
ately productive. Fruit of medium size and excellent flavor.
Mills No. 1. Of the same parentage as the preceding. De-
scribed as vigorous, fairly hardy. Fruit large, firm, seedy,
moderately juicy, good quality.
Minnesota (Minnesotian). A western yellow-cap, mentioned
in various places.
Mohler. Originated by D. H. Mohler, New Paris, Ohio, from
the seed of the Eureka. Canes large, vigorous, very productive.
BLACK-CAP VARIETIES 171
Fruit very large, firm, good, black, early. The name "Mohler"
seems to have been applied to the Eureka at one time, before
the introduction of this variety, which occasioned no little con-
fusion. Discussed in Bulletin 63 of the Ohio Exp. Station.
Moody. A white variety mentioned by Samuel Miller, in the
Missouri Horticultural Society Report for 1884, p. 295, as very
productive, of good flavor, good size, and worth having.
Moore Seedling. Mentioned in the Report of the Ohio Hor-
ticultural Society for 1870, p. 62.
Hunger. Originated with Timothy Munger in western Ohio,
about 1890. Introduced by W. N. Scarff, of New Carlisle, Ohio.
Described as a good shipper, black, of good flavor, large size and
Mystery. A variety sent out from Kentucky as an everbearing
sort. Reported as of little value, bearing no autumn crop in
Minnesota. Bull. 25.
Nemaha. Found growing wild by Ex-Gov. Furnas, of Brown -
ville, Neb., along the bluffs of the Missouri River in Nemaha
county, of that state. Transferred by him to his garden, and
later sent out to be tested by prominent small-fruit growers.
Introduced by Green's Nursery Company, about 1883. Very
similar to the Gregg, but claimed to be hardier. Vigorous and
productive. Fruit large, of good quality, and firm. T. T. Lyon
says that it has most of the qualities of the Gregg, with im-
proved flavor and hardiness. Popular in southeastern Nebraska.
New Haven. A chance seedling which came up on the grounds
of E. E. Clark, of New Haven, Conn., proving better than any
seedlings he had raised. Described by him as large and vigorous.
Fruit juicy, five-eighths to three-quarters of an inch in diameter,
with small seeds. Report of the Connecticut Board of Agricul-
ture 1866: 184.
Norfolk. Mentioned as unsatisfactory in Michigan. Mich.
Exp. Sta. Bull. 122.
Nor thfield. Sent out for trial by M. T. Thompson, of Rio
Vista, Va., but found to be of little value and never introduced.
Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 294.
Ohio (Alden) . The great evaporating raspberry of the pres-
ent day, being far more largely planted for that purpose than all
others together. The full history of this variety is recorded by
Bailey in Bulletin 117 Cornell University Exp. Station, p. 362.
Somewhere in the sixties, Hiram Van Dusen, of Palmyra,
N. Y., bought a lot of Doolittle plants of A. M. Purdy, of that
place. When the plantation began to fail, he found one plant
apparently as good as new, which, from previous observation, he
knew to be firmer, more productive, and to ripen later. This
plant became the progenitor of the vast multitudes which now
people the raspberry fields of western New York and other states.
The Doolittle plant mentioned, it was found, came from Ohio,
and Mr. Van Dusen called it the " Ohio" to distinguish it from the
Doolittle. It was introduced by a son and grandson of Mr. Van
Dusen. A. M. Purdy was of the opinion that this was precisely
identical with what he grew at that time as the Miami, obtained
from Ohio, and states that it was so decided by John J. Thomas
and Patrick Barry, who saw them growing on his grounds. This,
like many market fruits, though hardy and productive, is not
of good quality. It is one of the most seedy varieties grown,
and it is partially for this reason, no doubt, that it yields more
pounds of evaporated fruit per bushel than other sorts.
Ohio Everbearing (Monthly Black-cap). A full account of the
history of this variety is also given by Bailey in Bulletin 117
of the Cornell University Experiment Station. (See also page
159.) The taking up of this variety by Nicholas Longworth
appears to have been the beginning of the cultivation of the
black raspberry in America. It is of especial interest on this
account, although it has never proved a variety of great value.
Its chief distinguishing feature seems to have been its autumn