Des Moines, in the fall of 1895. Discovered on the farm of D. W.
Humphrew, near Eedfield, Iowa. Resembles Shaffer in color and
size, but said to be of better quality. Propagates by tips.
Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill : 304.
Reliance . A descendant v of Philadelphia, raised by O. L. Fel-
ten, of N. J. Described as hardy, vigorous and very productive.
Canes strong, branching, with greenish spines. Fruit large,
nearly globular or roundish oblate, dark red or crimson, firm,
juicy, sweet and sprightly, but not of high flavor. Figured in
Gardener's Monthly 1877: 302. Practically a strigosus variety.
Salzer Everbearing Red. Origin Illinois. Introduced by the
John A. Salzer Seed Co., Lacrosse, Wis., as a cross between the
Shaffer and the Marlboro. Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 306.
Sarah. Originated by Professor William Saunders, London,
Ont., from the seed of the Shaffer. Described as a moderate
grower, suckering freely, and propagating only that way. Fruit
large, round, deep garnet, firm, very juicy, pleasantly acid, and
exceptionally rich, ripening after Cuthbert. Mich. Exp. Sta.
Bull. Ill: 306.
Saunders Hybrid (No. 53?). A hybrid between Philadelphia
and Mammoth Cluster, produced by William Saunders, of London,
Ont. Said to be productive, large, dark red, propagating from
tips only. Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 303.
Shaffer (Shaffer's Colossal). This is, at the present time,
doubtless, the best known variety of this type. It originated in
the garden of George Shaffer, near Scotsville, Monroe county,
N. Y., about 1871. Introduced by Charles A. Green, of Roches-
ter. It is a vigorous, upright grower, and one of the most pro-
ductive raspberries known. Fruit large, dark red or purple, mod-
erately firm, sprightly, subacid. Its color is too dark to be
attractive, but if picked before fully ripe, while yet red, it looks
fairly well in market. An excellent canning variety. It also
dries well, being of more attractive color when dried than true
red raspberries, and producing more pounds of dried fruit per
bushel. In quality it is not far behind the red raspberries, with a
richness not possessed by them.
Shaffer Seedling No. 5. A seedling of Shaffer, mentioned as
on trial at the Rhode Island Experiment Station.
Smith Purple. Originated with B. F. Smith, of Lawrence,
Kans. Possesses all the characteristics of the black -cap except in
color of fruit, which is of medium size, good quality, and has the
black-cap flavor. Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 310.
Stayman No. 1. A seedling of Shaffer originated with Dr. J.
Stayman, of Leavenworth, Kans., in 1884. Said to be large, re-
sembling the Marlboro, but later. Firm, of good quality, and
propagating from tips. Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 311.
Superb (Churchman's Superb). Originated by John Church-
man, of Burlington, N. J., and supposed by him to be a seedling
of Philadelphia. Plant hardy, moderately vigorous, with large,
stout canes, which bear abundantly and propagate by suckers,
which increase slowly. Fruit large, rich, tart and juicy, dark
scarlet and rather crumbly. Thought by; some to be a cross be-
tween the Philadelphia and some European sort.
Surprise. Introduced by H. G. Breese, Hoosick, N. Y. De-
scribed as a dark red variety, having the flavor of red raspberries
and firmness of berry and growth of cane of the black-caps; has
a tendency to fruit in autumn. Apparently of little value.
Wetherbee. Spoken of as a red variety from New York.*
Described as hardy, vigorous, with few spines, and a moderate
bearer. Fruit small, round, purple, with slight whitish pubes-
cence, moderately firm, of sprightly flavor, ripening late.
Shaffer and Columbian are the two best known and
most desirable varieties of the Purple -cane Group.
III. THE AMERICAN RED RASPBERRIES
The native red raspberry of the United States has
been much longer in cultivation than the black rasp-
berry or the blackberry, but is much younger than the
European berry. In spite of its youthfulness, it has
long since outrun its European cousin and gained con-
trol of the commercial red raspberry -growing of the
country. While it may be slightly behind the European
berry in quality of fruit, it is so thoroughly at home,
and adapts itself so readily to cultivation, that it has
become a far more desirable market berry. One great
*Gardener's Monthly 22: 81.
BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 185
objection to the red raspberry as a market fruit is its
long bearing season, necessitating so many pickings to
secure the crop. The American sorts have the advan-
tage in this regard, although even they ripen too
unevenly. They are hardier, and usually have some-
what more slender canes.
Two species are included in the true red raspberries
of cultivation, the European red raspberry, Eubus
Idceus, and the American red, Eubus strigosus. Though
similar in general appearance and in their botanical
characters, there are essential points of difference.
For the strictly botanical differences, the reader is
referred to the description of the two species. It
may be said, however, that, in general, the European
plant is rather stouter and less free in its habit of
growth, the leaves are a little whiter beneath, thicker,
and generally somewhat wrinkled, and the canes are
light colored, bearing purple prickles in some varieties.
The prickles on the finer parts are firmer, recurved and
The horticultural differences are more marked than
the botanical differences, the chief one being the habit
of the European raspberry to continue bearing more or
less throughout the greater portion of the season after
ripening begins. This is a feature which, while it may
be desirable in a home berry, is a disadvantage in a
market berry. Another important point of difference
between the two species is in hardiness. Few, if any
of the European varieties can be depended upon to
endure our winters, except in the most favorable locali-
ties, without protection, and even then they are un-
reliable. It is also probable that our hot, dry summers
are as important a factor in working their injury as the
cold of winter. No better evidence of their lack of
adaptability to our climate is needed than the fact that
while there have been something like one hundred
varieties belonging to this species introduced in the
United States, probably not over five or six are grown
at all at the present time, and these only in a very
small way. The fruit is generally conceded to be of
better quality than our American reds, and if the
plants had proved satisfactory, this species would natur-
ally have been in the ascendency. The following ac-
count of the history of the red raspberries was con-
tributed to The American Garden by the writer.
HISTORY AND FUTURE OF THE RED RASPBERRIES
The history of the European raspberry, Bubus Idoeus, runs far
back into the ages. It it mentioned by Cato, who lived before the
beginning of the Christian era, and it appears to have been a natural
product of Roman territory. Pliny the Elder, supposed to have
written about A. D. 45, mentions it as one of the wild brambles
which the Greeks called "Idea," having derived its name from
Mount Ida, in Asia Minor, at the foot of which lay the renowned
city of Troy. In this mountain were said to dwell fabulous be-
ings, who were credited with being the first to work iron and
copper, and with having introduced music and rhythm into Greece.
Perhaps we may infer that in the exercise of the marvelous powers
which they were alleged to possess, they produced this glorious
fruit to appease some angry god, or gladden the eye and delight
the taste of a gracious princess. Although deriving its name from
this locality, where it was particularly abundant, the raspberry is
indigenous over the greater part of Europe and northern Asia. It
is impossible to tell whether the plants were cultivated at this early
j*f The Defcrlftlon.
$<C f rambope igafeinDeoE
&aanc!)e are not muelje ton*
nut id i ougtj anD pticblep 3 ncu fct luittj
fo man? (tjarpe pzicfele0, anD fomtime^
toif^out piicfcie^efpeciallp tljenexue
beetle igretiDe,batot^mjDifcit ( i^lpbe
to ttjcot^er.Ctje tooted long crcping
tuict peere Doo bung fooztlj teir
C^e jframbopet? founDe m fome
places of iDouctjumD tnDarkexuooDjsr
anD in tljfg Cotmtrtetftcppianteititi
garDen?J , anD it louetlj ftaDowpe
places , XD^ere agtlje S)onnc fljtne^t
Chef rambope flowzetl) itt <Bf)ap
Fig. 29. Description of the raspberry by Dodoens, 1578.
date, and it is not unlikely that the gods, like many mortals of the
present day, were obliged to be content with the precarious supply
to be found growing at will in grove and glade. Palladeus, how-
ever, a Roman writer of the fourth century, mentions the rasp-
berry as one of the cultivated fruits of that time. From a work
written by Conrad Heresbach, entitled "Rei Rusticse," published
in 1570, and afterward translated by Barnaby Googe, it appears
that raspberries were little- attended to during that period. John
Parkinson, in his "Paradisus," published in 1629, speaks of red,
white and thornless raspberries as suitable for the English climate.
Stephen Switzer, in 1724, only mentions three kinds. George W.
Johnson, in his "History of English Gardening," published in
1829, gives the number of cultivated varieties as twenty-three.
From these detached notes it appears that although cultivated at
least as far back as the fourth century, it nevertheless did not
come to be considered a fruit of any importance and demand at-
tention until the close of the sixteenth century, or later.
The raspberry never seems to have been held in such high
esteem for its medicinal properties as the blackberry. Gerard
Dewes, in his translation of "Dodoen's Niewe Herball," or "His-
torie of Plantes," published in 1578, enumerates the following
" The leaves, tender springes, fruit and roote of this Bramble
are not much unlyke, in vertue and working, to the leaves, shutes,
fruite and rootes of the other Bramble, as Dioscorides writeth.
" The flowers of Raspis are good to be bruysed with hony, and
layde to the inflammations and hoate humours gathered togither in
the eyes, and Erysipelas or wilde fire, for it quencheth such hoate
" They be also good to be dronken with water of them that have
The illustration (Fig. 29) shows a specimen of the text of this
work, giving the description, habitat and time of flowering of the
Framboye, Raspis or Hyndberie, as the raspberry was then called
in French, English and German, respectively. The figure of the
plant (Fig. 30) is reproduced from John Gerarde's "Historic of
Plantes," published in 1597.
Fig. 30. Gerarde's picture of the raspberry, 1597.
After the settlement of this country the first attempts at culti-
vation, as with other fruits, were with varieties which had been
familiar in England. In the second edition of William R. Prince's
" Pomological Manual," published in 1832, fourteen varieties are
described and six others mentioned as meriting culture. All but
four of these are probably varieties of E. Idceus, although in some
cases it is impossible to decide with certainty. Of these four, at
least three appear to be forms of B. strlgosus from different lo-
calities, while the fourth may belong to the Bubus neglectus, or
Purple -cane type. One of the varieties which appears to be
European may also belong here. The American Pomological
Society, at its second session in 1853, recommended four varieties
for general cultivation, and commended one more as promising, all
of which were foreign sorts. In the catalogue, as recommended
by the last session in 1891, there appear fourteen varieties of
Bub-us Idceus, one of which is placed there doubtfully, and six of
which are seedlings of American origin. There are also twenty -
nine native varieties, six of which are classed under M. neglectus,
fourteen under E. occidentalis, and nine under E. strlgosus. This,
however, is far from representing the true state of comparative
cultivation of the foreign and native species and varieties at the
present time, for of the fourteen foreign varieties and their seed-
lings still retained, not over five or six are now cultivated to any
extent, and these only in very limited areas.
While the Eubus Idceus type is everywhere acknowledged to be
much superior in the quality of its fruit, it is not able to maintain
itself against summer suns and winter winds, and has had to give
place to hardier sorts, better able to fight their own battles and
emerge from them bearing abundant trophies of fruit, not so ex-
quisite, perhaps, yet more substantial and sure. Moreover, with
the gradual improvement which has gone on, there is at present
little need for foreign varieties. The best of our natives yield
fruit which is doubtless far superior to that which gratified the
gods on Mount Ida in those days of war and wonder. Among
the first varieties of E. strigosus to become prominent were the
Stoever and Brandy wine. The former is a form of the American
red, found wild near Lake Dunmore, in Vermont, by Jefferson F.
EVOLUTION OF THE RASPBERRY 191
Stoever, and removed to his garden at Tacony, near Philadelphia,
where it first fruited in 1859. The Brandywine, or Susqueco, as it
was at one time called (Susqueco being the Indian name for
Brandywine), is of unknown origin. It first attracted attention in
the Wilmington market, and was for a time called Wilmington.
We are accustomed to boast of the marvelous progress in all
lines of American development. What advance can we show in
the improvement of the raspberry? Some, to be sure, but most of
it has been mere accident. In looking up the history of varieties
it is the same story over and over again " a chance seedling
found growing wild, etc." Nearly all of our prominent varieties
have originated in this way. A few men have gone to work system-
atically to breed and develop varieties. The first and most
prominent of these was Dr. William D. Brinckle", of Philadelphia
a busy physician, who, having a taste for pomology, pursued it as
a means of recreation from other duties. He experimented with
strawberries and pears, as well as with raspberries. So important
was his work in these lines that he seems to be much better re-
membered for that than for his medical reputation, although he
was successful and prominent in this field also. He was president
of the American Pomological Society at its second session, and for
many years vice-president of the Pennsylvania Horticultural
Society, repeatedly refusing its presidency. Unfortunately his
work on raspberries was with the Eubus Idceus species, and most of
the varieties which he produced have suffered the fate of the class
to which they belonged; yet he obtained in Brinckle 's Orange the
variety which has stood as the desideratum to be sought in quality
to the present day. Another who achieved good results in this
line was David W. Herstine, of Branchtown, near Philadelphia,
the originator of the Herstine, Saunders, Ruby and Elizabeth rasp-
berries; yet these were simply seedlings of the Allen, grown in
alternate rows with the Philadelphia. William Saunders, of
Ontario, has also produced a number of varieties, some of which
are said to be hybrids.
Good as the varieties are which we have, we want further im-
provements. Nothing is good enough to satisfy human demands.
We want back all we have lost in giving up the raspberry of our
forefathers beyond the sea ; but coupled with that, we want all we
have gained from the hardier species of our own country. We
want a red raspberry as good as Brinckle"'s Orange in quality,
as large and productive as Cuthbert and of brighter color, as hardy
as the Turner, and we want it on a black- cap bush without the
thorns. Will we get it? The Shaffer is our nearest approach at
present. What the possibilities of careful, systematic and pro-
gressive breeding are, only the future can show.
VARIETIES OF AMERICAN BED RASPBERRIES
American Red (Common Red, English Red). Prince states
in the Pomological Manual published in 1832, that although this is
a native of New York, growing naturally in the Catskill moun-
tains, it is frequently termed English Red. He says the shoots
are of a dark red hue and grow very long. The spines on the
present year's shoots are purplish in color near the base, but
greenish, with brown or purplish barbs or points on the upper
part. The fruit is one of the earliest to mature, of medium size,
fine flavor and greatly esteemed. He comments on the fact that
this is the only variety grown to any extent for the New York
market, and that there were nearly one hundred acres on Long
Island devoted to its culture at that time. Evidently this is a
forerunner of American Red raspberry culture, but undoubtedly
plants from various sources passed under this name. In fact,
from the vague use of the term in early writings, it seems even
possible that the name may have been also applied to plants of the
Rubus neglectus or Rubus Idceus types.
Andrews. Thought by J. T. Lovett to be identical with High-
land Hardy, while James Smith, of Iowa, is positive that this and
the Highland Hardy are only the Kirtland renamed.
Bagley Perpetual (Bagley's Everbearing) . Originated about
1854, at New Haven, Conn. Introduced in 1858 by A. Bridgeman,
a florist of New York. Said to be hardy, and comparatively
spineless. Fruit medium, nearly round, dark crimson, rather
soft, acid, of poor quality. Bears a second crop in autumn.
Brandywine (Susqueco, Wilmington). Said to have been found
near Brandywine Creek at Wilmington, Del. It first attracted
attention in the Wilmington market, and was for a time called the
Wilmington. Mr. Edward Tatnell, of that city, undertook to in-
troduce it under the name Susqueco, the Indian name for the
Brandywine. Described as stocky, hardy, with large, reddish
AMERICAN RED VARIETIES 193
colored canes, suekering freely. Fruit medium to large, bright
scarlet, firm, juicy, of inferior quality.
Bristol. According to William Parry, this is a strong, hardy,
vigorous grower, suekering immoderately. Fruit resembling the
Brandy wine, but not so large nor firm.
Canada Red. Mentioned by Prince in 1832, as a variety first
noticed by him growing along the roadside a few miles from Mon-
treal, where the plants were to be met with in great abundance.
He describes it as of medium size, resembling the common red in
quality, with a high and rather peculiar flavor.
Carpenter No. 1. A vigorous grower, early, fairly productive.
Fruit small to medium, bright red.
Coleman No. 1. Not a very vigorous grower, but fairly pro-
ductive. Fruit small, soft, fine -flavored. Ninth Annual Report
Geneva (N. Y.) Exp. Sta.
Cole Prolific. Exhibited at the Chicago Exposition in 1893 by
the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario. Found growing wild
on the farm of E. D. Cole, of Port Dalhousie, Ontario.
Crimson Beauty. Found by Dr. Stayman, of Leavenworth,
Kans., in 1875, growing in a patch of Imperial. Introduced by
A. M. Purdy, of Palmyra, N. Y. Described as large, bright,
glossy, scarlet, round to oblong, with a pleasant sprightly flavor,
early, hardy and productive. Deficient in pollen production, and
must be planted near some free pollen -producing sort to bear
well. It has never proved valuable in the eastern states.
Cuthbert (Conover, Queen of the Market, Quinby's Favorite).
Probably the best known of all red raspberries, and the most
desirable single market sort. It was a chance seedling found by
Thomas Cuthbert in his garden at Riverdale, now in New York
city, about 1865. It is a strong, vigorous, upright grower, some-
times branching; spines short, stout, purplish, rather numerous
toward the base, but often wanting toward the tips. Fruit large,
dark crimson, obtuse conical, grains rather small and compact.
Flesh quite firm, juicy, sprightly, and of fair quality. Its chief
defect as a market berry is its color, which is rather too dark.
Mr. Conover, the asparagus man, seeing its value, spread it in
his neighborhood, giving it undesignedly the name Conover. In
New Jersey it was disseminated by William Parry as Queen of
the Market. As yet, no other variety has displaced it.
Eastern King. Found by O. A. King, of Deering, Maine, in a
garden in the town of Westbrook, about 1864 or 1865. A dull red
sort, said to be larger, earlier and more productive than the Cuth-
bert, though this claim has* not been substantiated in Michi-
gan. Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. 111:270.
1 94 B USH-FR UITS
Golden Queen. This was found on the grounds of Ezra Stokes,
of Camden, N. J., about 1883, in a twelve-acre patch of Cuthbert.
In fact, to all intents and purposes, it is a Cuthbert with yellow
fruit. Sports in color from this variety are not uncommon. In-
stances are recorded where part of the berries on a shoot have
been yellow and part red, and even the individual fruits have
been variegated. The variety is one of the most satisfactory
yellow -fruited sorts, possessing much the same qualities as its
parent, the Cuthbert. While light colored varieties are not in de-
mand for market, a few plants for home use are always desirable.
Hansell. A chance seedling found on the farm of Hansell
Bros., near Beverly, N. J., about 1875. Introduced by J. T.
Lovett in 1882. Moderately vigorous, suckering freely, with dark,
reddish green, hairy shoots. Leaves finely wrinkled. Fruit of
medium size, dark red, with slight bloom, rather soft, subacid,
pleasant, not rich. Obtained considerable prominence at one
time as an early variety. Said to be difficult to transplant and to
propagate from root cuttings.
Harris. Sent out by Z. H. Harris, of Rochester, N. Y., in
1889. Plant fairly vigorous, but of dwarf habit, standing well
without pinching. Fruit large, bright, firm, and of good flavor.
Not quite hardy.
Highland Hardy (Highland Antwerp). A sport or chance seed-
ling which originated near Highland village, on the Hudson, about
1870. Very early, but fruit medium to small, red, of poor flavor.
Said to be very susceptible to injury from summer heat.
Hudson River Eed. A native red variety. Exhibited before the
Cincinnati Horticultural Society in 1860 by F. W. Slack, of
Kentucky, who was at that time growing it for the Cincinnati
market. Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 284.
Imperial Eed (Red Imperial). A variety grown in New Jer-
sey, where it proved hardy. Fruit medium, roundish, scarlet,
half firm, juicy, pleasant. Found to succeed better in the South
than most varieties.
/. X. L. A chance seedling discovered by Charles Schlessler,
of Naperville, 111., in 1887. Said to be vigorous; canes purplish.
Fruit light, dull red, of medium size, crumbling, nearly sweet, of
Kenyon. Introduced by O. A. Kenyon, of McGregor, la., who
found it growing among black raspberries about 1885. Bush of
medium size, quite vigorous and fairly productive. Fruit quite
large, firm, but crumbling a little, deep dark red, with fair flavor.
Clings tightly to the receptacle.
Loudon Originated by Frank W. Loudon, of Janesville, Wis.,
AMERICAN RED VARIETIES 195
who states that it is a seedling of the Turner crossed with the
Cuthbert. Canes vigorous, hardy and productive. Berry as large
as or larger than Cuthbert, somewhat conical. Grains large, with a
suture, firm and of a good red color, but not equal to Cuthbert in
quality. One of the promising newer varieties. Introduced by
Charles A. Green, of Rochester.
Marlboro. A popular variety originated by A. J. Caywood,
of Marlboro, N. Y., who described it as follows:* "A cross of
the Highland Hardy, and a seedling started from English Globe
and the Hudson River Antwerp thirty years ago. It is a larger
grower, with stronger canes than any known variety ; hardy in the
fullest sense; berries averaging three-quarters of an inch in
diameter, and when not retarded by long, severe drought, many of
them will average one inch. It will remain four days on the
bushes after ripe, and is then marketable. It is bright crimson in
color, and does not lose its brilliancy when over-ripe." Its pa-
rentage would indicate a mixture of Eubus Idceus blood, but this is
not apparent in the plant itself. Charles Downing considered
it an improved seedling of the Rubus strigosus type. He saysrf
"The growth and habit of throwing up numerous suckers, the