strong, vigorous, upright canes, branching a little toward the top,
nearly smooth, with a few short, scattering spines, and peculiar
reddish color of the new leaves at the end of the new shoot, the
color and flavor of the fruit, all indicate strongly its native
origin." This is one of the best known and most generally
prized early market sorts. Hardy, vigorous, productive, and a
thoroughly good, all-round berry.
Mary. Raised from seed by Professor William Saunders, of
London, Ont. Fruit light red, as large as Cuthbert, with large
drupes, moderately firm, quality fair to good. Plant productive,
hardy and fairly vigorous. Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill : 290.
Meredith Queen. Discovered growing wild in the town of
Meredith, Delaware county, N. Y., in 1880, by E. J. Brownell,
who sent out plants for trial in 1883. A late variety of moderate
growth. Fairly hardy, and only moderately productive, much of
the fruit being imperfect. Bearing canes dark brown ; new
growth purplish green, tips red; suckers freely. Fruit medium
size, of pale orange or reddish salmon color. It is a strictly
native red raspberry except in color, and is of interest from
being a yellow representative of this species.
Michigan (Michigan Early). Introduced about 1883 by William
Parry, of New Jersey. It was generally supposed to have orig-
*Country Gentleman, 1883: 338.
tMieh. Hort. Soc. 1884: 252.
mated in Michigan, though William Parry, Jr., is under the im-
pression that the first plants came from Tennessee. Plant lack-
ing in vigor and productiveness. Fruit roundish conical, rather
small, of inferior quality. Moderately firm, dark red. Appar-
ently of no real value.
Miller (Miller's Woodland). A very popular variety in the
Delaware peninsula. Origin same as the Brandywine. De-
scribed as strong, vigorous, not too high, adapted to bear very
large crops without drooping, hardy and productive. Fruit very
large, bright crimson, which it holds well in market; firm,
sprightly, subacid, of excellent quality. Resembles Brandywine
under favorable circumstances, but ripens earlier. Said to give
its largest pickings very early, but its largest berries very late.
It has not succeeded so well in other sections.
Miller Favorite. Mentioned as on trial at the Michigan Ex-
periment Station in 1887. Bull. Ill: 291.
Niagara. A Canada variety which apparently has some good
qualities. Flavor and texture good; color dark. Apparently
vigorous and productive.
Olaihe (Stayman's No. 5). Originated by J Stayman, of
Leavenworth, Kans., from seed of Reliance. Canes rather slender,
vigorous, upright, dark red. Fruit large, firm, juicy, of good
quality and color, ripening among the last; productive.
Osceola. Originated in Osceola county, in northwestern Iowa.
Said to be extremely hardy, but soft in fruit. Mich. Exp. Sta.
Bull. Ill: 297.
Parry's Nos. 1 and 2. Originated with William Parry, of
New Jersey, but not considered by him worth naming and in-
troducing. No. 1 is an early variety, of rank growth, dark foli-
age, fairly productive, soft, of good flavor. No. 2 later, more
productive, not so rank a grower, large, firm, of distinct flavor.
Pearl (Red Pearl). Origin unknown. Cultivated consider-
ably about Philadelphia at one time. The plant is a very short,
stocky grower, seldom over three feet high. Spines numerous,
long, slender, light colored, slightly tinged with purple. Suckers
very numerous. Moderately productive and hardy. Fruit me-
dium, nearly round, bright scarlet, sweet, juicy, moderately firm,
with an agreeable flavor.
Pennsylvanian. A variety mentioned by Prince, in the Porno -
logical Manual, as obtained from a London nursery under the
name Bubus Pennsylvanicus, but which he had later found to be
identical with plants received from the forests of Maine.
Perfection. A variety originated by F. W. London, of Janes -
ville, Wisconsin, and said to be a cross between the Cuthbert and
AMERICAN RED VARIETIES 197
the Turner. Described as productive; fruit large, handsome, of
good color and flavor, juicy, not so firm as the Cuthbert.
Pomona. Introduced by William Parry about 1887. One of
the most uniformly productive varieties grown at the Geneva
(N. Y.) Experiment Station. Of vigorous growth and fine ap-
pearance. Fruit a pleasing red, large and firm. Season very long.
Queen of the Market. See Cuthbert.
Eancocas. Introduced by William H. Moon, of Morrisville,
Pa., in 1884. Originated as a seedling on the farm of J. S.
Hansell, taking its name from the place of its origin, on the
Eancocas Creek. An early variety of weak or only moderate
growth, hardy, and fairly productive. Fruit of medium size,
firm, of good color, but rather poor quality. Yields the bulk of
its crop early in the season.
Re(e)der. A seedling found near Stevensville, Mich., about
1875. Described as somewhat lacking in vigor. Canes slender,
quite tender. Fruit round, only moderately firm, of good quality.
Apparently never proved valuable.
Red Queen. Mentioned by William Parry, in 1869, as no
longer popular. Gar. Month. 11 : 237.
Royal Church. Originated on the farm of Royal Church, of
Harrisonville, Ohio, near where a lot of Herstine and Philadel-
phia varieties had been grown. Plants vigorous, productive, and
hardy. Fruit very large, dark crimson, moderately firm, of ex-
cellent quality. Rather too dark in color. This may belong
with the Mubus neglectus group.
Scarlet. Under this name was disseminated a sort found
mixed with the Allen as sent out. It was distributed by John
Crane, of Union county, N. Y.. who simply stated the facts, not
claiming it to be a new variety. Fuller thinks it probable, from
the description, that it was Allen's Prolific.
Scar Jet Gem. A seedling of the Crimson Beauty, originated
by Dr. J. Stayman, of Leavenworth, Kans., in 1876. Described
as early, moderately vigorous, comparatively hardy, of medium
productivenes. Fruit bright red, of medium size, but deficient
in quality and firmness. Like its parent, it needs to be near
other varieties to insure pollination.
Stayman No. 2. Red, hardy, equal to Crimson Beauty.
Samuel Miller, Missouri Hort. Soc. Rep. 1883: 203.
Stoever. A form of the American Red, found wild near Lake
Dunmore, Vermont, by Jefferson F. Stoever, who removed and
fruited it near Philadelphia, in 1859. Described as large, roundish
conical, rich crimson color, and of good flavor, with a tendency
to autumn fruiting. Hov. Mag. 1860: 124.
Talcott.Sent out for trial by G. H. & J. H. Hale of Connecticut,
in 1883. Much like Turner except in form. Plant lacking in
vigor; fruit small and very early.
Thompson Early Pride. Bent out in 1888 by the Cleveland
Nursery Co. Described as upright, vigorous, hardy and fairly
productive. Fruit of medium size, firm, juicy and good.
Thompson Early Prolific. Also sent out by the Cleveland
Nursery Co. A moderate grower, fairly productive. Fruit of me-
dium size, bright crimson, quite firm, ripening early.
Thwack. Introduced by T. W. Foster, of Louisiana, Mo., as
obtained from T. S. Wilson, of New York, who claimed it to be a
cross between Herstine and Brandywine. Hardy, vigorous, produc-
tive; canes stout, brownish green, with few spines. Fruit large,
ovate -conical, bright red, with slight whitish pubescence. Flesh
pale red, rather firm, moderately juicy, mild, not rich. Attained
prominence as a market berry, notwithstanding its poor quality.
Trusty. A variety of unknown origin, on trial in Canada.
Said to be of medium size, round, dark red, slightly downy, of
good quality, firm, very productive, and late. Canes resembling
Cuthbert, but more hardy. Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 315.
Turner (Southern Thornless, Red Thornless, Southern Red,
Baldwin's Choice, Balding's Choice) . Originated by Prof. J. B.
Turner, of Jacksonville, 111. A full account of its origin is given
in E. P. Roe's ''Success with Small Fruits." It was for a long
time one of the most popular varieties, and is still much grown.
Very hardy, vigorous; canes of a golden reddish brown color,
overspread with a purple bloom. Almost free from spines. Fruit
large, bright crimson, roundish conical, soft, sweet, and of excel-
lent flavor. The distribution of plants by a man named Baldwin
undoubtedly caused it to receive the name Baldwin's Choice, evi-
dently corrupted to Balding' s Choice.
Virginia Bed. A variety mentioned by Prince in the Porno -
logical Manual, published in 1832.
Welsh. A seedling raised by Isaac Welsh, of Camden county,
N. J. Described as early, of medium size, bright red, firm, not of
high quality. Vigorous, productive, and unusually hardy.
White -fruited. A white-fruited form of Bubus strigosus was
sent to the Cornell University Experiment Station, by A. S.
Fuller. The plant possesses all the characters of Bubus strigosus,
and has nothing of importance to distinguish it from that species.
Winant. A seedling raised in New Jersey. Introduced by
Frank Ford & Son, of Ravenna, Ohio. Said to resemble Thwack.
A strong, vigorous, upright grower, perfectly hardy, productive.
Fruit large, clear bright red, firm.
EUROPEAN-TYPE VARIETIES 199
A vote for the most thoroughly tried and generally
satisfactory American red raspberries would probably
result in the election of Marlboro for early and Cuth-
bert for late. To this should be added Golden Queen,
if a yellow variety is wanted. London is younger, but
is pushing rapidly into the field, while Miller seems
to please on the Delaware peninsula.
IV. THE EUROPEAN RED RASPBERRIES
At the beginning of raspberry culture in the United
States the European red raspberry had all the advan-
tage of age and breeding on its side, but with the
climate against it, it has lost the race. This has hap-
pened, too, notwithstanding the fact that there has
been no serious difficulty in growing it here. More
than one hundred varieties have been introduced, many
of them having been seedlings produced in America,
but in spite of that, few are now known or grown to
any extent. Their quality and appearance recommends
them to the amateur's garden, and it is chiefly there
that they are found. The varieties of this class are
usually less hardy, slightly more stocky in growth of
cane, and continue to ripen their fruit through a longer
season. See Section III. for a history of this type.
VARIETIES OF THE EUROPEAN RED TYPE
All Summer. Introduced by John Lewis Childs, of Floral
Park, N. Y., as having been purchased from Mrs. A. A. Stowe,
of Hailey, Idaho, who obtained it from California, though the
plants came originally from Mexico. Said to be strong, stocky,
vigorous and prolific, with large rank foliage, hardy in winter
and summer. Fruit large, dark red, and of excellent quality.
Recommended for its ability to endure extreme heat.
Alpine. Imported from the Mediterranean with Cretan Red
and Flesh-colored by William R. Prince, who believed them
to be closely related.
Amazon. Sent out from Edesville, Md., as a new variety, but
thought by those who received it to be the Fontenay.
Arnold Orange (Orange King) . Originated with Charles
Arnold, Paris, Ont. Canes strong, branching, yellowish brown,
almost smooth, and producing but few suckers. Fruit large,
somewhat shorter than Brinckle's Orange, of a darker orange
color, unsurpassed for flavor. Said to be a yellow-cap crossed
with Eubus Idceus.
Arnold Eed. Origin same as the previous ; the best known
of Mr. Arnold's seedlings. Hardy, vigorous, canes dark purple,
somewhat drooping. Spines slightly purple, stout, quite nu-
merous. Fruit large, red, about the size and shape of Phila-
delphia, but of superior flavor. Said to bear a good crop both in
July and in September. Also said to be a cross between the
yellow -cap, Eubus occidentalis, and Eubus Idceus.
Arnold Yellow (Yellow Canada). Of the same origin and pa-
rentage as the two preceding. Fruit nearly white, large, and fine
flavored but not equal to Brinckle's Orange. Plant of a peculiar
albino appearance, quite vigorous, productive and hardy. Suckers
freely. Bears early and again sparingly in autumn. Mich. Exp.
Sta. Bull. Ill: 258.
Baker. K seedling of Merveille des Quatre Saisons. Raised
by Mr. Parnell, of Cincinnati.
Barnet (Cornwall's Prolific, Cornwall's Seedling, Lord Ex-
mouth, Large Red, Barnet Antwerp, Barnet Cane). An old Eng-
lish variety, said by Prince to bear considerable resemblance to the
Red Antwerp, but distinguished from it by its branching canes
and long, slender, reddish prickles. Said to have been raised
from seed by a person named Cornwall, at Barnet, Herefordshire.
Baumforiti (Baumforth's Seedling). Originated in England
from seed of the Northumberland Fillbasket. Said to be stronger,
more productive, larger, and a richer crimson than its parent.
Blggar Seedling. Raised by C. A. Biggar, of Drummond-
ville, Ont., from an unknown European variety. Largely used as
a parent variety by Professor William Saunders, of London, Ont.,
in producing his hybrid varieties.
EUROPE AN-TfPE VARIETIES 201
Black (English Black). Mentioned by Downing as a hybrid
from England. An old variety.
Brentford Cane. Mentioned by Prince and spoken of by Fuller
as an old English variety of little or no value. Placed among the
inferior varieties in the nurserymen's catalogues about 1825.
Brentford Red. Spoken of by Prince in the Pomological
Manual as a variety of excellent quality and high flavor ; produc -
tive, and continuing a long time in bearing, often producing a
second crop in August.
Brentford White. Ottered, by Prince & Mills, Flushing, N. Y.,
in 1822. Doubtless an English variety, judging from its name.
Bromley Hill. "An old red, English variety of fair quality,
but not productive." Fuller.
Burlington (Prosser) . Originated by Benjamin Prosser, of
Burlington, N. J. Downing states that there was some confusion
over this variety, two or three having been sent out under the
name. The one they had he describes as "moderately vigorous
and productive. Spines greenish white with a brown tinge, slen-
der and more numerous than any kind we have ever seen. Fruit
large, roundish conical. Grains rather small, compact, scarlet.
Flesh quite firm, juicy, sweet, good."
Carter Prolific. An English variety, with strong canes and
purplish spines. Fruit large, roundish obtuse conical, deep
scarlet, with slight bloom. Firm, moderately juicy, sweet and
Champlain. A chance seedling found in the garden of Mr.
Macomber, of Grand Isle county, Vt. Believed to be from seed
of White Antwerp, which it much resembles in the character of
its canes. Introduced by Ellwanger & Barry in 1892. Described
as vigorous and productive, with a tendency for the bark to split
and curl. Thorns numerous and small. Foliage rich green,
much wrinkled. Fruit large, lighter in color and more abun-
dant than the White Antwerp, with seeds smaller, while the
drupes are fully as large. Juicy, melting, and of high flavor.
Too soft for market, but a good family variety.
Charles the Bold. Mentioned as one of Arnold's hybrids.
Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 263.
Christine. A very late red variety of indifferent flavor, sent
out by E. P. Eoe.
Clarke. Raised by E. E. Clarke, New Haven, Conn. De-
scribed as strong, vigorous and upright. Spines purplish, rather
long and stiff. Fruit large, conical, regular. Grains large, quite
hairy, bright crimson. Flesh rather soft, juicy, sweet and ex-
cellent. Apparently one of the best adapted to our climate of
the foreign varieties. Said to be capable of enduring more heat
and cold than most varieties. Found to be productive at the
Geneva (N. Y.) Experiment Station-.
Cline. A chance seedling sent out for trial by G. W. Cline,
Winona, Ont., in 1893. Fruit of medium size, red, firm, sweet,
of poor quality; inferior to Turner, but very early.
Colonel Wilder. A seedling raised by Dr. W. D. BrincklS, of
Philadelphia, Pa., from seed of the Fastolf, and named in honor
of Marshall P. Wilder. Foliage much crumpled, spines white.
Fruit large, roundish, very delicate yellowish white or cream
color, semi-transparent. One of the finest flavored raspberries,
and very productive. Flesh soft.
Cope (Vice -President Cope) . Originated with Dr. Brinckle", and
named in honor of Caleb Cope, vice-president of the American
Pomological Society for Pennsylvania in 1852. Thomas calls it
a late sub-variety of the Red Antwerp.
Cornish. An English variety which Fuller speaks of as old
and discarded at the time his book was written.
Cox Honey. An old English white variety.
Cretan Red. Imported from the Mediterranean by Prince,
who says it resembles the Antwerp class in foliage, but with
fewer spines. Thomas describes it as rather late, productive;
canes upright, gray, nearly smooth; leaves light colored; fruit
medium, roundish conical, purplish red, subacid, good.
Crystal White. A seedling originated by A. J. Cay wood, of
Marlboro, N. Y. Canes vigorous; foliage deep green. Fruit
light lemon color, which easily stains, and becomes worthless for
market; moderately firm, of good quality and flavor. Possibly
belongs to the Rubus neglectus class.
Gushing. Raised by Dr. Brinckl6, of Philadelphia, and named
in honor of J. P. Gushing, of Watertown, Mass. Described as
large, roundish conical, light crimson, regular in form, juicy,
sprightly, good. Grains small and compact. Spines brownish
purple, stiff and rather numerous. Dr. BrincklS said that in
favorable seasons it would produce an autumn crop of fine berries.
Delaware. Said to be an American seedling of the Hornet. A
hardy, red variety, reasonably vigorous and productive. Fruit of
medium size, rather soft, but sweet and delicate.
Diadem Produced by Charles Arnold, of Ontario, by crossing
the American White -cap with Franconia, a seedling of this cross
with White Four- seasons, and the offspring of this by Hornet,
Imperial, and Fontenay, the Diadem being one of the resulting
seedlings. Described as fairly vigorous, hardy, large, red or
pinkish, of good quality. Seems to have been little grown.
EUROPEAN-TYPE VARIETIES 203
Double -Bearing Red (Perpetual -Bearing, Twice-Bearing, Late
Liberian, Late Cane, etc.). Mentioned by Prince and by Bridge-
man. Downing says, it was formerly esteemed for its autumn
bearing habit, but was then superseded by better kinds.
Downing. A seedling of the Orange, by Charles Downing.
Duhring. A seedling of Hornet originated by Henry Duhring, of
Belmont, near Philadelphia. Little known outside of that vicinity.
Dyack Seedling. Imported by Robert Buist, of Philadelphia,
about 1840, and known only as a parent of Brinckle's Orange.
Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 271.
Early Prolific. An old English variety of poor flavor. Fuller.
Emily. One of Dr. Brinckle's seedlings which proved unworthy
Empire A seedling of Biggar raised by Prof. William Saunders,
of London, Ont. Described as early, productive, fairly vigorous.
Fruit medium to large, conical, bright red, firm and of good
English Cane (Twice -Bearing). For sale by Prince & Mills,
of Flushing, L. I., in 1822. Perhaps the same as Double -bearing
or some of the other English varieties.
English Giant. Imported from Denmark, by W. D. Barnes &
Son, Middlehope, N. Y. On trial at the Geneva (N. Y.) Ex-
periment Station in 1894.
English Globe. A variety mentioned by Downing.
English White (Old English Yellow [?]). For sale by Prince
& Mills, of Flushing, L. I., in 1822 at 8 cents each. The
White Antwerp sold at 25 cents each, and the American White at
12% cents each, so this could hardly have been either of those.
Everbearing Red. Mentioned by William Parry in 1869 as no
longer popular. Also recorded as a failure in Canada.
Fastolf (Filby). One of the best English varieties, which de-
rived its name from having originated near the ruins of an old
castle of that name in Great Yarmouth. First advertised by Yuell
& Co., in the Gardeners' Chronicle in 1843. Ripens about ten days
earlier than Franconia. Figured in Hovey's Magazine 1846: 299.
Crozier* cites a reference which seems to indicate a much earlier
Flesh-Colored (Frambosier Couleur de Chair). Said to have
been obtained by William R. Prince from the Mediterranean with
the Cretan Red, which it closely resembles.
Fontenay (Belle de Fontenay, Belle d'Orleans, Amazon). A
*Mich. Exp. Sta, Bull. Ill: 274.
204 B USH-FR UITS
French variety with stocky, vigorous, and somewhat branching
canes, suckering abundantly, especially when young. Fruit large,
roundish conical, purplish red, moderately firm, with a rich,
sprightly flavor. One of the hardiest and most reliable European
varieties. Crozier spells this name Fontenoy -
Four -Seasons Bed (Merveille de Quatre Saisons, October
Red). A French variety having the autumn -bearing habit espe-
cially developed. Thought by many American cultivators to be
the same as Fontenay.
Four- Seasons Yellow (White Four- Seasons, October Yellow) .
Imported from France in 1863 by Charles Arnold, of Paris, Ont.
Said to be a seedling of the preceding, and similar to it in all re-
spects except color. Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 275.
Franconia (Abel, Naomi [?]). Received from Messrs. Vil-
morin, of Paris, many years ago by Samuel G. Perkins. Said to
have been little known in European catalogues except as returned
from this country. It was one of the comparatively well known
foreign varieties on this side of the water.
French (Vice -President French). Raised by Dr. Brinckle,
from Fastolf crossed with Yellow Antwerp, and named in honor
of B. U. French, vice-president of the Massachusetts Horti-
cultural Society. Described by the originator* as follows: "A
very late variety, which throws up very few suckers, and never
fruits on these until the succeeding year. It is the latest and
most hardy of all my seedling raspberries. It was the result
of a cross between Fastolf and Yellow Antwerp. The seed pro-
duced from this cross was planted, and some twenty or more of
them vegetated. Being desirous of creating new varieties with a
constitution sufficiently hardy to adapt them to the exigencies of
our climate, I subjected them to such severe treatment as to kill
all of them but one. This one bore the hard usage well. Tho
berry of the French is large, round, and of a deep crimson color."
French Everbearing. Said to have been recently imported from
France by California nurserymen, where it is becoming popular.
Fulton. A seedling of the French raised by Dr. Brinckle'.
Named in honor of James D. Fulton, of Pennsylvania.
General Patterson. A seedling of the Colonel Wilder raised by
Dr. Brinckle", and named in honor of General Patterson, of Penn-
Genesee.A red variety sent out by Z. H. Harris, of Rochester,
N. Y. Described as a moderate grower. Foliage distinct, large
*Gar. Month. 2: 133.
EUROPEAN-TYPE VARIETIES 205
and wrinkled. Fruit of large size, good color and pleasant flavor,
but soft, and dropping from the plant as soon as fully ripe.
Golden Prague. Imported from Denmark by W. D. Barnes &
Son, of Middlehope, N. Y. On trial at the Geneva (N. Y.) Ex-
periment Station in 1894. Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. Ill: 277.
Grape (Mason's Seedling Grape). Raised from seed by Mr.
Mason, a gardener, at Charleston, Mass. Said to have been pro-
duced by crossing the Scarlet Rockingham and Bed Antwerp,
and -to resemble the Scarlet Antwerp in fruit and plant, but to be a
better bearer, with racemes or bunches of fruits like grapes,
whence its name. This name seems to have appeared in various
places. Quite likely it may have been applied to different plants
at different times'T
Heebner. Described by John Craig, of Ottawa, Canada, as a
large red berry of the Clarke and Hornet type. Of good quality,
but not a good shipper. Not hardy in Ottawa without winter
Henrietta. A seedling which sprung up in Connecticut. It
was introduced by G. H. & J. H. Hale, who described it as per-
fectly hardy, remaining green to the tips with a temperature of
twenty-four degrees below zero. Also enduring the heat of sum-
mer well. A vigorous grower, suckering freely. Fruit large, of
high color and firm. Said to be very similar to Fontenay.
Hornet. A French variety raised by M. Souchet, of Bagnolet,
near Paris. Introduced here by Aubrey & Souchet, of Carpen-
ter's Landing, N. J., about 1859. Figured in the Gardeners'
Monthly 1 : 122.
Hudson Elver Antwerp (New Red Antwerp, North River Ant-
werp) . Said to have been obtained from England by Mr. Bridge,