ductive, Fuller later speaks of it as unproductive and not worth
cultivating. Mentioned in the Transactions of the Ohio Hort.
Soc. for 1869, p. 69, as of little value.
Parish Pink. Another white variety of no more value than
Texas Hybrid (Texas Pink Hybrid). Described as vigorous
and prolific, earlier than Snyder, of medium size, delicate pink
color, sweet and nearly free from seed. Found to be of no
value in Ohio.
V. THE LOOSE -CLUSTER BLACKBERRIES
Rubus nigrobaccus X villosus
These are hybrids between the blackberry and the
common dewberry of the eastern states. Their dis-
tinguishing feature is to be found in the intermediate
character between the two parents. The bushes are
low and more or less reclining, the leaflets are broad
and jagged, usually three, both on young shoots and
bearing canes. The fruit is short and roundish,
borne in few- to many -flowered clusters, interspersed
with numerous simple broad leaves. The type is com-
mon in the wild state where the two species are found
Eureka. In 1876 William Parry selected the best and most
perfect berries of Wilson's Early, grown by the side of the Dor-
chester, planted them, grew the seedlings together for four years,
then selected the best, which was named Eureka, the others being
destroyed. Mich. Hort. Soc. Kept. 1886: 407.
Mammoth (Thompson's Early Mammoth). Said to be like the
Wilson in size and general habit of growth, a few days earlier,
and of rather better quality, large and good. Others pronounce
it no improvement over the Wilson,
LOOSE-CLUSTER VARIETIES 239
Maynard. A variety found growing on the farm of C. C. May-
nard, at Kincaid, Kans., between the Lucretia dewberry and the
Early Harvest blackberry, and sent out for trial by him as the
Maynard dewberry. Berry round, composed of a few very large,
jet black drupelets, ripening with the blackberries ; many berries
in a cluster. Claimed to be large, sweet and productive, succeed-
ing better on poor thaji on rich soil. At the Nebraska Experiment
Station the fruit has so far been too small to be of value.
Newman Thornless. Discovered by Joseph Newman, Ulster
county, New York. Canes of moderate growth, and thornless.
Fruit rather large, oval, of very good flavor. According to one
grower, it produces few thorns and fewer berries. It is placed in
this class on the statement of the Gardener's Monthly, Vol. II,
p. 281, that it belongs to the dewberry section. Perhaps it is a
Eafhbun. Sent out by A. F. Rathbun, of Smith's Mills, N. Y.
Said to be a good grower, hardy, of large size, fine flavor, juicy,
Sterling Thornless. A chance seedling, found on the farm of
John F. Sterling, Benton Harbor, Mich., in a field where Wilson
and Lawton had been growing. The canes resemble those of
Wilson in size, shape, and color, but are comparatively thornless.
The fruit is borne in cymose clusters, with long pedicels, like the
dewberries. Size medium to large, round, oblong; possessed of
large, rather loosely set, round drupes. Moderately firm, juicy,
and sweet, with a trace of dewberry flavor.
Wilson (Wilson's Early). This variety was discovered by John
Wilson, of Burlington, N. J., about 1854. The bush partakes of
the habit of both the low and the high blackberry, some of the
shoots being erect and branching, like the Lawton, and others
without branches, slender, and trailing on the ground like the low
blackberry, and indicating a hybrid between that and the high
bush species. The trailing shoots sometimes take root at the
tips. Wood downy. The fruit is very large, good specimens
measuring an inch and a quarter in length by about an inch in
breadth, while the largest are an inch and a half long. Firm,
somewhat irregular, tapering toward the apex ; grains mostly
large, but with some small ones mixed in. Flavor quite acid
until ripe, when it is rich and sprightly. Tilton's Journal of
Horticulture, 1869: 284. Has been a popular variety in New
Jersey. It demands close pruning in order to prevent overbear-
ing, and must be covered for winter protection in most sections.
Wilson Junior. -William Parry, in 1870, selected plants of
Dorchester and Wilson and planted them together, far away from
any others to mix with, trusting that the pollen of one kind might,
perhaps, mix with the other. In 1875 he selected some of the
best Wilson varieties for seed. After watching the other seedlings
for four years, the largest and best was selected, and this is
Wilson Junior. Gar. Month. 27: 208. The plant is so like its
parent, the Wilson, as to be indistinguishable from it.
VI. THE SAND BLACKBERRY
This is the species which grows in sandy land in
the southern Atlantic states. It is very little known in
cultivation, and there is little to induce its introduction,
for its formidable thorns brook no unwarranted fa-
miliarity. It is a low, stocky plant, with somewhat
wedge-shaped leaves, which are more or less downy
beneath. The fruit is borne in loose, leafy clusters,
being round, loose -grained, very black and of excellent
Topsy (Childs's Tree Blackberry). Canes stout, upright and
viciously thorny, but not hardy; fruit large, late, soft, of good,
but not high quality. Of no real value in cultivation.
RECOMMENDED VARIETIES OF BLACKBERRIES
Few varieties in the preceding lists are of particular
interest to the commercial grower. Many have long
since passed out of cultivation, while others are yet
too new to be depended upon. Among the most im-
portant are Agawam, Ancient Briton, Snyder and
Taylor, with Early Cluster and Early Harvest for early
varieties, though both of these are to be received with
caution unless known to succeed in the locality. Other
varieties, to be sure, are valuable, especially in certain
THE DEWBERRIES 241
regions, as the Dallas in Texas, 'the Wilson in New
Jersey and the Minnewaski in limited areas of New
B. THE DEWBERRIES
Like their near relatives, the blackberries, the dew-
berries are exceedingly variable in character, and many
different forms are found, both wild and in cultivation.
At least four different species of the genus Eubus are
commonly known as dewberries, three of which,
together with several botanical varieties, are found
in cultivation. Most of the cultivated varieties be-
long to the common eastern species, Rubus mllosus
(Rubus Canadensis of writers), or some of its bo-
tanical varieties, though in the Pacific states varie-
ties of the Coast dewberry, Rubus vitifolius, are more
The dewberries are distinguished from the blackber-
ries chiefly by their trailing habit of growth, their
early ripening, the character of the flower cluster, and
the method of propagation. The true dewberries bear
but few flowers in each cluster, the clusters are cymose,
the center flower opening first, and the flowers are few
and scattered, generally borne on long and ascending
pedicels, or stems, which tend to raise both flowers
and fruit well toward the end of the shoot. In the
blackberries the opposite of these characters is found.
The clusters are corymbose or racemose, the outer flow-
ers generally opening first, and the flowers are borne
in rather dense clusters, the pedicels being shorter, as
a rule, and standing more nearly at right angles to the
main stem of the cluster. The dewberries propagate
by means of tips, while the blackberries propagate by
suckers, a point of much practical importance, in cul-
tivation, at least. Despite these characters, there are
forms found, both wild and in cultivation, which are so
intermediate in character as to make it a matter of
considerable doubt as to whether they should be called
blackberries, dewberries or hybrids. These intermedi-
ate forms are of special interest, and illustrate in a
remarkable way the possibilities of admixture in the
genus. Many of them are very productive, in apparent
defiance of the pronouncements of science, which are
that hybrids should be deficient in fruitfulness.
Of the four species commonly known as dewberries,
Rubus hispidus, generally known as the running
swamp blackberry, although sometimes found on dry,
sandy ground also, may first be mentioned. It is a
delicate little plant, running on the ground, bearing
stiff, shining leaves, which frequently remain green all
winter. The flowers are few and small, and the fruit of
little or no value. It is simply as a wild form that we
need consider it, since there seems to be no reason for
attempting to cultivate it.
The most important species, from a horticultural
standpoint, is Rubus villosus (but universally known as
Rubus Canadensis) , or the Northern dewberry, since it
is from this species and its botanical varieties that most
of our cultivated sorts have come. This is the spe-
cies which most nearly approaches the common black-
berry in character of plant and fruit. Hybrids between
the two are common in regions where both abound.
DEWBERRY TYPES 243
The specific type of Rubus villosus is represented in
cultivation by Windom, Geer and Lucretia's Sister.
The sub- type known as variety roribaccus is repre-
sented by Lucretia ; the type designated as Rubus
invisus by Bartel, General Grant and Never Fail.
Rubus trivialis, or the Southern dewberry, is some-
what similar to Rubus villosus (R. CanadensisJ, but
distinguished from it by having the main canes thickly
beset with stout prickles, which are sometimes dark
purple in color. The leaves are firm, smooth and prac-
tically evergreen, usually bearing stout prickles on the
petioles and midribs. It is common throughout the
southern states, and often very productive, bearing at-
tractive and desirable fruit. Several varieties belonging
to this species have been introduced into cultivation,
among which are Manatee, Bauer, and Wilson's White.
None of these have become prominent.
Rubus vitifolius, or the Western dewberry, which is
the dewberry of the Pacific slope, is a very peculiar
species, bearing some slight resemblance to Rubus vil-
losus (R. CanadensisJ, especially in the young growth.
The canes are long and slender, however, and the
fruiting branches entirely different, the leaflets being
broad, coarsely toothed, light green and pubescent
both above and beneath, while the other parts are more
or less densely covered with straight bristles and glan-
dular tipped hairs. As explained in the botanical sec-
tion, this is an exceedingly variable species, and many
forms are likely to appear should it become prominent
in cultivation. The varieties known as Aughinbaugh,
Washington Belle, and Skagit Chief belong here. One
of the obstacles to the successful cultivation of this
species is the variable sexual character of its blos-
soms. If pistillate varieties are introduced, they
must of necessity be planted with perfect or staminate
plants to insure fruit production. It is doubtful, also,
whether even the perfect -flowered sorts would prove
fully self -fertile in a species with such a strong ten-
dency to separate sexual development. Until these
points are more fully determined, it appears to be a
wise precaution, if this species is to be planted at all,
to plant more than one variety together.
VII. THE NORTHERN DEWBERRIES
Eubus invisus, R. villosus and Varieties*
Bartel (Eubus invisus). This was the first named variety of
dewberry. It was brought to notice sometime in the 70 's by
Dr. Bartel, of Huey, Clinton county, 111. The plants are said
to have appeared in an old cornfield on his farm, and the large
size of the fruit led him to offer them for sale. The fruit is
described as large, rich, juicy, slightly acid, but not so sour as
the blackberry, and sufficiently solid to bear shipping well.
Colossal. A sort offered by L. L. May & Co., St. Paul, Minn.
Geer (Eubus villosus). A variety discovered by F. L. Wright,
in a wood-lot belonging to a Mrs. Geer, of Plainfield, Living-
ston Co., Michigan. It was first brought under cultivation in
1887. Said to be productive, though small in fruit.
General Grant (Eubus invisus}. Introduced by Charles A.
Green, of Rochester, N. Y., in 1885 or 1886. It came from M.
W. Broyles, somewhere in Tennessee. It possessed little value,
and never became prominent.
Latimer Seedling. Mentioned as on trial at the Geneva
(N. Y. ) Experiment Station. Received from J. W. Latimer,
*A full account of the eastern dewberries is given by Bailey in Bulletin 34
of the Cornell University Experimental Station, which is freely drawn upon in
making up the following list.
NORTHERN DEWBERRY VARIETIES 245
Lucretia (Rubus villosus var. roribaccus). This is the best
known of all the dewberries. Found by a soldier in the Civil War,
who, being stationed near Beverly, W. Va., iduring most of his
service, returned there after the war in search of a wife, and
acquired this dewberry as a perquisite to the plantation owned by
her. He transplanted some to his garden, and later sent plants
to his father in Ohio. These fell into the hands of B. F.
Albaugh, of Covington, Ohio, who named the variety and intro-
duced it to the trade. As sent out, this variety has been greatly
mixed, but the true type is a large fruit, productive, of good
quality, and gives satisfaction wherever the dewberry succeeds.
Lucretia' s Sister (Rubus villosus. ) Introduced by J. B. Treed -
way, of Brandt, Ohio, about 1886. Seems to possess little value.
Mammoth. Two varieties appear to have been sold under
this name, one being Rubus invisus and the other Rubus villosus.
The former Professor Bailey considers to be the same as, Bartel.
The other he has been unable to trace. Cornell Univ. Exp. Sta.
Bull. 34: 306.
Hayes (Mayes Hybrid, Austin's Improved). (Rubus villosus
var. roribaccus [?]). Found growing wild in Texas, on the farm
of John Mayes, some time about 1880, mingled with both the
native Texan, now called Dallas, and the common dewberry,
Rubus trivialis, and thought to have been a hybrid between the
two. This account of its origin would indicate that it belongs
among the southern dewberries, but herbarium specimens seem
to agree much more closely with the Lucretia type, and I there-
fore place it there provisionally. Mr. Mayes began cultivating
the variety, and found it to improve under cultivation. Later
it was sent out by J. W. Austin, of Pilot Point, Texas, as
Austin's Improved. The plant is trailing in habit when young,
but is said to become stronger and somewhat upright with age.
It propagates by tips or root -cuttings. The fruit is very large,
of fine appearance, and the plants are prolific. Young plants
at the Nebraska Experiment Station were much more promising
than those of Lucretia. Unfortunately these were destroyed by
the erection of a building in midsummer, so that their further
behavior cannot be reported upon. It seems to be one of the
most promising varieties now grown.
Never Fail (Rubus invisus). A variety mentioned by Bailey
(1. c.) as known to him only from a specimen and notes received
from F. L. Wright, Plainville, Mich., who obtained it from
central Indiana, though it is supposed to have originated in
central Ohio. Mr. Wright's statement regarding its qualities
is that "it never fails to produce an abundance of wood, but
always fails to produce fruit. I never had a perfect berry."
246 BL r SH-FRUITS
Sanford. A new variety mentioned as on trial at Geneva,
N. Y. Exp. Sta. Bull. 81: 585.
Windom (Cook's Hardy), (Riibus villosus). This variety was
first brought to public notice in 1887 by the Seedling Commis-
sion of the Minnesota State Horticultural Society. It was dis-
covered and brought into cultivation by Dewain Cook, of that
state, who found it to be hardy, productive, of fair size, and
VIII. THE SOUTHERN DEWBERRIES
Bauer. A variety sent out from Bauer's nursery, Judsonia,
Ark. It was said to be a vigorous grower, with fine fruit, but
Fairfax. Bailey refers this variety doubtfully to this group.
It was sent out by C. A. Uber, of Fairfax county, Virginia, who
found it wild on a stony, unproductive hillside in that county.
There the vine was vigorous but not rampant, and the berry large
and fine flavored, but when transferred to garden soil it developed
.excessive growth, with but few and imperfect berries, notwith-
standing its proximity to a number of varieties of blackberries,
which might have been expected to furnish sufficient pollen.
Manatee. Introduced by Reasoner Brothers, Oneco, Fla., in
1889. They report it to be only a selected strain of Rubus trivi-
alis, but say that it succeeds much better in that state than any
other variety, having proved very productive, ripening its fruit in
April, and being a good shipper. It is also reported as succeeding
White Deicberry. White dewberries appear to be well known
in Texas. One is mentioned in the Gardener's Monthly for 1877,
p. 174, as being known among the horticulturists of that state.
What is very likely the same thing was received from Colorado
county, of that state, and introduced by Samuel Wilson, of Penn-
sylvania, in 1890, under the name Mammoth White, or Wilson's
White. The natural inference is that the Albino White of Parry
and the Crystal White of Childs belong to the same type, and,
perhaps, have come from the same source, though I have no proof
of this. The variety introduced by Mr. Wilson is said by him to
be hardy in Pennsylvania, productive, of large size and excellent
WESTERN DEWBERRY VARIETIES 247
IX. THE WESTERN DEWBERRIES
Aughinbaugh. This is one of the best known varieties of the
Western dewberry, and is especially noteworthy as being the pa-
:ent of the Loganberry which has attracted so much attention of
late. It was propagated and sold by a man named Aughinbaugh,
about 1875. The blossoms are pistillate, which means that it
should be planted with other varieties to furnish pollen. The fruit
is said to be of excellent quality, but the plant is a weak grower
Humboldt.A writer in The Rural New-Yorker for 1896, p.
574, mentions this as having been selected from the wild black-
berry of California, and describes it as a rampant grower and
abundant bearer, ripening with Hansell raspberry, a month before
the Early Harvest blackberry. Fruit jet black, one and one -half
inches long by one inch thick, in selected specimens. Flavor
"marvelous, delightfully spicy, with a wild-wood aroma."
Loganberry (Rubus vitifolius X Idceus [?] ). This berry orig-
inated on the grounds of Judge J. H. Logan, of Santa Cruz,
California, in 1882, from seed planted by him the preceding year.
A full account of its origin, as given by Judge Logan himself,
appears in Bulletin 45 of the Rhode Island Experiment Station.
It seems that he had for some time been interested in raspber-
ries and blackberries, and had growing together the Texas Early
blackberry, the Aughinbaugh dewberry, and an old but unknown
variety of red raspberry, resembling the Red Antwerp. In August
of 1881 he planted seeds of the Aughinbaugh, expecting to get a
cross between it and the Texas Early. He raised about fifty
seedlings. One of these, the Loganberry, was very similar in
every respect to the parent, but much larger and a stronger grower.
At the time the seed was sown Judge Logan did not think it pos-
sible to cross the Aughinbaugh with the raspberry, but the char-
acters developed by this seedling have convinced him that it is
almost certainly a "hybrid between them. *One remarkable fact
stated by him is that out of thousands of plants grown from seeds
of this variety, not one has ever shown, so far as he is aware,
any of the distinct characteristics of either parent, not one has
gone back to the original type of either the raspberry or the
Aughinbaugh, though most of them are inferior to the original
plant. He also states that he has never succeeded in crossing the
Loganberry with either of its parents, nor with seedling crosses
between the Aughinbaugh 'and the Texas blackberry, Fig. 31 is
used, by permission, from Bull. 45 of the R. I. Exp. Sta.
In the characters of the plant, and in the shape and conforma-
tion of the fruit the variety is essentially like the Aughinbaugh,
propagating entirely by tips, though by artificial methods they
may be grown from hard wood cuttings. The core remains with
the fruit, like the blackberry, its principal resemblance to the
Fig. 31. The Loganberry.
raspberry being in color and flavor, although the dewberry dom-
inates in flavor. Judge Logan says : " As to the fact of the plant
being a hybrid between the blackberry and the raspberry, of
course there is no absolute proof. The color, with the distinct
raspberry flavor of the fruit, and the circumstances under which it
originated, I think render the fact of such a cross almost cer-
The other plants in this lot of seedlings Judge Logan thinks to
have been crosses between the Aughinbaugh and the Texas, as he
WESTERN DEWBERRY VARIETIES 249
expected, though they resemble the Aughinbaugh in most of their
characteristics. These he also considers valuable, the fruit ripen-
ing early, being shining black and very long, some specimens
having measured as much as two and one -fourth inches. The
Loganberry appears to promise well in the Eastern states. In
Rhode Island it passed the winter perfectly when covered, though
those left uncovered were killed. The fruit ripened with the
raspberry and, while not high flavored, was improved by cooking,
and made a desirable sauce. The plant propagates slowly.
Mammoth. The American Agriculturist, 1897, p. 494, prints a
picture of this fruit, natural size, in which individual berries are
two and one-fourth inches long and about an inch wide; and it
has the following account: "The Mammoth blackberry was orig-
inated by Judge J. H. Logan, the originator of the now famous
Loganberry, descriptions and illustrations of which have appeared
in former numbers of this journal. Judge Logan informs us that
the Mammoth is a cross between the wild blackberry of California
(Rubus ursinus)* and the Texas Early, the former a species of the
dewberry type, while the latter has more the shrubby habit of the
high blackberry. The most remarkable feature about this new
blackberry is that while the fruits of both parents are below
medium in size, a cross between the two should produce berries of
the largest size, specimens measuring two and three-eighths inches
in length being not unusual. When fully ripe, the berries are
sweet and of excellent flavor, and for cooking or canning they are
unrivaled. Unlike the high blackberry, the Mammoth does not
throw up sprouts from its roots, and cannot be propagated from
root -cuttings. Instead, its canes run from twenty-five to thirty
feet in one season, and strike roots at their ends or tips, like
Black -cap raspberries. So far this interesting novelty has not
been sufficiently tried outside of its original locality to establish
its value for general cultivation, the results of which are eagerly
looked for by progressive fruit-growers."
Primus. A variety produced by Luther Burbank, of Santa
Rosa, California, and said by him to be a cross between Eubus
vitifolius and R. cratcegifolius. The plant is said to be a strong
grower and productive, having in part the trailing habit of the
pistillate parent. It is thickly covered with short, blunt prickles,
and propagates by tips, though with some difficulty. Fruit large,
long, blunt, conical or oval, juicy, subacid, aromatic, resembling
the raspberry in flavor, adhering to the core and ripening with the
Hansell raspberry. A colored plate, together with a description,
appears in the report of the United States Pomologist for 1892.
250 B USH-FR UITS
Skagit Chief. A variety sent out from the state of Washing-
ton in 1891.
Washington Belle. Sent out from the state of Washington with
the Skagit Chief. Neither variety appears to have attracted much
attention in the Eastern states. As observed by the writer at
Cornell, while the plants were still young they appeared to pos-
sess the imperfect blossoms characteristic of this species in many
cases, which would naturally tend to interfere with their success.
RECOMMENDED VARIETIES OF DEWBERRIES
Apparently but three varieties need be mentioned
here, the Lucre tia for the Eastern states, the Mayes for
the West and Southwest, and the Loganberry for the
Pacific Coast. How far these will succeed in the other