come from England. Adaptability to climate, with
consequent resistance to disease, and quality of the
fruit, are in favor of American species. We have
given the gooseberry too little attention, and much of
that has been on the wrong basis in trying to develop
seedlings of the English varieties.
The gooseberry as
now grown is objectionable on account of its thorns.
Yet there are forms comparatively free from these
uncomfortable additions, and careful, persuasive treat-
ment ought to induce the plants to relinquish them
altogether. An English variety has been recently
introduced which is said to be thornless. The fruit
of our species is, in most cases, perfectly smooth,
while that of the English gooseberry is roughly
pubescent, if not hairy or prickly also.
There are at least three other species, Ribes Cynos-
bati, R. rotundifolium and R. gracile, which might well
receive attention in the way of selection and crossing,
with a view to future development. All have good
points to recommend them. The fruit of Ribes Cynos-
bati is commonly much larger than that of R. oxya,-
VARIETIES OF GOOSEBERRIES 399
canthoides, in the wild state, and while generally
prickly, is often smooth. The fruit of R. rotundi-
folium is small but agreeable, and the plants are very
productive, while R. gracile is found all over the Plains,
and is, therefore, well adapted to that region.
Chiefly fiibes oxyacanthoides
The American varieties have vigor, hardiness, ease
of propagation, and superior quality to recommend
them, being inferior only in size, which must steadily
improve as selection and breeding go on.
Apex. A variety from Oregon. Said to be a native seedling,
though somewhat resembling the European type in growth and
general appearance. T. T. Lyon, Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. 118:23.
Champion, Said to have originated with O. Dickinson, Salem,
Oregon. Plant upright, prolific. Fruit large, uniform, transparent,
with tender skin. Said to endure neglect well, and to be an excel-
lent shipper. Popular in Indiana.
Downing. The great American gooseberry. More widely grown
and more generally prized than any other known sort. Originated
by Charles Downing at Newburg, N. Y., from seed of the Hough -
ton. Pure seedlings of this variety grown at the Geneva (N. Y.)
Experiment Station, while not generally closely resembling the
parent, seem, in some cases, to indicate a mixture of foreign blood,
so that Professor Beach is led to consider this a hybrid between
the American and European gooseberry. Downing describes it as
upright, vigorous and productive. Fruit somewhat larger than
Houghton, roundish oval, whitish green, with the rib-veins dis-
tinct. Skin smooth ; flesh rather soft, juicy, very good. Excel-
lent for family use. It has seldom mildewed in the United States,
and succeeds over a wide area. Houghton is said to be sometimes
sold for this variety because more easily propagated. The fruit
must be picked very soon after reaching full size, for it ripens
quickly and becomes too soft for handling or shipment. In quality
it is superior to the European varieties, and surpassed by few, if
any, native sorts,
Excelsior. Received at the Geneva (N. Y.) Experiment Station
from J. H. Haynes, of Delphi, Indiana, with whom it originated.
A strong grower ; fruit light green, roundish, smooth.
Hobbs Seedling. A variety mentioned by Downing. Thought
to have been originated by O. J. Hobbs, of Randolph, Pa. De-
scribed as light pale green, roundish, slightly oval, of medium
firmness, a good keeper, and nearly one-half larger than Hough-
Houghton. Grown from seed in 1833 by Abel Houghton, of
Lynn, Mass., who planted Crown Bob, White Smith, White Rock
and Red Champion, with a native plant from the woods in the cen-
ter. One plant only was saved, the Houghton. This was the first
American variety introduced, and is still one of the best flavored,
most hardy and productive, though too small. It is generally re-
garded as a pure native, but the account of its origin, and experi-
ments made at Geneva, N Y. , by growing seedlings from two of
its seedlings, Smith and Downing, indicate that it is a hybrid be-
tween the American and European species. The bush is rather
slender and drooping in habit. The fruit small, handsome, dark
red, with a whitish bloom, thin skinned, smooth, juicy, sweet, and
of excellent quality.
Hudson. Raised by Joseph H. Ricketts, and said to be of fine
quality, larger than Downing, free from mildew. Its style of
growth and freedom from mildew led him to think it was an
American or a cross-bred variety. Foliage thick and glossy, but
liable to drop some before the fruit is past. Hard to propagate.
Gar. Month. 1880:303.
Jewett. Received at the United States Division of Pomology
from George H. Andrews, Clarkson, N. Y. A chance seedling
found in a pasture. Described as large, oblong, whitish green,
changing to blotched and stippled red. Seeds numerous, large,
light brown. Flesh purplish. Pulp moderately firm, juicy, sub-
acid, rich ; season early. Report of the United States Pomologist
Orange (Engle's Yellow?). Said to ripen seven to ten days
earlier than other sorts. Described as a strong grower on almost
any soil, but needs heavy pruning. A good bearer. Fruit about
the size of Houghton, rich golden yellow, fine flavored and very
Pale Red (American Red, American Seedling, Robert's Sweet-
water, Ohio Seedling, Dutch Joe, Ohio Prolific, St Clair [Ameri-
can] Cluster.) A variety of unknown origin which has long been
in cultivation. Frequently known as Cluster or American Cluster.
It appears to be of pure Ribes oxyacantkoides parentage. The
bush is a strong grower, with slender wood, very productive.
AMERICAN GOOSEBERRIES 401
Fruit small or medium, darker in color than Houghton, tender,
sweet and good. One of the oldest cultivated varieties.
Pearl. Originated with Professor William Saunders, of Lon-
don, Ont., who gives its parentage as Downing crossed with an
English variety known as Aston's Seedling. This latter name,
however, appears to be a synonym of Bed Warrington. The
variety resembles Downing so closely, both in bush and fruit, as
to be practically indistinguishable, although at Geneva, N. Y., it
has proved less productive.
Red Jacket. A variety originated more than twenty years ago
by Professor William Saunders, of London, Ont. Named and
introduced by George S. Josselyn, of Fredonia, N. Y. , who thinks
that it was a seedling of Houghton crossed by Red Warrington,
which would make it a hybrid between Eibes oxyacanthoides and
Eibes Grossularia. It is a strong grower and productive, somewhat
larger and a better shipper than the Pearl, though not quite so
good a cropper, The fruit is large, roundish or elongated, reddish
green shading into red, smooth, quite transparent when ripe ; skin
rather tender. Flesh juicy, rich, fragrant, of good quality.
Smith. Originated by Dr. Smith, of Windsor, Vt., from seed
of the Houghton. Professor Beach, of Geneva, N. Y., says* that,
like that variety, it shows indications of being a hybrid between
the American and European species. Seedlings of Smith crossed
with Pale Red, which is thought to be a pure American variety,
have occasionally shown marked European characteristics, while
none of the pure seedlings of Pale Red have ever given such
indications . It is described as a vigorous grower, with somewhat
curving canes and slender branches. Foliage firmer and more
leathery than that of Downing, with a more glossy surface. Fruit
dull, pale green, sometimes spotted with red, and having a light
bloom. Skin smooth, thin. Pulp sweet and good.
Strubler. Seedlings originated by Phil. Strubler, of Naperville r
111., have been sent out under this name, with different numbers
attached. Nearly all of them are seedlings of Downing or Smith.
They are described by Professor Beach, in Bull. 1 14 of the Geneva
(N. Y.) Experiment Station, and have also been mentioned in re-
ports of the United States Pomologist.
Tree. A variety mentioned by T. T. Lyon, in Mich. Exp. Sta.
Bull. 118 : 23, as apparently a native. Vigorous, healthy, with red
Victoria. Mentioned in the Gardener's Monthly for 1870, p.
156, as a small, smooth variety. Thorns not numerous, but sharp,
402 B USH-FR U ITS
inclined to bend over. This description would seem to indicate
an American variety.
HYBRIDS OR UNCLASSED VARIETIES
Cedar Hill. A variety mentioned in the report of the U. S.
Pomologist for 1891, p. 394, as received from Dr. A. W. Thornton,
West Ferndale, Washington, with whom it originated. Described
as a large, oval berry, with long, adhering flower parts, and a few
scattering prickles. Skin thin. Pulp quite rich. Said by its
originator to be an upright grower, of good size, very prolific, as
much so as Champion or Houghton. Perfectly mildew proof in
Washington. The clause "with long, adherent flower parts, and a
few scattering prickles" would seem to indicate that this may be a
seedling of some western species.
Crystal. Received at the Geneva (N. Y.) Experiment Station
from J. M. Ogle, of Puyallup, Wash. Professor Beach says* that
this variety appears to be a hybrid between the European goose-
berry and some American species, possibly Ribes Cynosbati, its
European parentage being indicated by the general appearance
and character of the fruit, which is pubescent, like the European
varieties. Its canes, however, are tall and slender, and the leaves
thin, the buds, too, being shorter than those of Ribes Grossularia.
He reports it as the most productive variety on their grounds dur-
ing a period of four years, but hardly desirable, owing to its dull
green color and poor flavor. The fruit is slightly larger than
Downing, but rather soft when ripe.
Hale Golden. Mentioned, in The Rural New-Yorker, 1897, p.
646, as on trial at the Rural grounds.
Mountain. A variety which originated with the Shakers, of
Lebanon, N. Y. Bush tall and productive, with slender, sprawl-
ing branches, which need close pruning. Fruit dull, brownish
purple, somewhat larger than Downing, oblong, smooth, with a
thick skin, moderately juicy and sweet. Professor S. A. Beach
sayst that this variety is of special interest, as being the only
known representative of Ribes Cynosbati which has found its way
into cultivation, being clearly a hybrid between this and a Euro-
pean species. The long, slender, solitary spines, the tall canes,
sprawling branches, dull brown purplish color of the fruit, and
the very dark green pulp are like Cynosbati, as are also the beauti-
ful brown and red color of its autumn foliage which is quite unlike
the yellow or occasional brown tints of the European kinds. The
*Geneva (N. Y.) Exp. Sta. Bull. 114:16.
fGeneva (N. Y.) Exp. Sta. Bull. 114:18.
ENGLISH GOOSEBERRIES 403
fruit is very large for an American variety, and its thick, smooth
skin indicates foreign parentage, the fruit of Cynosbati having a
thin skin usually beset with prickles. The glossy upper surface,
and somewhat leathery texture of the foliage, and comparative
short, thick, buds are also inherited from the European parent,
Cynosbati having slender buds, with soft, pubescent leaves, neither
leathery nor glossy.
Newell Seedling. A variety mentioned in the Report of the
Illinois Horticulture Society for 1890, p. 59, as on exhibition in a
preserving solution. Said to be large, of fine appearance, hardy,
and free from mildew. Nothing is given which would indicate its
Oregon Jumbo. A variety offered by the J. T. Lovett Company,
of New Jersey, and described as "monstrous, and excelling all
others. Superb in appearance and flavor. Vigorous, productive,
hardy, and reliable. Fruit smooth, pale green, of high quality."
This description does not make clear its parentage.
Stein. Mentioned in The Rural New-Yorker, 1897, p. 646, as " a
cross between Houghton and an old German variety."
The subjoined list includes only those English va-
rieties which are, or have been, most prominently
known in the United States, following chiefly those
which are mentioned by Professor S. A. Beach, of
the Geneva (N. Y.) Experiment Station, hi his Bull-
etin No. 114, as most promising. Gooseberries, and
especially the English varieties, have received much
attention at this station. The opinions of Professor
Beach are, therefore, worthy of especial considera-
tion. Lindley's "Guide to the Orchard," published in
1830, enumerates nearly one thousand varieties, and
many more have been produced since then. Some of
these have found their way across the water and have
appeared in the United States, usually only to sue-
cunib to that inveterate enemy, mildew, and pass into
oblivion. To attempt to describe all these varieties
would be as futile as useless.
Blucher. Grown at the Geneva (N. Y.) Experiment Station,
and described as very large, dark red, oblong or roundish oblong,
nearly smooth,* with thin skin, sweet, of very good flavor. Bush
Fig. 72. Chautauqua gooseberry.
a strong grower, apparently productive, with but little mildew.
Worthy of trial.
Chautauqua. Introduced by Lewis Roesch of Fredonia, N. Y.,
being a chance seedling found in a garden in Dunkirk, N. Y.
Said to be a vigorous grower and generally healthy, though some-
times mildewing. Fruit large, roundish oblong, smooth, pale
green, of best quality. A promising variety for home use, though
somewhat lacking in productiveness (Fig. 72).
*The term "smooth," as used in describing English gooseberries, should be
understood to mean free from hairs, for the skin of these varieties has a
roughness to the touch quite different from that of the American varieties.
Columbus. Introduced by Ellwanger & Barry, of Rochester,
N. Y. A strong grower, comparatively free from mildew. Fruit
large, oblong or roundish oblong, white or greenish yellow, sweet,
of best quality. Possibly the same as Triumph (Fig. 73).
Crown Bob. A variety long known in England as desirable
either for home use or market. Bush dwarfish, but vigorous and
productive. Fruit medium to large, nearly round, dark red,
nearly smooth, almost sweet, of good quality, similar to Industry
in color, but somewhat smaller ; quite subject to mildew, less
vigorous and less productive than Industry. It was figured in
Volume I of the Horticulturist, p. 449.
Dominion. Received at the Geneva (N. Y.) Experiment Sta-
tion from E. C. Pierson of Waterloo, N. Y. Described as vigor-
ous and promising. Fruit large, pale greenish white, nearly
transparent, with a thin skin for fruit of this class, sweet, and
of good quality.
Excellent. Promising at the Geneva (N. Y.) Experiment Sta-
tion. A strong grower, somewhat subject to mildew. Fruit
medium to large, round and nearly smooth, light red, sweet,
Frontenac. Received at the Geneva (N. Y.) Experiment Sta-
tion from H. S. Anderson, of Union Springs,
N. Y. Said to be a strong grower. Fruit
large, oblong, smooth, pale green, sweet,
Gracilla. Mentioned in The Rural New-
Yorker, 1897, p. 646, as a promising variety
of the English type received from L. H.
Hoysradt, Pine Plains, N. Y., in the spring
Hedgehog (Improved Early). A vigorous
grower, productive, comparatively free from
mildew. Fruit below medium size, nearly
round, somewhat hairy, yellowish green,
sweet, of fair quality.
Huntsman. Said to be a strong grower,
and apparently productive, comparatively
Pig. 74. Industry. ^ ^ J^* Fruit m ' ediui / to ^
oblong, smooth, pale green, sweet, good.
Industry (Whinham's Industry). One of the best known and
generally successful European varieties. Vigorous, productive,
somewhat subject to mildew. Fruit medium to large, varying
from pear shape to roundish oblong, smooth, or with very few
minute prickles, dark red, mild subacid or sweet, of good flavor.
Said to be very hard to propagate in the United States. George
S. Josselyn says:* "All the Industry plants I have ever seen were
started in Europe." This, he thinks, is a strong indication that
it is not adapted to our climate. (Fig. 74.)
Jolly Angler. Vigorous, and apparently productive. Fruit
medium to large, oblong or roundish oblong, smooth, light green,
*The Rural New-Yorker, 1896:575.
ENGLISH GOOSEBERRIES 407
Keepsake. A strong grower, promising to be productive, some-
what subject to mildew. Fruit medium or above, nearly round,
smooth, greenish white, sweet or nearly so, very good.
Lady Popham. A moderate grower, productive, comparatively
free from mildew. Fruit medium to large, oblong, smooth, yellow,
very sweet, good. A good variety for exhibition purposes.
Lancashire Lad. A strong grower, comparatively free from
mildew. Fruit medium to large, nearly round, dark red, almost
wine color, slightly hairy, of good quality, subacid or nearly sweet.
Leveller. A moderate grower, mildewing but slightly, and
promising to be productive. Fruit medium to large, oblong,
smooth, yellowish, slightly acid, good.
Lord eaconsfield.A good grower, promising to be productive,
somewhat subject to mildew. Fruit below medium size, nearly
round, green, smooth, sweet and good.
Matchless. A strong grower, promising to be productive, mil-
dewing but slightly. Fruit large, oblong, green, slightly hairy,
sweet, very good.
Portage. A variety received at the United States Division of
Pomology from A. H. House, Mantua Station, Ohio. Described in
the report for 1891, p. 395. Also described, and illustrated by a
colored plate, in the report for 1894. Said to be a chance seedling
found in 1874. Fruit solitary, evenly distributed, large to. very
large, oblong oval ; surface moderately smooth, dull, slightly
downy, with an occasional prickle. Color yellowish green, with
bronze dots near stem, and a long suture on some specimens.
Flesh translucent, greenish, quite firm ; pulp melting, moderately
juicy. A good shipper. Flavor mild subacid, rich, quality good.
Puyallup (Puyallup Mammoth). The original bush is said to
have been dug in 1881, at an old Indian camp on the bank of the
Puyallup Eiver, one mile below the town of that name, by W. M.
Lee and his wife, of Tacoma, Wash. Introduced by J. M. Ogle, in
1887. Said to be a fairly strong grower, rather late in ripening.
Fruit large, pale green, smooth, sweet, of good quality. Men-
tioned in the Report of the U. S. Pomologist for 1891, p. 395, as
apparently identical with Triumph, but Prefessor Beach considers
this an error.
Queen of the Whites. A strong grower, comparatively free from
mildew. Fruit of medium size, nearly round, smooth, pale yellow-
ish green, sweet, good.
Bed Champagne. A strong grower, comparatively free from
mildew. Fruit small to medium, nearly round, slightly hairy,
dark red, sweet, and good.' This variety was recommended by the
American Pomological Society in 1850.
Red Jacket. An English variety, entirely distinct from the
American Red Jacket. Not a strong grower, but promising to be
productive and comparatively free from mildew. Fruit large to
very large, and often narrowed toward the stem.
Red Warrington (Aston Seedling). A strong grower, compara-
tively free from mildew. Fruit medium to large, oblong, delicate
pale red, hairy, sweet, of best quality. Recommended by the
American Pomological Society in 1850. Also mentioned in the
Horticulturist, Vol. II, p. 341, as the best kind, both in Canada and
in England. Said to ripen late and to hang long on the bushes
Smiling Beauty. A good grower. Fruit medium to large,
nearly round, greenish yellow, sweet, of best quality.
Spineless. Recently introduced in the United States, by C.
H. Joosten, of New York City. It is figured in the Gardener's
Chronicle for July 27, 1895, which says: "They are spineless
varieties obtained from seed. The first spineless gooseberry,
according to the Revue Horticole, 1892:180, was obtained as a
chance seedling by M. Billard about 1860. About 1884, M. Ed.
Lefort sowed the seeds of this variety, from which he obtained a
race of spineless varieties, several of which are described in the
Revue Horticole, as above cited. The variety we figure is a dwarf
form, very productive, and with fruit of good flavor. It is the
form described and figured by M. Carriere and Madame Edouard
Lefort. The varieties are grafted upon Riles aureum, but the
scions soon become free." Whether this desirable novelty will
achieve any degree of success in the United States remains to be
Stockwell. A moderate grower. Fruit medium to large, oblong,
smooth, light green, sweet, good.
Succeed. A fair grower, promising to be productive, and com-
paratively free from mildew. Fruit medium to large, oblong,
smooth, yellowish green, sweet, good.
Sulphur (Early Sulphur). A strong grower, comparatively free
from mildew. Fruit of medium size, round, nearly smooth, fine
yellow color, sweet, good. Placed on the list of the American
Pomological Society in 1850.
Sunset. A strong grower, comparatively free from mildew.
Fruit medium to large, oblong, nearly smooth, yellowish green,
sweet, of best quality.
Tally Ho. A strong grower, comparatively free from mildew.
Fruit medium to large, pear-shaped, pale green, nearly smooth,
Thumper. A. moderate grower, promising to be very produc-
tive. Fruit medium to large, oblong, smooth, light green, sweet,
Triumph. A strong grower, comparatively free from mildew,
productive. Fruit large, oblong or roundish, pale yellow, sweet,
smooth, good. This variety has received strong commendation
from various sources. Mentioned at the meeting of the Western
New York Horticultural Society in 1892, as very promising, a
stronger grower than Industry and equally productive. In the
Fig. 75. Whitesmith.
report of the American Pomological Society for 1889, p. 120, E.
Williams says that it is a great improvement on any other variety
that will grow in our climate.
Wellington Glory. The most productive European gooseberry
grown at the Geneva (N. Y.) Experiment Station. A strong
grower, comparatively free from mildew. Fruit attractive in ap-
pearance, medium to large, oblong, smooth, with slight bloom,
pale yellow, nearly white, sweet, of very good quality.
White Eagle. Bush a moderate grower, promising to be pro-
ductive. Fruit medium to large, oblong, pear-shaped, smooth,
greenish white, sweet, good. This variety was exhibited before
the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society in 1853.
Whitesmith ( Woodward's,). A strong grower, somewhat sub-
ject to mildew, productive. Fruit medium to large, nearly round,
smooth. Skin thin and tender for an English sort, pale yellowish
green. Pulp sweet, very good. This variety has been long known
in the United States. It was recommended both by the New York
Agricultural Society and the American Pomological Society in
1850. It was figured in the Horticulturist, Vol. I, p. 448, where it
is said to be quite as good among the whites as Crown Bob among
the reds (Fig. 75).
ENGLISH VARIETIES MENTIONED, BUT LITTLE KNOWN
IN THE UNITED STATES
The following varieties, though for the most part
little known in the United States, have received men-
tion in American literature, and have doubtless all
been grown here at one time or another. Both Down-
ing and Fuller mention additional varieties of promise
which had apparently not been tried on this side the
water. No doubt others, not included in this or the
preceding list, have also been brought to America
without attracting general attention:
B. Atlas (Hort. 2:410), Bendelon (Mich. Exp. Sta. Bull. 118:
22), Bennet's Eureka (Kept. U. S. Pomologist, 1891:394), Bobby
(on sale by Fred. E. Young, Eochester, N. Y. ), Companion (Hort.
1854:142), Conqueror (Fuller, Small-Fruit Culturist, p. 223), Dr.
Woolley (for sale by Fred. E. Young, Rochester, N. Y.), Early
Kent (Gar. Month. 1875:207), Echo (Hort, 1854:142), Green
Globe (Fuller), Green Willow (Hort. 1854:142), Hunt's Tawny
(Fuller), Irish (E. P. Powell's best gooseberry for 60 years. Gar.
and For. 7:278), Jolly Printer (Hort. 2:410), Large Crystal
(Fuller), Late Emerald (Gar. Month. 1877: 275. Eoe, Success
with Small Fruits), Bed Walnut (Fuller), Roe's Seedling (Gar.
Month. 1876:240. 1877:274), Royal George (Fuller), Royal Sov-
ereign (Fuller), Westerman's Favorite (Gar. Month. 1869:271),
White Dutch (Fuller), White Walnut (Fuller), Yellow Amber
(Recommended by B. G. Smith as one of four best English