varieties. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rept. 1883: [Parti] 125).
Described by Downing, Fruits and Fruit Trees of America.
Bonny Lass, Bright Venus, British Crown, Bunker Hill, Cheshire
Lass, Duck Wing, Early Green Hairy, Glenton Green, Golden
Drop, Golden Fleece, Golden Gourd, Green Gage (Amer. Pom. Soc.
List, 1850; Hov. Mag. 16:305; Fuller), Green Laurel (Amer. Pom.
Soc. List, 1850; Hov. Mag. 16:305), Green Ocean, Green Prolific,
Green Walnut (Fuller; recommended by N. Y. Agr. Soc.; also
by Amer. Pom. Soc. in 1850), Greenwood, Heart of Oak, Jolly
Tar, Keen Seedling, Lady of the Manor (Hov. Mag. 16: 427), Miss
Bold, Rifleman, Roaring Lion ( exhibited before the Massachusetts
and Buffalo Horticultural Societies in 1852, and before the Penn-
sylvania Horticultural Society in 1853 ; Hov. Mag. 1852:41, 519.
1853:378), Rockwood, Sheba Queen (Hov. Mag. 16:427), Top
Sawyer, Viper, White Honey, White Lion, Yellow Ball, Yellow
Grown at the Geneva (N. Y.) Experiment Station. Described in Bul-
letin 114. Alderman, Alice, Antagonist, Apology, Auburn (Mich.
Exp. Sta. Bull. 118:22), Beauty, Berry Early Kent, Bollin Hall,
British Queen, Briton, Broom Girl, Bull Dog, Bury Lane, Candi-
date, Careless, Catherine, Cheerful, Clayton, Countess of Ams-
dale, Crank, Cremore, Criterion, Cypress, Dagwell No. 1, Dan's
Mistake, Diadem, Drill, Duck Wing, Duke of Sutherland, Duster,
Faithful, Falstaff, Fascination, Flextonia, Flora, Forester, Fo-
worius, Foxhunter, Freedom, Galopin, Garibaldi, General, George
Ridley, Gipsy Queen, Golborne, Golden Drop, Golden Prolific
(Pop. Gar. 4:166), Governor, Great Rock, Greenock, Green Wal-
nut (Fuller; recommended by N. Y. Agr. Soc.; also by Amer.
Pom. Soc. in 1850), Gretna Green, Harriet, Helpmate, Hereof the
Nile, Highlander, High Sheriff, Hit or Miss, Hue and Cry, Iron-
monger (Fuller; Amer. Pom. Soc. List 1850; Hov. Mag. 16:305),
Italy, Jem Mace, Jerry, Jessie, John Anderson, John Hall, Jolly
Sailor, Keen Seedling, King of Triumphs, Lady Houghton, Lady
Stanley, Largo, Lavinia, Leader, Leviathan, Lion's Provider, Liz-
zard, London, Long Barney, Lord Leigh, Lord Rancliffe, Lord
Scarborough, Lowton, Major Hibbert, Marlboro, Mary Ann, Miss
Chester, Mitchell, Mitre, Monarch, Monument, Mount Pleasant,
Mrs. Bowcock, Mrs. Whittaker, Nailor, Nancy, Napoleon le Grand,
Nottingham, Overseer, Overall, Peru, Peto, Pilot, Plowboy, Post-
man, President, Pretender, Priscilla, Queen Anne, Queen of Tri-
umphs, Queen Victoria, Red Robin, Ringer, Roaring Lion (exhib-
ited before the Massachusetts and Buffalo Horticultural Societies
in 1852, and before the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society in 1853;
Hov. May. 1852:41, 5191853:378), Rough Red, Rover, Rumbul-
lion, Shiner, Sir George Brown, Slaughterman, Snowdrop, Speed-
well, Sportsman, Stella, Telegraph, Thatcher, Thomas Williams,
Thompson Seedling, Tichborne, Transparent, Try Me Oh, Unity,
Veteran, Village Green, Viper, Visit, Wakeful, Watson, Weather-
cock, White Hare, William Watson, Wonderful, Yaxley Hero.
The Downing is the one gooseberry to be generally
recommended at the present time. Houghton may be
able to endure more trying conditions, and is often more
productive, but is smaller.
The English varieties are to be recommended only to
those who are willing to inaugurate a vigorous spraying
campaign against the mildew. To such the' Industry,
Wellington Glory, Columbus and Chautauqua are
worthy of consideration.
Beach makes the following summary remarks about
varieties of gooseberries:* "So far as we are able to
judge at present, Industry, Crown Bob and Lancashire
Lad are among the best of the large European kinds to
grow for marketing green fruit. Wellington Glory has
made an excellent record here, and Whitesmith is also
generally considered good and productive, but has not
done as well as Wellington Glory. Among the Ameri-
can-grown seedlings of the European class which have
been fruited here, Dominion and Triumph deserve
especial mention as worthy of extended trial. The best
of the American class of gooseberries are unexcelled in
flavor, quality, hardiness and productiveness. They do
not have the objectionable thick, tough skin which is
common to varieties of the European class, but are
inferior to them in size. Downing has long been con-
sidered the standard of excellence in the American
class. Among the recently introduced varieties of this
*Bull. 114, N. Y. State Exp. Sta.
ORNAMENTAL GROSELLJZS 413
class, the American Red Jacket, Champion and Pearl
deserve especial mention."
ORNAMENTAL CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES
The best known species in this role is the Flowering
Currant, Ribes aureum (known also as R . fragrans) ,
so common in eastern gardens. This is a most attrac^
tive plant early in spring. It forms a graceful, droop-
ing shrub, well adapted to masses or groups. In the
early months of summer few plants are more attractive
than this, regardless of its bloom, for its foliage is
bright and glossy, and the form of the plant perfect.
Yet before the middle of August its leaves are mostly
gone. Were it not for this defect, few plants would
deserve a higher rank for ornament.
The most showy plant of the genus is the Fuchsia -
flowered Gooseberry, Ribes speciosum, of the Pacific
coast. Its flowers are long, bright red and showy, and
its foliage small, firm and glossy. Whether good
in habit of plant or not, I do not know, nor whether it
will thrive well outside the clime of its choice, but its
flowers are certainly more attractive than those of many
plants far more widely grown for the beauty of their
A plant which has received much more attention for
its flowering qualities is the Eed- flowered Currant,
Ribes sanguineum. It has been frequently grown both
in the United States and in Europe, and seems to be
everywhere prized. 'The flowers are rose- colored or
reddish purple, borne in long, leafless racemes
produced in great profusion. Unfortunately, it is
not entirely hardy in the northern states, needing some
protection, which the beauty of its bloom will well
A hardier plant is the hybrid between the preceding
species, and Ribes aureum, which is commonly known
under the name Ribes Gordonianum. This is not so
hardy as Ribes aureum, but will stand more exposure
than Ribes sanguineum. It is intermediate in character
between the two parents, resembling R. sanguineum in
shape of flower, though the flowers are lighter in color
and nearly odorless, while the character of bush is
more like R. aureum. Although not a common plant,
it has been well known, both here and abroad, and fre-
quently mentioned in horticultural literature.
Several species of the Menziesii group have large,
attractive flowers, particularly R. amictum, and R. Cali-
fornicum ; also, R. Lobbii. Whether they would prove
attractive in habit of plant and sufficiently well adapted
to cultivation to give them value, I am unable to say.
The common gooseberries may well play a part in
systematic ornamental planting for the production of
easy and graceful spring effects. Were it not for the
habit of early losing their leaves, there would be few
plants more useful. R. oxyacanthoides and R. gracile
are especially desirable.
The native black currant, Ribes Americanum, also
forms a pretty and graceful shrub, and its flowers are
large enough to add to its beauty.
INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE GEOSELLES
Like all other economic plants, the groselles are
subject to attack from insects of divers character,
appearance, and habits. Some only take a passing
bite, like the schoolboy who devours beech leaves,
"sweetbrier," birch, etc., to appease his ceaseless crav-
ings in the long hours from meal to meal. Others,
indifferently feeding upon whatever plant is available,
may at times eat more than we wish. Still others, on
evil bent, assiduously seek out our cherished bushes
and settle down to a steady diet of groselles with all
the persistence characteristic of their race. The list
immediately following comprises those most likely to
work serious injury.
THE LEADING PESTS
THE FOUR- LINED LEAF-BUG
Pcecilocapsus lineatus (Fabr.). -Order Hemiptera. Family Capsidse.
Lintner, N. Y. Rep. 1: 271. Saunders, Ins. Inj. to Fruits, 350 (2nd edition).
Cook, Bull. Mich. Exp. Sta. 76 : 10. Slingerland, Bull. Cornell Exp.
Sta. 58 : 207-239. Pcedlocapsus 4-vittatus (Say). Riley, Bull, U. S. Div.
Ent. 13:7. Webster, Bull. U. S. Div. Ent. 13 :54. For complete synon-
ymy, see Slingerland, 1. c.
This is a native insect which was first described by Fabricius
in 1798. It came into notice as injurious to dahlias, currants and
other plants seon after the middle of the present century, and has
never ceased its evil ways fro'm that day to this. Its food plants
embrace esculent and ornamental plants and a few weeds.
The insect appears about the middle of May in northern lati-
tudes, and takes up its abode on the tenderest leaves at the tip of
the twigs. It is then too small to be readily seen, but by means
of its proboscis, a perpetual self-acting pump, it immediately
begins to drain the leaf of its sap. At first its work is not con-
spicuous, but soon becomes manifest by the appearance of small,
dark spots, which later turn brown and die, the soft part of the
leaf within having been sucked out. These spots, which at first
are not larger than the head of a pin, may become much larger
and even run together, causing the death of the entire leaf.
The shoot itself may be checked in growth, or even killed.
The nymphs, or immature forms of the insect, are at first very
small, but easily recognized by the shining vermilion-red color of
the body, marked by blackish spots on the thorax. The mature
insect is a bright orange -yellow colored bug, three -tenths of an
inch long, with four black stripes extending down the back.
The eggs are laid in clusters in slits near the tips of twigs of
the present year's growth of currants, gooseberries, and other
shrubs. They are deposited late in June, and remain in this
position until the nymphs hatch the following spring. These
undergo five moults before reaching the adult form. The adults
disappear early in July, there being but one brood a year.
Remedies. Since the insect feeds by sucking the sap of the
plant from the inner tissues of the leaf, the application of poisons
like Paris green can do no good. Kerosene emulsion, diluted with
not more than five parts of water, if very thoroughly applied
while the insects are still young, will prove effective. The egg
clusters are not difficult to find, and since they remain over win-
ter, trimming off and burning five or six inches of infested twigs
is a practicable remedy, at least on a small scale.
THE CURRANT PLANT-LOUSE
Myzus ribis (Linn.). Order Hemiptera. Family Aphididfe.
Lintner, N. Y. Rep. 9 : 370. Weed, Ins. and Insecticides, 100. Aptuirribu;.
Linn. Sannders, Ins. Inj Fruits, 351.
This is a small, yellowish plant-louse, appearing : on tile-under
surface of currant leaves toward midsummer, c^ugin^ th'em) to
THE CURRANT PLANT-LOUSE 417
curl and present a blistered and generally a reddish appearance on
the upper surface. This, like other plant -lice, may be destroyed
by kerosene emulsion, but is so protected within the curled leaves
as to be very difficult to reach. Success depends on applying the
remedy very promptly before the leaves become much curled. In
the home-garden, hand-picking will doubtless prove simpler. The
larvae are often destroyed in great numbers by the two -spotted
lady-bug. They are also subject to attack from a small hymen-
opterous parasite, which often does good service in depleting their
THE SAN JOSE* SCALE
Aspidiotus pernlciosuS) Comstock. Order Hemiptera. Family
Comstock, Rep. U. S. Dept. Agr. 1880 : 304. Howard, U. S. Div. Ent. Circu-
lar 3, 2d series. Riley, Rep. U. S. Dept. Agr. 1893 : 215.
This insect first made its appearance in California about 1870,.
and is supposed to have been introduced from Chili. It was de-
scribed by Professor Comstock in 1880, and since then has received
attention from numerous writers. It has worked serious injury in
California, and although not reported east of the Missouri River
until 1893, it has become widely scattered throughout the eastern
states. The insect is a near relative of the oyster-shell bark-
louse, and appears as a round, flat scale about an eighth of an
inch in diameter, resembling the bark in color, but with a black
speck in the center. It attaches itself to the fruit and branches
of pear, peach, apple, raspberry, gooseberry, currant, and other
plants. It is thus distributed both on fruit and nursery stock, a
fact which accounts for its rapid and widely scattered distribution.
The females are wingless, but when young can crawl short dis-
tances before becoming fixed in their position.
Remedies. The San Jose" scale is not easily baffled. It has
recently caused much excitement in the pomological world. An
avalanche of literature and legislation has been hurled against it,
and remedies without number have been tried. The treatment
recommended by the Division of Entomology at Washington con-
sists in thorough spraying with whale -oil soap and water in the
proportion of two pounds -to the gallon, when the trees or plants
are dormant, preferably toward spring, since early spraying has
been found to reduce the amount of bloom. Infested nursery
stock can be most effectively treated by hydrocyanic acid gas, but
this is a dangerous insecticide, which should be used only by those
who know perfectly well how to do it.* Late experiments at Cor-
nell and in New Jersey show that the pest is easily destroyed in
summer by a spray of kerosene and water. At Cornell, one part of
kerosene to four of water gave efficient treatment.
THE GOOSEBERRY FRUIT-WORM
Zophodia grossularice (Pack.). Order Lepidoptera. Family
Pempelia grossularice, Pack. Riley, Mo. Rep. 1:140. Myelois convolutella,
Zell. Thomas, 111. Rep. 7:251. Dakruma convolutella. (Zell.), or
(Hiibn.). Saunders, Ins. Inj. Fruits, 357. Weed, Ins. and Insect!., 101.
The larva of this moth works within the fruit of the gooseberry,
and sometimes of the currant. The moths appear early in spring
and deposit their eggs on the surface of the very young fruit.
The larva bores into the fruit and eats out its contents. When
one berry is disposed of another is fastened to the now empty
shell, and the worm bores its way into that one. Several fruits
may be thus destroyed. The larva commonly reaches maturity by
the first of July, when it is a pale green caterpillar, about three -
fourths of an inch long, with a small, pale brown, horny looking
head. It then descends to the ground and spins a thin cocoon
among fallen leaves and rubbish, within which it changes to a
chrysalis, remaining in this condition until the following spring.
Remedies. Infested berries color prematurely, and can be
hand-picked, taking care that the very active worms do not
quickly leave the fruit. If chickens are allowed in the field
after fruiting time, they will consume many of the chrysalids.
THE IMPORTED CURRANT BORER
Sesia tipuliformis (Linn.). Order Lepidoptera. Family Sesiidae.
Comstock, Man. of Ins., 261. Mgeria tipuliformis, Linn. Saunders, Ins.
Inj. Frts. 336. Cook, Rep. Mich. Hort. Soc. 1890 : 106. Irochilium
tipuliforme (Linn.). Fitch, N. Y. Rep. 3 : 423.
This is a slender, rapid-flying, wasp-like, dark blue moth, half
* See The Nursery-Book as to use of hydrocyanic acid gas.
THE IMPORTED CURRANT BORER 419
an inch long and three-fourths of an inch broad, having three
yellow bands across the body and a yellow collar. It appears
toward the end of May or the first of June, and deposits its eggs
upon the stems near a bud. When hatched the larva eats its way
directly to the center, thence upward and downward in the pith.
Here it remains until the following year, meanwhile eating out a
tunnel from six to twelve inches in length. When full grown, the
larva is about half an inch long, white, with a brown head and a
few hairs scattered over its body. Like many other immigrants in
the insect world, this species appears to prosecute its work with
renewed energy in the home of its adoption, far outstripping the
native currant borer in the success of its undertakings. It pre-
fers the red currant, but it is not too fastidious to accept the black
currant or gooseberry as a substitute when occasion demands.
Remedies. The method of treatment, which is the same for all
species of borers attacking these plants, consists in pruning away
and burning all infested canes, late in winter or early in spring,
before the moths emerge. With several canes allowed to grow,
and all wood cut away after it has borne one or two crops, this
result will be accomplished with little extra trouble.
THE CURRANT SPAN-WORM
Diastictis ribearia (Fitch). Order Lepidoptera. Family En-
Comstock, Manual, 279. Abraxas ribearia. Fitch, N. Y. Rep. 3 : 427. Eu-
Jitchia ribearia (Fitch). Biley, Mo. Rep. 9 : 3. Cook, Bull. Mich. Exp.
Sta., 73 : 9.
This is the larva of a native pale yellowish moth, marked with
several dusky spots, and measuring about an inch and a quarter
across. The larva when full grown is about an inch long, of a
whitish color, with broad yellow stripes running down the back
and sides, and with a number of black spots on each segment. It
is a "measuring worm," moving by arching its body in the center.
When disturbed, it drops from the leaf and remains suspended in
the air by a web. It is most commonly found upon the gooseberry
or black currant, appearing soon after the leaves expand. It at-
tains its full growth within' three or four weeks, descends to the
ground and transforms to a pupa, hidden by rubbish, or just be-
neath the surface of the ground. The moth emerges about two
weeks later. The eggs are laid singly on the twigs, which they
resemble in color, and are therefore hard to detect. Here they
remain until spring, there being but one brood a year. It thus
happens that the sale of plants affords a ready means for the
spread of the insect.
Remedies. This is commonly not a serious enemy, but when it
does become numerous, is more difficult to destroy than the ordi-
nary currant worm. Hellebore, if used, must be much stronger
than for the imported currant worm. Paris green will prove more
effective whenever the fruit does not prevent its use. Disturbing
the bushes and gathering up the worms as they hang suspended
from [their webs, is sometimes recommended. Several parasites
prey upon them and do good service in thinning out their ranks.
THE CURRANT FRUIT -WORM
Eupiihecia implicata, Walk. Var. interrupto fasciata, Pack. Order
Lepidoptera. Family Geometridse.
Fupithecia interrupto-fasciata, Pack. Thomas, 111. Rep. 11 : 23. Saunders,
Ins. Inj. Frts. 352.
This is a span-worm which attacks the fruit of the currant by
eating a hole into the side of the berry, and devouring a portion
of the interior, spoiling more fruit than it actually consumes. It
is easily distinguished from the gooseberry fruit-worm by having
only ten legs, while the latter has sixteen.
Remedies. While seldom causing serious injury, it may, under
favorable conditions, develop sufficient numbers to work much
harm. It appears at the same time as the common currant worm,
and the ordinary treatment with hellebore may also keep it in
check. Pyrethrum, and probably air- slaked lime, applied when
the dew is on, would doubtless prove effective.
THE GOOSEBERRY MIDGE
Cetidomyia grossularia, Fitch. Order Diptera. Family Ceci-
Fitch, N. Y. Rep. 1:176. 3:150. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts., 359.
This insect is a small, yellowish fly, scarcely one -tenth of an
THE CURRANT FLY 421
inch in length. The eggs, which are deposited beneath the skin
of the young fruit, hatch and develop into small, bright yellow,
oval maggots, resembling those of the wheat midge. These
change to pupae within the fruit, and emerge as perfect flies in
midsummer. Further than this the life history seems to be un-
known. Their presence causes the fruit to turn prematurely red
and become soft and putrid within.
Remedies. The only remedy thus far known to be effective is to
pick and destroy all fruit which turns prematurely.
THE CURRANT FLY
EpocJira Canadensis (Loew.). Order Diptera. Family Muscidse.
Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts., 352. Harvey, Maine Agr. Exp. Sta. Ann. Kept.
1895 : 111. Also Bull. 35. Trypeta Canadensis, Loew, Mon. Dip. N.
Am., 3 : 235. Gillette, Bull. Colo. Exp. Sta., 19 :18.
This insect is a yellow or orange -colored fly, about the size of
the common house-fly, with greenish iridescent eyes and smoky
patches or bands across its wings. It punctures the skin of the
young currant or gooseberry, depositing its egg just beneath. This
soon develops into a small white grub which measures about one-
third of an inch in length. Its presence causes the fruit to turn
red and fall to the ground prematurely. After becoming full
grown, the maggots leave the fruit and enter the ground, where
they change to pupae, emerging as perfect flies early the following
Although not usually considered a serious enemy, it has been
found very destructive in Colorado, and also in Maine, causing the
loss of 75 per cent of the fruit at times.
Eemedies. No very practicable remedy seems yet to have been
found. The insect spends about eleven months of the year safely
buried in the ground. No way of destroying the mature flies
seems feasible, and the egg is deposited beneath the skin of the
fruit beyond the reach of insecticides. The only weak point in its
campaign appears to be that part of the infested fruit drops pre-
maturely and the larvae remain in it for a time after it falls.
Hence, frequently gathering* and burning the fallen fruit will de-
stroy many. If all the insects thus fell with the fruit, this would
be an effective, though somewhat expensive remedy, but unfortu-
nately some larvae escape from the fruit before it drops. One
grower thinks that allowing young chickens among the bushes till
picking time, and older fowls later, proved effective. The pupse
transform within an inch of the surface, so that thorough culti-
vation would disturb many of them, and might expose them to
subsequent injury during winter, or favor their being picked up by
birds. Removing an inch of soil would carry them with it. The
flies are thought to be so weak that a heavy mulch placed about
the plants while the pupse are in the ground, and allowed to re-
main, would prevent many of them from emerging.
THE AMERICAN CURRANT BORER
Psenocerus supernotatus (Say). Order Coleoptera. Family Ce-
Fitch, N. Y. Rep. 3 : 416. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts., 337. Cook, Rep. Mich.
Hort. Soc. 1890 : 106.
This insect, though very similar in its habits to the imported
currant borer, belongs to an entirely different order. When ma-
ture, instead of being a moth, it is a small, narrow, brownish
beetle, nearly cylindrical, and varying in length from one -eighth
to one -fourth of an inch. The larva is a small, white, round and
wrinkled grub without feet. The life history is practically the
same as that of the imported insect, and larvse of both are some-
times found together in the same stalk.
Remedies. Cutting out and burning infested stalks will prove
THE IMPORTED CURRANT WORM
Pteronus ribesii (Scop.). Order Hymenoptera. Family Tenthre-
Marlatt Revis. Nematinae of North Amer., 61. Nematus ventricosus,
Klug. Riley, Mo. Rep. 9 : 7. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts., 339. Weed,
Ins. and Insds., 97. Nematus trimaculatus, St. Fargeau. Fitch, N. Y.
Rep. 12 : 909. For full bibliography, see Marlatt, 1. c.
This most familiar inhabitant of the currant and gooseberry
bushes is a four-winged saw-fly, about the size of the common
house fly. It first appeared in the United States in the vicinity of
THE CURRANT WORM
Rochester, N. Y., about 1857, being mentioned in "The Rural
New-Yorker" of July 24, 1858, p. 239. The male is black, with
some yellow spots, glossy wings and yellow legs. The female is
larger than the male, bright honey yellow, with a black head. It
is not in this dress, however,
that we best know the insect.
Its eggs are deposited in rows
on the under side of the leaves,
along the principal veins ( Fig.
76) , in early spring. Dr. Lint-
ner observed a female de-