posit thirty eggs on a single
currant leaf within one hour.
These hatch in a few days, and
open the season's campaign
by eating small holes in the
leaf. The eggs are laid in
rows, and the young larvae at
first feed in companies (Fig
77), but later, as size and
appetite increase, they scatter
to all parts of the bush.
The insect is fastidious in
its dress during the larval
stage. It first appears in a
modest garb of dull white, which it soon exchanges for green,
to which many black spots are added later, these in turn giving
place to a plain green tinged with yellow, as it approaches ma-
turity. When full grown, it measures about three-quarters of
an inch in length. It then forms a silken cocoon, hidden by rub-
bish on the ground, just beneath the surface, or occasionally
attached to stems and leaves above ground. The winged insect
emerges the last of June or first of July, to repeat the same
cycle, there being two broods a year, the last one passing the
winter in the pupa state. The separate broods do not emerge all
at once, hence there is a* practical continuation of hostilities
throughout the season.
Remedies. A history of the remedies which have been em-
ployed against this insect since its advent in this country would
afford spicy reading, with no lack of variety. It is interesting to
note that the use of kerosene emulsion seems to have had its be-
ginning in fighting this insect, about 1870.* The following brief
mention will show something of the range of ammunition brought
into play against this enemy. Salt and water, Gardener's
Monthly, 1881:17. Tobacco water, Ibid, 1881:241. Sulphur
sprinkled on the bushes when wet, Ibid, 1882 : 148. Smudge with
burning leather and sulphur under the bushes, Ibid, 1862 : 213.
Red currants untouched if black currants are planted among them,
Tilton's Journal, 8 : 35. Copperas dissolved in water, Ibid, 8 : 23.
Carbolate of lime, Ibid, 9 : 149. Tansy decoction, Ibid 9 : 246.
Wood ashes applied when leaves are wet, Ibid 9 : 309; also "Ru-
ral New-Yorker," 1897 : 375. Carbolic acid, Horticulturist,
1870 : 221. Picking off leaves at base of bushes where most eggs
are deposited before they
hatch, or immediately after.
Coal tar dissolved in turpen-
tine, with slaked lime and
water added, Ibid, 1870 : 222.
Knocking off the worms to
let them fall on the hot
ground when the sun is bright^
Ibid, 1871 : 159. Howe Cave
fertilizer, Grafton mineral
fertilizer and Colburn's cur-
rant-worm exterminator men-
tioned as ineffectual, Ibid,
1873 :172. Mixing wood ashes
Fig. 77. First work of currant worm. with the soil, Ibid, 1873 : 192.
Mulching with tobacco stems,
"Popular Gardening," 2:129. Mulching with coal ashes, Ibid,
6 : 220. Air-slaked lime and tobacco dust, Insect Life, 1 : 17.
Alum, Ibid, 1:229. Decoction of foxglove, Gar. Month., 1874:
*Tilton's Journal, 8: 23, 176. 9:213. Gardener's Monthly, 1874: 149.
CURRANT WORMS 425
254. Soot, also rue and chamomile planted among the bushes,
Tilton's Jour., 4:233. Decoction of elder leaves and tobacco
water, Ibid, 7:187. Young chickens, Hovey's Mag., 1854:527.
In 1869, the Massachusetts Horticultural Society offered a prize
of twenty-five dollars for "a safe, certain and economical
method, better than any now known, of destroying the currant
worm, or preventing its ravages."
It is easily controlled by the application of white hellebore,
half an ounce or a teaspoonful to a gallon of water,- as soon as the
worms appear. The eggs of the first brood are laid chiefly on the
tufts of leaves at the base of the plant, and Paris green or London
purple may be used for the first application, while the larvse are
yet on these leaves. The work should be thorough, for if the
bushes are defoliated, even after the fruit is off, the crop of the
succeeding year suffers in consequence. At the Ohio Experiment
Station, the cost of spraying twice and completely protecting the
plants was found to be but $5 per acre.
THE NATIVE CURRANT WORM
Pristiphora grossularice, Walsh. Order Hymenoptera. Family
Walsh, Pract. Ent., 1 : 123. Riley, Mo. Rep., 9 : 23. Saunders, Ins. Inj.
Frts., 343. Walsh and Riley, Amer. Ent., 2 : 22. Pristiphora rufipes,
St. Fargeau. Fitch, N. Y. Rep., 12 : 908. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts., 344.
This is a saw-fly closely related to the imported currant worm,
though smaller in size, and belonging 1 to a different genus. The
larva is solid green in color, never having black spots like the
othe*. The life history is much the same, except that the second
brood emerges from the pupal stage in autumn, and deposits its
eggs upon the branches, where they remain during the winter,
hatching the following spring. The young larvae do not feed in
groups. This insect seldom causes serious injury. It is men-
tioned chiefly on account of its relationship to its European
cousin, by whom it is so far outstripped in the work of life set
apart for a currant worm to^do.
Remedy. The same remedy employed against the other insect
is effective against this one.
THE CURRANT STEM-GIRDLER
Janus integer (Norton). Order Hymenoptera. Family Uroceridae.
Slingerland, Bull. Cornell Univ. Exp. Sta., 126 : 41. Cephus integer, Nor
ton, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 8 : 224. Janus jflavwentris, Fitch.
N. Y. Rept.. 7 : 12. Lintner, N. Y. Kept., 4 : 47. 8 : 166. Phyllcecus
Jlaviventris (Fitch). Marlatt, Ins. Life, 6 : 296. 7 : 387.
This, too, is a native saw-fly, but the larvae, instead of feeding
on the leaves, like the others, burrow in the pith of the currant
stems. The egg is laid within the pith of the young shoots a few
inches from the tips. After depositing the egg the female fly
moves upward and proceeds to girdle the stem at a point from half
an inch to an inch above where the egg was placed. The cane
may be entirely severed by this girdling, or may still cling by a
small portion, but quickly wilts, and generally soon falls away.
The larva, which is nearly half an inch long at maturity, burrows
downward, eating out the pith as it goes, and leaving its channel
filled with dark brownish refuse. Toward autumn it eats a pas-
sage way to the outer bark, wraps itself in a thin silken cocoon
and passes the winter in the lower end of its burrow. In the
spring it changes to a pupa, and thence emerges as a perfect in-
sect in May. It is then a shining black fly, with the hind part of
the body and front of the abdomen yellow, measuring about half
an inch in length by three -fourths of an inch in breadth, with the
Remedies. Cutting out and burning all injured tips is an effi-
cient and practical remedy. The larvae rarely get more than six
inches below where the egg is laid, and this being only an inch
or so below the girdle, cutting away eight inches of the stem at
any time during the summer or winter, will destroy the insect.
If done soon after the girdle is made two or three inches will
suffice. The larvae may readily be found by splitting open the
cane. Many eggs fail to develop, and the young larvae often
perish before attaining their growth. This checks their increase,
but does not affect the injury for the current year. The larvae
are subject to attack from hymenopterous parasites. In one
case Professor Slingerland (loc. cit.) saw five tiny parasites
(Bracon apicatus, Prov.) emerge from a single cocoon.
GROSELLE INSECTS 427
THE LESS IMPORTANT ENEMIES
The foregoing list includes those species which
have either proved themselves, or which promise to
be, seriously injurious. Many other species have been
found upon these plants which seldom do harm. Many
of these are general feeders, and in other cases the work
is of such a nature as to affect the plant but little. No
sharp line can be drawn between those which do much
and those which do little injury, for under special con-
ditions the ones which are normally of little impor-
tance may become unusually destructive.
CLASS ARACHNIDA (Spiders and their relatives)
Tetranychus telarius (Linn.). Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts. 355. The
Red Spider, which occasionally attacks the black currant in dry
Bryobia pratensis, Garman. The Clover Mite. Riley and Marlatt
Ins. Life, 3:45. Observed on wild gooseberry, Ribes gracile, at
Tyroglyphus ribis, Fitch. N. Y. Rep. 3:424. On diseased currant
CLASS HEXAPODA (Insects)
Melanoplus femur-rubrum (DeG. ). [Caloptenus femur-rubrum
(DeG.). 111. Ent. Rep. 14 (Gen. Ind. Supplement).] The com-
mon red-legged grasshopper. A general feeder.
Amblycorypha oblong i folia (DeG.). [Phylloptera oblongifolia,
DeG. Riley, Amer. Ent. 2:182.] Eggs occur on currant and
other woody stems.
Leptoglossus phyllopus, Linn. Ins. Life 4:79. On currant leaves;
Cosmopepla carnifex (Fabr.). Lintner, N. Y. Rep. 2:144. Attacking
Poeciloptera pruinosa, Say. Fitch, N. Y. Rep. 3:436. Saunders,
Ins. Inj. Frts. 357. Riley, Mo. Rep. 5:122. On leaves and young
shoots of many plants.
Typhlocyba obliqua (Say). [JErythroneura obliqua (Say). Fitch,
N. Y. Rep. 3: 435.] On currant leaves.
Typhlocyba tricincta (Fitch). Forbes, 111. Rep. 14:115. [Erythro-
neura tricincta, Fitch. N. Y. Rep. 3: 392.] On leaves of currant,
raspberry, grape and elm.
Empoasca albopicta (Forbes). [Empoa albopicta, Forbes, 111. Rep.
]3:181. -14:117. Weed, Rep. O. Exp. Sta. 1888: 152. -Ins. and
Insecticides 99.] On leaves of apple, currant, gooseberry and
other plants. Remedy, pyrethrum.
Nectarophora lactucce (Kalt.). [ Siphonophora lactucce, Linn. Thomas
111. rep. 8: 60.] On lettuce, Ribes and many other plants.
Pulvinaria innumerabilis (Rath von). Comstock, Rep. Cornell Univ.
Exp. Sta. 2:137. Lintner, N. Y. Rep. 6:141. Saunders, Ins. Inj.
Frts. 241. Piper, Bull. Wash. Exp. Sta. 7:123. [Coccus innu-
merabilis (Rath von). For complete synonomy, see Comstock, 1. c.]
On many plants, including currant.*
Lecanium cynosbati, Fitch. N. Y. Rep. 3: 436. Comstock, Rep.
Cornell Univ. Exp. Sta. 2:133. On wild gooseberry stems.
Lecanium ribis, Fitch. N. Y. Rep. 3: 427. Comstock, Rep. Cornell
Univ. Exp. Sta. 2: 135. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts. 338. On currant
Aspidiotus ancylus, Putnam. Comstock, Rep. U. S. Dept. of Agr.
1880:292. Rep. Cornell Univ. Exp. Sta. 2:58. Beckwith, Rep.
Del. Exp. Sta. 7: 168. On currant.
*A western form of this species has proved quite destructive to currants in
Washington state. Prof. Cockerell proposes the variety-name occidentalis for
this form. It is referred to in Meehan's Monthly, 1896:37, under the erroneous
name P. ribis.
GROSELLE INSECTS 429
Aspidiotus nerii, Bouche\ Comstock, Rep. U. S. Dept. of Agr. 1880:
301. Rep. Cornell Univ. Exp. Sta. 2:63. Lintner, N. Y. Rep.
5 : 279. On oleander and a great variety of other plants.
Mytilaspis pomorum (Douche"). Comstock, Rep. U. S. Dept. of Agr.
1880:325. Rep. Cornell Univ. Exp. Sta, 2:118. Saunders, Ins.
Inj. Frts. 40. On apple, occasionally elsewhere.
Chionaspis furfurus (Pitch). Comstock. Rep. U. S. Dept. Agr.
1880 : 315. Matlack, Ins. Life 1 : 324. [Aspidiotus furfurus, Fitch,
N. Y. Rep. 3:352. Aspidiotus cerasi, Fitch, N. Y. Rep. 3:368.]
On apple, pear, currant and others.
Diaspis ostreceformis (Curtis). Comstock, Rep. U. S. Dept. Agr.
1880: 311. Rep. Cornell Univ. Exp. Sta. 2: 94. [Aspidiotus circu-
laris, Fitch, N. Y. Rep. 3: 426. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts. 338.] On
apple, pear and currant.
Empretia stimulea, Clemens. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts. 113 and 353.
Packard, For. Ins. 146. Comstock, Man. Ins. 225. A general
Exartema exoleta (Zeller). [Eccopsis exoletum, Zell. Forbes, 111.
Rep. 14:117.] On currant and gooseberry.
Cac&cia rosana, Linn. Comstock and Slingerland, Bull. Cornell
Univ. Exp. Sta. 23:119. Comstock, Man. Ins. 244. On currant.
Caccecla argijrospila, Walk. Packard, For. Ins. 192. Gillette, Bull.
Colo. Exp. Sta. 19: 3. A general feeder.
Cacoecia rosaceana (Harris). Packard, For. Ins. 505. Saunders,
Ins. Inj. Frts. 90. A general feeder.
Alcathoe caudatum (Harris). Jack, Gar. and For. 1891:496.
[^Egeria caudata, Harris. French, 111. Rep. 7:172. Trochilium
caudatum (Harris). Fitch, N. Y. Rep. 3:424.] On the root of
black currant and clematis.
Orgyia antiqua, Linn. Perkins, Vt. Agr. Rep. 1877: 148. Packard,
For. Ins. 447.
Angerona crocataria (Fabr.-). Thomas, 111. Rep. 7: 243. Forbes, 111.
Rep. 13: 81. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts. 348. On currant, gooseberry
and strawberry leaves.
Endropea armataria (H. Sch.). Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts. 354. Pack-
ard, For. Ins. 501 Mon. Geom. 510. On leaves of maple, birch,
black and red currant.
Biston cognatarla (Guen.). Comstock, Man. Ins. 280. [Amphidasys
cognataria, Guen. Lintner, N. Y. Eep. 2:97. Bowles, Canad.
Ent. 3:11. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts. 349. Packard, For. Ins. 405.]
A somewhat general feeder.
Microgonia limbaria, Haw. [Nematocampa filamentaria, Guen.
French, 111. Rep. 7:242. Packard, For. Ins. 182. Saunders, Ins.
Inj. Frts. 167.] On leaves of currant, strawberry, oak and maple.
Eustroma prunata, Linn. [Petrophora prunata, Linn. Edwards,
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 35:109.] On Ribes in Europe. Introduced
Prochoerodes transversata (Drury). [Eutrapela transversata (Drury).
Packard, For. Ins. 181.] On maple, currant, oak and a few others.
Tetrads trianguliferata, Pack. French, Canad. Ent. 18:105. On
Thamnonoma quadrilinearia, Pack. Gillette, Bull. Colo. Exp. Sta.
19: 23. On currant and gooseberry leaves.
Thamnonoma flavicaria, Pack. Gillette, Bull. Colo. Exp. Sta. 19: 23.
On currant and gooseberry leaves.
Hydrcecia cataphracta (Grt. ). [Gortyna cataphracta, Grt. Fletcher,
Ins. Life 5:125.] On gooseberry fruit; unusual.
Hydrcecia nitela (Guen.). [Gortyna nitella, Guen. Smith, 111. Rep.
7:112. Lintner, N. Y. Rep. 1:110. Boring in the stems of many
Hamestra picta, Harris. Lintner, N. Y. Rep. 4:16. 5:206. [Ce-
ramicapicta (Harris). French, 111. Rep. 7: 226.] A general feeder;
reported on currant.
Noctua clandestina (Harris). [Agrotis clandestina, Harris. French,
III. Rep. 7:95, 213. Riley, Rep. U. S. Dept. Agr. 1884:293.
Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts. 108.] A general feeder.
Xylophasia arctica (Boisd.). Smith, Bull. U. S. Mus. 44: 137. [Ha-
dena arctica, Boisd. French, 111. Rep. 7:96, 217. Hadena ampu-
tatrix, Fitch, N. Y. Rep. 3: 425.] A general feeder.
Hyphantria cunea, Drury. Packard, For. Ins. 244. [Hyphantria
textor, Harris. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts. 71.] The Fall Web-worm.
A general feeder.
Spilosoma virginica (Fabr.). French, 111. Rep. 7:80. Packard, For.
Ins. 340, 489. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts. 271. A general feeder.
Deilephila lineata (Fabr.). Packard, For. Ins. 271. A general
GROSELLE INSECTS 431
Enprnctis chrysorrhcea (Linn.). Fernald and Kirkland, Special Bull.
Mass. Hatch Exp. Sta. 1897. A general feeder, preferring the
Automeris io (Fabr.). Comstock, Man. Ins. 351. \Hypercheria io
(Fabr.). Packard, For. Ins. 394. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts. 209.]
A general feeder.
Samia cecropia, Linn. Comstock, Man. Ins. 356. [Attacus cecropia
(Linn.). Thomas, 111. Rep. 10:126. Platysamia cecropia (Linn.).
Packard, For. Ins. 401.] A general feeder.
Clisiocampa, sp. Schwarz, Ins. Life 4:75. Reported as injuring
currants and gooseberries in Utah, by webbing up the leaves to
form its cocoon.
Basilarcnia astyanax (Fabr.). Packard, For. Ins. 128. Comstock,
Man. Ins. 406. [Limenitis Ursula, Fabr. French, 111. Rep. 7:154.
Middleton, 111. Rep. 10:87. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts. 217.] A
general feeder, including gooseberry.
Polygonia comma (Harris). Comstock, Man. Ins. 405. [Vanessa
comma, Harris, Ins. Inj. Veg. 300 (Flint, ed.). Grapta comma
(Harris). Packard, For. Ins. 241. Fitch, N. Y. Rep. 3: 433.] On
currant and hop.
Polygonia faunus (Edw. ) . Comstock, Man. Ins. 404. [ Grapta faunus,
Edw. French, 111. Rep. 7:152.] On gooseberry, beech and willow.
Polygonia progne (Cramer). Comstock, Man. Ins. 405. [Vanessa
progne, Cramer. Le Baron, 111. Rep. 1:59. Harris, Ins. Inj. Veg.
301. Grapta progne (Cramer). Fitch, N. Y. Rep. 3: 428. Packard,
For. Ins. 241. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts. 346.] On Ribes and elm.
Hyperplatys asperus (Say.). Gillette, Bull. Iowa Exp. Sta. 11:494.
In stems of cottonwood, chestnut and currant.
Hyperplatys maculatus, Hald. Cook, Rep. Mich.Hort. Soc. 1890:109.
Reported as a new currant borer.
Doryphora decemlineata, Say. Thomas, 111. Rep. 6:162. The Potato
Beetle; known to eat currant leaves.
Odontota nervosa, Panz. [Odontota rosea (Web.). Saunders, Ins.
Inj. Frts. 120. Hispa rosea, Web. Harris, Ins. Inj. Veg. 120.
Uroplata pallida, Say. .Fitch, N. Y. Rep. 3:434.] Mining in the
leaves of apple, black currant and other plants.
Systena frontalis (Fabr.). Lintner, N. Y. Rep. 9:343. Saunders,
Ins. Inj. Frts. 283. On grape and gooseberry leaves.
Epiccerus imbricatus (Say.). Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frts. 35. Weed,
Ins. and Insecticides 173. A general feeder.
Anthonomus helvolus, Boh. [Anthonomus rubidus, Le Conte.
Fletcher, Rep. Can. Expt. Farms, 1887:36.]
Prosopis affinis, Smith. Riley, Amer. Ent. 2:214307. Eggs
deposited in pith of currant stems.
DISEASES OF THE GEOSELLES
The number of fungi known to attack the genus
Ribes is very large, yet comparatively few are suffi-
ciently destructive to demand consideration from an
economic stand -point. The one which is best known,
and which has created far more discussion than any
other in American horticultural literature, is the goose-
berry mildew. This, disease alone, like the phylloxera
of the grape, has forced the development of varieties
from native species, which doubtless would not have
been done had the English varieties proved successful
in this climate. The following list includes those
diseases which are most important.
THE MOST IMPORTANT DISEASES
GOOSEBERRY MILDEW (Fig. 78)
Sphceroiheca mors-uvce (Schw.), B. and C. Order Pyrenomycetese.
Halsted, Rep. U. S. Dept. Agr. 1887:373 (Illus.). Humphrey, Rep. Mass.
Exp. Sta. 10 : 240 (1892) (Illus.). Arthur, Rep. N. Y. State Exp. Sta.
6: 349. Beach, West. N. Y. Hort. Soc. 37: 512. Close, N. Y. State Exp.
Sta. Bull. 133.
Chiefly found on the English gooseberry, rarely on American
As before stated, this is one of the most widely known of the
diseases affecting the genus Ribes. It first appears on the young
leaves and tender tips of the growing shoots. The young fruits
are soon attacked in the same way and partially or entirely
checked in their growth, being rendered wholly unfit for use in
most cases. It first appears as a patch of cob web -like threads,
which soon form a dense mat and become white and powdery
from the development of white conidial or summer spores. These
are produced in immense numbers, and are readily blown about
by the wind, to contribute to the further spread of the disease.
A few weeks later the winter spores, or ascospores, begin to
develop. These are contained within chestnut- colored perithecia,
which give a dirty brown appearance to the affected parts. These
spores remain over winter within the protecting perithecium and
germinate in spring, thereby spreading the species the succeed-
This disease, unlike many other fungi, seems to develop best
in dry, hot climates, and for this reason causes much more
trouble in America than in England. It is less serious in the
northern portions of the United States and in Canada than
farther south. Many English varieties or their seedlings have
GOOSEBERRY MILDEW 435
been introduced as mildew proof, only to suffer the same injury
as previous sorts after a few years of general trial. The Ameri-
can varieties are not wholly exempt from its attacks, but are
much less susceptible, and seldom suffer serious injury.
Eemedies. Numberless remedies against the disease have
been suggested. No less than fifteen of these have come under
the writer's observation, most of which were reported successful
in greater or less degree. Among them, mulching with sea
weed, salt hay, green grass, tan bark, stones, tin cans, boards,
etc., is most frequently mentioned. This does aid in many
cases, as it helps to keep the soil cool, but it cannot be depended
upon to afford immunity. There is now a perfectly satisfactory
remedy known, and it is possible for anyone who is willing to
give the matter proper attention to grow the English goose-
berries in this country. Experiments inaugurated by Professor
Arthur, while connected with the Geneva (New York) Experi-
ment Station, and since carried on by others, have proved that
potassium sulphide (liver of sulphur), used at the rate of half
an ounce to a gallon of water, will hold this disease completely
in check. Experiments with Bordeaux mixture indicate that it
is also effective, though not equal to potassium sulphide. The
potassium sulphide is cheap, effective, easily applied, and does
not injure the plant nor render the fruit poisonous, hence is a
very satisfactory remedy. It is best dissolved in "hot water,
then diluted to the required strength. The first application
should be made when the leaves begin to unfold, and be
repeated at intervals of two to three weeks, or after each heavy
rain thereafter. As the injury to the plant seriously inter-
feres with its growth, thereby lessening the succeeding crop, a
thorough treatment just after the fruit is gathered is likely to
prove of great value.
Glceosporium Ribis (Lib.), Mont, and Desm. Order Melanconiese.
Saceardo, Syll. Fung., 3 :706. Kirchner, Krankheiten und Beschadigungen,
339, 344. Ellis and Everhart, Jour. Myc., 1:110. Dudley, Bull. Cor-
nell Exp. Sta., 15:196.
On Ribes rubrum, R. nigrum, R. aureum, R. prostratum, and
The characters of this disease are less prominent than those of
the gooseberry mildew, and it has attracted far less attention.
The currant crop suffers serious injury by the premature falling of
the leaves, which may be due to several species of fungi, this
being one of them. This defoliation not only injures the fruit
then on the bushes by preventing its proper development, but
also materially shortens the crop of the succeeding year by pre-
venting the proper completion of wood growth.
The spots appear on the upper surface but within the tissues
of the leaves, in June or early in July. The infected parts are
dull brown in color, the leaves soon turn yellow and fall, so that
the bushes may be wholly denuded by the middle of August.
Remedies. Definite reports from spraying for this particular
disease are not at hand, but there is good reason to believe that
thorough spraying with Bordeaux mixture will overcome all the
diseases which cause the premature fall of currant leaves.
THE CURRANT TUBERCLE
Tubercularia vulgaris, Tode. Order Hyphomy cetera. Family
Saccardo, Syll. Fung., 44 :638. Durand, Bull. Cornell Univ. Exp. Sta.,
125.: 23-38. For synonymy, see Sacc., 1. c.
On living currant stems and many kinds of dead wood.
This is the imperfect form of a fungus which in its perfect
stage is known under the name Nectria cinnabarina (Tode), Fr.
It is very common upon dead and decaying wood of different
kinds. Recently it has proved itself an injurious parasite upon
living currant bushes in New York and New Jersey. Its presence
is first manifest by wilting of the leaves and premature coloring
of the fruit. The clusters are usually small and straggling, and
both fruit and leaves soon shrivel and fall. This is in turn fol-
lowed by the death of the barren canes. In some esses the entire
plant dies; in others, some canes may partially escape. Some-
times the plants die even before the leaves unfold.
Remedies. This threatens to be a difficult enemy to fight. As
THE CURRANT TUBERCLE
with the red rust of the raspberry and blackberry, there is a per-