Frederic Barlow.

The complete English peerage: or, A genealogical and historical account of the peers and peeresses of this realm, to the year 1775, inclusive (Volume 1) online

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^Jj_ G^L I S H P E ERA G E :

O R, A

Genealogical and Historical Account





To the Ye AR 1772, inclufive.


A pai'ticular and impartial Relation of the moft memorable Tranfaflions, as
well of the Dead as the Livi n c, of thofe who have difllnguiihed themfelves
either by their noble or ignoble Deeds ; without exaggerating their Virtue,
or palliating their In f a m y .




■■-■ ■

By the Rev. FREDERIC B^A RJL Q W, M. A,

Vicar of Burton, and Author of the Complete EnglTsh uictionary.


Piinted for the Author, and fold by T. Evans, No. 54, in Pai'|:4.Nostkr-Rcw,



^ I ^ H E encouragement which has ever been givea
^ X to the various hiftories of the Peerage,
fhews that a Work of this nature ov/es its fuccefs not
only to its utiUty, but hkewife to the amufement
which it affords the reader. The many changes
from new creations, and the extindion of old titles^
will always make frequent publications of this na-
ture requilite.


Let it however be obferved, that thofe who have
trod in this walk before us feeni to have contrafted
their plan too much : inftead of beinp- faithful hifto-
tnns, they have been little more than mere panegy-
rifts, who thought it their duty to varnifh the cha-
raders of the living with adulation, and fet thofe of
the dead in a light contrary to the whole current of
hiftory. Having undertaken to give an account of a
noble family, they imagined it was neceiTary to en-
iioble all the defcend^nts, by attributing virtues to
them v/hich they never exercifed ; and by burying
thofe vices in oblivion, which even the advantage of
high birth could not hide from the knov/ledge or
deteftation of their cotemporaries. Thefe writers,
who have, like unfaithful painters, given beauty to
their objedts which they never poiTeiTed, have made
a work of this kind in a manner both new and
necejjary. As unbiaffed authors, we fhall not be
afraid to pull afide the ermine, to fhevv the corrup-
tion with lies hidden behind ^ and our reveraice for

B % truth


truth will emboUeg us to difdofe the weaknefs of the
head, even when encircled by the diadem.

While we have thus confidered the improvement
of the reader, we have not loft fight of his emolu-
ment ; this Work will not only be more faithful,
but alfo cheaper than any that have ever preceded it.

Though comprifed in. only Two Volumes, the
type will be fuch as to contain as great a quantity as
books of three times the expence. Every, embellifli-
ment, which can be expected in a Work of this na-
ture, will be given ; the arms Vv^ill be blazoned b)
the beft heralds, and engraved by the ableft mafters.

Nothing will be negledled to render it as perfed
as it is fingular ; and while we fhall look down oi
the frowns of high-birth, we hope we fhall mee
with the patronage of thofe who are lovers of truth
and the admirers of real nobiUty..

N. B. The mottos will be tranflated and explained
for the convenience of our unlearned readers, a cir
cumftance which has never been attended to in an
other Peerage.




O R, A

Genealogical and His'^irbRicAL Account





Duke of Cornwall, created Prince of Wales.

r~S~^ H E title prince, derived from the Latin word princrps, which in
§ the pureft times of the Roman language, had no relation to

wl. royalty, though later times have connefted the term therewith,
is not properly an Engiifli honour, but \v is judicioully adopted by Ed-
ward I. in compliment to his Wellh fubjefts. His particular reafons for
nominating his fon prince of Wales, were as follow: the V/elfii, being
uneafy at their fubjection, Edward fent for his queen Eleanor to Carnarvon
in Wales, in which caille on the 25 th of April 1284, ihe was delivered
ef a fon, afterwards Edward II. The principal Wellh chiefs being fum-
moned to the caille of Ruthian, agreed to accept for their head the young
prince, becaufe born in their country. However, it is not evident that
his grand-fon Edward III. ever had this title othcrwife than by courtefy.

Edward, firnamed the Black Prince, eideil fon of king Edward IIL
who thought the dignity of prince of Wales ought to be perm.anent, and
that it would equally contribute to the iuilre of his houfe, and the tran-
.quility of his kingdom, was the firft invelled in the principality of Wales,
in the 16th of Edward III. with thefe enfigns of honour, viz. A chaplet
of gold made in manner of a garland, a gold ring, and a fcepter of filver,
to hold to himfelf, and to his heirs kings of England ; and his father the bet-
ter to fupport his ftate, gave him lands uftd ^^^^ to a great value in North



and South Wales : from whicli time the heirs apparent of our monarclis
liave borne the title.

Thou-h prince of Wales is the ufual and pre-eminent title given to
the eldeic fon of the kings of Great Britain, yet as we here treat of him
chiefly as duke of Cornwall and earl of Chefter, we are now to account
for thefe titles. The earldom of Cheiter was annexed to the crown for
ever by Henry III. by letters patent dated the 3 ill year of his reign
I247, together with the caftles of Gannock and Dilfard, who made his
icm prince Edv/ard, earl thereof; and the eldell fons of our kings have
futcceded to the dignity ever lince : the earldom of Chefler, with the
principality, liaving been united by acl of parliament to the principality
of Wales in 2 ill Rich. 11.

Edward the Black Prince was likewife created duke of Cornwall,
upon the death of John of £ltham, earl of Cornwall, in. the nth
year of Edward III. the charter of his creation bearing date the 17th of
March tlie fame year, to hold to himjclf and his heirs ^ kings of England^ and
io their fir',i horn Jons ; and the young prince, then only feven years of age,
was invelled by a fword only, which Barnes fays v/as the iirfl precedent for
the creation of a duke in England. At the fam.e time his Myjelly fettled
"by patent upon the duke of Cornwall, a large eilate for the fupportcf his
dionity ; and though fome of the lands granted lay in other counties,
they were made thereby part of the duchy of Cornwall. By other
letters patent, bearing the fame date, he fartlier granted unto him the
llannaries of Cornwall, together v/ith the coinage of tin, and all the
ilTues and profits thence arifmg ; as alfo the profits and p?rquifitcG of the
courts of the flanniirie?, referving only one thouland marks to William
Montagu, then earl of Salifbury, and his heirs, out of the ifiues thereof,
till lands were provided for the faid earl of that yearly value ; and aRer-
wards granted, that all the caftles, honours, m.anors, lands, and tene-
ments belonging to the dukedom or earldom of Cornv.'all, which were
held in dower, or for term of life, or years, whofe reverfions belonged to
the king, fhould remain to this prince, as they itVi ; and to the eldelt
fons of him and his heirs, as dukes of the aforefaid dukedom. Since
which the eldeil fons of our monarchs, have been by law accounted dukes
of Cornwall from the very moment of their birth : and not only the
eldefl in refpecl of abfolute primogeniture, but alfo the fccond or othef
fon after the death of the former, who enjoyed this title, as was deter-
mined on the death of prince Henry, eldell fon of James I. in favcui'
of Charles, then prince of Wales, afterwards king Charles I.

As it docs not come within our plan to trace the origin, or inheri -
tance of titles, into the families of others, who mny have held them be^
fore the prefent pclfeflbrs, we ihrJl not prefent our leaders with an abridg-
ment of the hiOory of Wales and its princes, previous to the acceilicn of
the family of Hanover to the crown of Cjreat Britain.

It is fuflicient for the purpofc of this work, to commence the pedigree;
of his royal highnefs from the period when the houfe of Brunfwick-^
Lunenburg took rife. Erneil tiie Confeflbr, duke of ErunrvvickWolfen-
nuttel, had two fons, Henry and William, the latter of whom, proper-
ly the founder of the houfe of Lunenburg, had {oszn fons, Erncd, Chriflian,
Augulius, Frederic, Magnus, George, and John. Thefe feven prlnccs^
agreed that only one of them fliould marry, and that the i fine of the
marriage fliould inherit the Lune;iburg dominions. In the mean v/hile
the fame were to be inherited by the elder brother, and by the eldeft

-6 * furvi^

P R I N C E of W A L E S.^ '7

furvivlng brotlier in fucceilion. The lot of marriage fell upon George.
Ere t, Chrillian, Auguftus, and Frederic, fucceeded in their turns to
the dominions of Lunenburgh.

Erieil, though of a weak confritution, was an excellent fcholar, and
wrote the life of the emperor Juftinian : he fucceeded his father in 1592^
and died 161 '. Chrillian was bifhop of Minden, when he became 'head
of the houfe of Brunfwick Lunenburg, whicli received great additions
of territory, during his adminiftration : he died, 1633. Auguftus ferved
7LS a volunteer vnder Henry IV. of France, and made a campaign againlt
the Turks : his inheritance was increafed by the accefTion of the principa-
lity of Caicnberg, which fell to him by a family compaft. He died
1636, having firfl refigncd the regency to his brother Frederic, cil
account of his ill ftatc of health. Frederic was now fixty-three years of
age. His regency was diftinguifhed for the reformation of the coin thea
greatly debafed in Germany. He fucceeded to the territories of Harburg;,
and died 1648, aged 74, having furvived his three younger brothers,
Magnus, George, and John.

George was one of the bell foldiers in Europe, and fiding with.
Guflavus Adolphus, fuccefs generally attended his valour. Being poi-
foned by a monk in feme wine in 1639, he languiihed till 1641, when he
died with the reputation of being the gi-eateft ftatefman, as well as the ableil;
general of his time. He married Anne Eleanor, daughter of the prince
of HefTe D^.rmftait, by whom he left four fons, Chrillian Lewis,
George William, John Frederic, and Ernell Augultus. He diredled by
his will, that his eldeil fon Ihculd inherit the principalities of Zell and
Grubenhagen, and his fecond fon that of Calenberg : in cafe of the
death of either without iffue, the third Ihould fupply his room ; and fo
on to the fourth, on the fame provifo, the eldcll furviving fon having it
in his option to take his choice of either of the diviftons.

He was fucceeded by his fon Chrillian Lewis, who founded an univer-
ilty at Lunenburgh, and erefted many other works of great llrength,
magnificence, and utility. He married Dorothy, daughter of Philip
duke of Holllein Glukfburg ; and dying in the year 1665, was fucceeded
in the principalities of Zell and Grubenhagen, which he had chofen, by
his brother George William ; who proved one of the mofl accomplifhed
princes of his age, and was engaged in the moll important events, both
civil and military, of thofe times. , He was equally fortunate and amiable
in his domejlic as in his public character. H? reunited to his family the
duchy of Saxe Lunenburg, by paying to the elector of Saxony, 1,100,000
florins, and fheltered in his dominions the French Proteftants exiled by
the revocation of the edift of Nantes. He died in 1705 of the chclic
and llrangury, occafioned by over-heating himfelf in hunting, an exer-
cife in which he much delighted, aged 82 years. He married Eleanor
of the houfe of Olbreufe in France, by whom he left only one daughter
Sophia Dorothy, who was married to his nephew George, afterwards
king of Great Britain.

John Frederic, the third fon of George already mentioned, in 1649
embraced the Roman Catholic religion. This prince, extremely polite
and learned, and a great traveller, by his wife Benedifta Henrietta
Philippina, daughter of the prince Palatine, had two daughters; Char^
Jotta Felicia, married to Reinald duke of Modena j the joungei" Wilhel-
jfpina Aipelia, to the emperor Jofeph. 1



After the peace of Weriphalia, the family of Brunfwick, by a family
compadl, obtained the alternate fuccefTion to the biihopric of Oinabrug
upon their renouncing certain claims; and Erneli: Augullus, youngeft fon
cf George, fo often mentioned before, fucceeded to that biiTiopric on the
death cf the cardinal of Wirtemberg, a prince of a conciliating paciiic
turn ; yet v/ho in all his condu<3: never loll fight of the liberties of Europe,
and was prefent with his brother George William, and alfo with the prince
of Orange, in feveral of their glorious campaigns. Upon the death of
his brother John Frederic, he came to the pofiefiicn of the principality of
Calenberg, in which the city of Hanover is iituated, where he tixed his
relidence. This prince with the confent of his brother George William,
duke of Zelj, made a kind of intail, by which the dominions of the
houfe of Brunfwick Lunenburg v/ere in future to be inherited without
divifion, by the right of primogeniture only.

In 1684, he fent 5000 men again il the Turks ; in 1689, he joined
the allied army, and was inllrumental in the taking cf Mentz. In 1690,
he had a body of 11,000 men in the Netherlands, under the command
of his eldeft fon George Lewis, who behaved there v/ith great bravery.
The emperor, and the allies, called upon him to reinforce their armies in
1692, when he added 5000 men to the troops he had then in Hungary,
and fent another body of 8000 to the Netherlands.

George William, having no male iUue, generoufly waved his right of
feniority, and threw the whole weight of his vail: merits in the empire
into his brother's fcale ; whence this family became the ninth eleftorate of
the empire : their pretenfions to that dignity, in point of antiquity, being
much better founded than thofe of many who adlually were electors ; and
by their perfonal conduct having been highly inltrumental in faving the
empire from the eifedts cf French ambition. Accordingly in the affem-
bly held at Augiburg in 1689, to confult about the election of a king of
the Komans, feme of the eleclors declaring the houfe of Bruniwick '
Lunenburg worthy of a feat in the el. floral college, it was focn after re-
folved, in the diet at Ratifbon, that in confidei-ation of the great merits
cf his highnefs Erneil Auguflus, and of his predeceflbrs, as alfo of his
power, confiderable rank in the empire, the great luccours he had already
granted, and which he v/as willing to continue for the future, and for
other great and weighty reafons, the dignity of eledtor of the Roman,
empire iliould be conferred upon him and his heirs male. The eleftoral
college not having confuked the college of the princes of the empire upon
this matter, the latter, to keep up their privileges, protefled it ;
however, the emperor that very year granting the inveiliture to Erneil:, his
dignity was foon after acknowledged by all parties, and the intail of
the primogeniture confirmed by the fanftion of the emperor and empire.
The dignity of arch-llandard-bearer was alfo annexed to this ninth
eleftorate, with a provifo, that the dignity of arch-treafurer fliould pafs
into it, if the eighth c!e6lorate fliould become vacant. •

Erneil Augullus, the firft eledor of Hanover, m.arried in the year 1658,
Sophia daughter of Frederic, eledlor Palatine, king of Bohemia, by
whom he had feven children. George Lewis, the eldeft who fucceeded
him, was born May the 28th, 1660 ; Frederic Auguftus was Jlain in
an allien againft the Turks in Tranfylvania, in 1690; as was alfo
Charles Philip, in a battle fought with the Turks in Albania the fame
year; Maximilian William, the third fon, died iield-marfhal of the Imr
periai army, in 17265 Cliriilianj on his return from engaging the


Prince of Wale si" 9

French near Ulm in 1703, was drowned in the Danube; the younp-eIl»
Ernefi; Augurtus, became bilhop of Ofaabrug, and died in 1728; and Sophia
Charlotte was married to Frederic I. king of Pruiha. Erncil himfclf
died -in 1698 beloved by his fubjedls. He was a great fehokr, and
being one of the fineft gentlemen of his age, may be confidered as a
iirll reformer and polilher of the German manners. That he v/as a
great csconomiii, appears, not only from the numerous forces he main-
tained, but from the elegance and magnificence of his court; wherehe
lived with the Hate and attendance of a crowned head, and was ccnfidcrcd
accordingly all over Europe. He was fucceeded in his eleftorate, and
hereditary pofTeilions, b]^ his eldeft fon George Lewis.

George Lewis, when but fifteen years of age, had accompanied his
father at the fiege of Triers in 1675, Vv'hen he gave am.azing proofs of
Valour and intrepidity. In 1676 and 1677, he exhibited freih proofs of
courage at the fieges of Maeitricht and of Charleroy ; and in 1678 he
affiiled in the viftory, which the prince of Orange gained over the French
hear Mons. In 1685 he joined the Imperial forces, at the head of 10,000
troops of Brunfwick and Lunenburg, and thereby enabled the Chriilians
to undertake the fiege of Nevvhaufel, Vv'hich was taken by afiault, the
Turkiih army repulfed, and Gran relieved. In 1686 he was very fer-
viceable at the fiege of Buda, which the Turks refolutely defended ; but
the Imperial troops took it by ilorm, in fight of the Turkim army
marching to its relief: which v/as afterwards put to flight, and the
cam.paign glorioufly ended.

In 1688 a v/ar breaking-out between the Empire and France, George
was very affiducus to fruilrate the defigns of the French. In 1689, at.
the head of his father's troops, he was the chief means of reducing
Ivlentz and Bonn ; and, in 1690, with 10, coo Lunenburg troops, he joined
the Spaniards, aQ;aintl: the French, in the Netherlands. He fip-nalized
himifelf in the battles near Fleury and Landen, in which, though not
viclorious, the troops of Lunenburg, animated by the intrepid behaviour
of their young commander, performed wonders.

King William having the fuccelTion of the family of Hanover to the
crown of England greatly at heart, upon the death of the duke of
Glouceiler, fon to the princefs Anne, married to George prince of Den-
mark, had an interview with the princefs Sophia, eleftrefs dowager of
Hanover, in which the meafure was finally fettled ; and an aft of parlia-
ment made, intitled an a6l for the farther limitation of the crown, and
better fecuring the rights and liberties of the people, whereby it was
ehadled, " That the moll excellent princefs Sophia, eleftrefs and duchefs
dowager of Brunfwick Lunenburg, daughter to the princefs Elizabeth,
late queen of Bohemia, daughter to James I. king of England, ihould
be declared next in fucceffion to the crown of England, France, and
Ireland, after his m.ajefty king V»''iliam, and the princefs Anne of Den-
mark, and in default of ilTue, of the princefs Anne, and ofliis A^ajefly;
and that the faid crown fhouki remain to the princefs Sophia, and the
heirs of her body, being proteilants." The proteft entered by the dutchefs
of Savoy, daughter [to the dutchefs of Orleans, and grand-daughter to
Charles I. upon this occafion, is too curious and interefling to be omitted.
It imported, " That Anne of Orleans, duchefs of Savoy, &c. Princefs
of the blood royal of England, by the royal princefs of Great Britain
Henrietta her mother, put fo high a value upon that prerogative, that
Ihe made ufe of the opportunity that then oitered, t^ f^t it forth before

Numb. L ° C the

10 The Complete ENGLISH PEERAGE.

the eyes of the whole Britilli nation, as an evidence of her right to that
augull throne. That therefore being informed, that it had been refolved
in parliament, that being the only daughter of the late princefs royal,
Henrietta her mother, fhe was the next in fucceiTion, after king Vv'illiamlll.
and the princefs Anne of Denmark, according to the lav/s and cufioms
of England, which always preferred the neareil, to the remcteft line.
That her title being thus notorioufly known and indifputable, Hood in
need of no farther proof. However, that flie thought fit to prcteit againll
all refolutions and deci/ions contrary thereto, in the bell and moll ef-
fetftual manner, that might be pracftifed in fuch a cafe ; wherein Ihe
complied rather with cuKom than neceffity, becaufe fae had fo great an
idea of the wifdom and jullice of tlie king and parliament, that Ihe had no
cauie to fear they would do any thing prejudical to her and her children.'*

The princefs Sophia died of an apoplectic fit in the 84th year of her
age, a few weeks before the death of queen Anne, by ail parties acknow-
ledged the ornament of her fex, both by her natural and acquired en-
dowments. The death of queen Anne, which immediately followed
that of the princefs Sophia, made way for the fucceffion of his eledfloral
highnefs to the crown of Great Britain, the Scotcli Parliament having
before the Union fettled the crown in the fime line, and their fucceflion
to the Britilh realms having been previoully confirmed by the treaty of
Utrecht. Before the queen's death, byamafter-Itroke in politics, the elector's
refident at the Britifh court received from him three inftruments, nomi-
nating certain noblemen, to be added as lords juflices to the feven great
ofiicers of the realm, viz. debtor Tennifon, archbilhop of Canterbury;
lord chancellor Harcourt; John Shefiield duke of Buckingham, lord
prefident ; Charles Talbot duke of Shrewlbury, lord treafurer ; William
i^^fr^gs earl of Dartmouth, lord privy feal ; Thomas Wentworth earl of
Stairbrd, firil lord of the Admiralty ; Sir Thomas Parker, lord chief
juflice of the King's Bench : the perfons added by the elector of Hanover
were the dukes of Somerfet, Bolton, Devonihire, Kent, Argyle,
Monmouth, and Roxburgh ; the earls of Pomfret, Anglefea, Carlifle,
Nottingham, Abingdon, Scarborough, Oxford ; and the lords vifcounts
Townfhend, Halifax, and Cooper. The nation from this appointment
conceived hopes of his majefty's moderation during his future reign, feme
of thefe lords being known Tories, and indeed his fubfequent condudl
was anfwerable to their expedlations. However, the earl of IV'Jar, in the
late reign fecretary of Hate for Scotland, a man of more cunning than •
prudence, having been difappointed in his views, fomented a rebellion ,
in Scotland, 17 15, which communicated itfelf to England; but the,
rebels were fortunately fupprefled, though fupported by the pretender in
perfon : few examples of juilice v/ere made, and his majefly by his ■
moderation, and the firmnefs of his councils, was confidered as the
arbiter of the fate of Europe.

In 1727, having fettled the government of Great Britain, he landed on
the feventh of June in Holland ; but, on his journev to his electoral do-
minions, was •feized with a lethargic diforder, which carried him off on -
the tenth of June, foon after he reached his brother's palace at Ofnabrug,
in the 67th year of his age. His royal majeily George I. married in
1682 his coufm Sophia Dorothea, daughter of George William, duke of
Zell, by which marriage the whole dominions belonging to the princes
of Brunfwick Lunenburg, both acquired and hereditary, were united in
that family.


r_,// // Cff/'/ /// //f,^ ^/'(/ /^// (J ^/NwUffrf/^Ao/^e

P R I N C E of W A L E S. II

By this princefs he had i/Tae the following year George Aiiguftus ; on
the 9th of November, 1706, created baron of Tevvkibury in the countr
of Gloucefter ; vifcount Northalterton in the county of York; earl of
Milford Haven in the county of Pembroke; and marquis and duke of
Cambridge. After the accelfion of his father, he was on the 27 th of
September, 17 14, created prince of Wales, earl of Chefler and Flint:
being in his own right duke of Cornwall. In the following yea' the
South Sea cdmp::iny eleded his royal highnefs their governor ; the artHery
company petitioned him to accept of the poll of their captain general ;
and on the tenth of April he accepted the chancellorfhip of Trin):y col-
lege Dublin : and whan his majefty in 17 16 vifited his Germar domi-
nions, he left his highnefs regent of the kingdom. Upon tk fudden
death of his royal father, he fucceeded to the throne of Grea- Britain,

Online LibraryFrederic BarlowThe complete English peerage: or, A genealogical and historical account of the peers and peeresses of this realm, to the year 1775, inclusive (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 69)