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PROSE WRITERS



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FUEDERIC 11. HEDGE



ILLUSTRATED "WITH PORTRAITS



Die deutsche Nation ist nicht die ausgebildetste, nicht die reichste an. Geistos-
und Kunstprodukten, aber sie ist die aufgeklaerteste, weil sia die giuendlichste ist,
sie ist eine philosophische Nation — Fs. H. Jacobi,



SECOND EDITION

PHILADELPHIA

PUBLISHED BY CAREY AND HART

1849



ENTERKD, ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONGRESS, IN THE YEAR 1847. BY

CAREYANDHART,

IN THE clerk's OFFICE OF THE DISTRICT COURT FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT

OF PENNSYLVANIA.



STEREOTYPED BY J. FAGAN.
PRINTED BY T. K. AND P. G. COLLINS.



(2)



^-



P EEP A C E



^WVS/W/>.^WVW\/V>./W\A



The volume of translations which is now offered to the Public,
though bearing the title, "Prose Writers of Germany," in conformity
with the series of publications to which it belongs, is far from pre-
tending to be a complete exhibition of the prose literature of that
nation.

The impossibility of representing in adequate specimens, the vast
body of writers who might claim to be represented under this title,
too-ether with the unsatisfactoriness of brief extracts, has induced the
editor to adopt a different course, — to give few writers and large
samples, and instead of a " collection," as Mr. Longfellow has cha-
racterized his "Poets and Poetry of Europe," to make a selection.

Every selection is liable to the charge of partiality ; and those who
are much conversant with German literature will doubtless miss some
favorites who shall seem to them entitled to a place in these pages.
It is believed however that the Classics, in the stricter sense, (writers
of the first class) are mostly here. With regard to the rest, access or
want of access to their writings has had some share, as well as per-
sonal preference, in determining the admissions and the omissions.

Some difficulty has been found in reconciling a just apportionment
of space in our pages to different writers with the prescribed limits
of the work. The difficulty, the editor is aware, has not been entirely
overcome. While want of room has compelled him to omit altogether
some writers whom he would gladly have introduced into the present

Ciii)



/?0*?^ 'Ti\



IV



PREFACE.



selection, he regrets that the same necessity has required him in
several instances to limit his extracts.

The editor avails himself of this opportunity to thank those who
have assisted him in the work of translation. Besides his indebted-
ness to existing publications, especially to Carlyle's German Romance,
he has to acknowledge the contributions of J. Elliot Cabot, Esq.,*
Rev. J. Weiss,t Rev. C. T. Brooks,t Mr. Geo. Bradford,^ and Mr.
Geo. Ripley. II The extracts from Moser, with the exception of the
first, and that from Hamann, are by the same, anonymous, contribu-
tor. Likewise the translations from Hegel are by an anonymous
friend possessing peculiar qualifications for that difficult task. Above
all, his thanks are due to the Rev. Mr. Furness of Philadelphia, who
has kindly taken upon himself the general superintendence of the
work while passing through the press.

Bangor, May, 1847. ' ,



* In the translations from Kant with the exception of the last, and in the translation
from Schelling.

t In the translation from Schiller. ~ , .. ,

I In the extracts from the Titan of Jean Paul.

§ In the translation from Goethe's Wahlverwandtschaiteu.

II In the translation from Schleiermacher.



CONTENTS



MARTIN LUTHER Page 9

On Education 1 1

Conceruin" God the Father 15

Concerning Angels 16

Simple Method how to Pray 18

Prayer at the Diet of Worms 20

Selections from Letters — Letter to the Elector Frederic 20

To the Elector John 23

To Caspar Guttel 23

To his Wife 25

To his Wife 25

To his Wife 26

JACOB BOEHME 35

To the Reader 37

Of God and the Divine Nature 37

Of God's First Manifestation of Himself in the Trinity 38

Of Eternal Nature after the fall of Lucifer, &c 38

Of the Creation of Angels, &c 41

Describing what Lucifer was, &c 41

Of the Third Principle, or Creation of the Natural World 42

Of Paradise 42

Concerning the Supersensual Life 43

Concernina; the Blessing of God in the Goods of this World 44

On True Resignation 45

ABRAHAM A SANCTA CLARA 46

On Envy 46

JUSTUS MOSER \ 50

Letter from an Old Married Woman, &c 52

How to Attain to an Adequate Expression of Our Ideas 54

Moral Advantages of Public Calamities 55

IMMANUEL KANT 57

From the Critique of the Judgment 63

1* (V)

I . . — _ —



vi CONTENTS



The Notion of Adaptation in Nature 65

Judgment by JMeans of Taste, Aesthetic 66

The Pleasure that Determines the Aesthetic Judgment 67

The Pleasure Derived from the Agreeable 67

The Pleasingness of Good, Connected with Interest 67

Comparisons of the Three Kinds of Pleasure 68

The Beautiful What 68

Comparison of the Beautiful with the Agreeable 68

An Aesthetic Judgment, when not pure 69

Of the Ideal of Beauty 70

Plan of an Everlasting Peace 71

Of the Guaranty of an Everlasting Peace 73

Supposed Beginning of the History of Man ., 74

Remark 77

Conclusion of the History 78

Concluding Remark 79



o



JOHANN GOTTHOLD EPHRAIM LESSING 81

From Laocoon 85

From the Educator of the Human Race 91

Fables 95

Extract 98

MOSES MENDELSSOHN 99

Letter to J. C. Lavater 102

Supplementary Remarks 106

On the Sublime and the Naive 107

JOHANN GEORG HAMANN 119

The Merchant 121

CHRISTOPH MARTIN WIELAND ." 128

Philosophy Considered as the Art of Life 130

Letter to a Young Poet 132

On the Relation of the Agreeable and the Useful 1 38

From the Dialogues of the Gods 141

JOHANN AUGUST MUSAUS ..........' 154

Dumb Love * 158

MATTHIAS CLAUDIUS 182

Dedication to Friend Hans 182

Advertisement to Subscribers 182

Speculations on New Years' Day 183

The Sorrows of Young Werther 183

On Prayer 183

A Correspondence 1 84

On Klopstock's Odes 185



CONTENTS. vii



JOHANN CASPAR LAVATER 187

On the Nature of Man 191

Of the Truth of Physiognomy 193

Of the Universahty of Physiognomical Sensations 1 95

On Freedom and Necessity 196

Of the Excellence of the Form of Man 197

Of the Congeniality of the Human Form 198

Resemblance between Parents and Children 200

Observations on the Dying and the Dead 202

Of the Influence of Countenance on Countenance 202

Of the Influence of the Imagination 203

Male and Female 204

FRIEDRICH HEINRICH JACOBI 206

From the Flying Leaves 209

Learned Societies 220

JOHANN GOTTFRIED VON HERDER 231

Love and Self 236

Tithon and Aurora 242

Metempsychoris 248

JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GCETHE 263

The Vicar of Wakefield 270

From the Elective Affinities 278

Confessions of a Fair Saint 282

Indenture 304

The Exequies of Mignon 305

Extracts 300

Novella 345

The Tale 353

JOHANN CHRISTOPH FRIEDRICH VON SCHILLER 365

Upon Naive and Sentimental Poetry 372

JOHANN GOTTLIEB FICHTE 383

The Destination of Man 384

JOHANN PAUL FRIEDRICH RICHTER 405

Rome 407

Leibgeber to Siebenkas 411

Second Extract from " Flower, Fruit and Thorn pieces" 413

Dream 415

Letter to my Friends 417

The Marriage 418

Thoughts 420



AUGUST WILHELM VON SCHLEGEL 423

Lectures on Dramatic Literature 424



viii CONTENTS.



FRIEDRICH DANIEL ERNST SCHLEIERMACHER 441

Discourse IV. Church and Priesthood 441

GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH HEGEL 446

Introduction to the Philosophy of History 447

Who thinks abstractly ? 456

JOHANN HEINRICH DANIEL ZSCHOKKE 459

The Poor Vicar 459

FRIEDRICH VON SCHLEGEL 472

Lectures on the Philosophy of History 473

NOVALIS (FRIEDRICH VON HARDENBERG) 489

From Heinrich von Oefterdinger 491

From the Fragments 496

LUDWIG TIECK ............!...... 498

The Elves 501

FREDERIC WILLIAM JOSEPH VON SCHELLING 509

On the Relation of the Plastic Arts of Nature 510

ERNST THEODOR AMADEUS HOFFMANN 521

The Golden Pot .... 522

ADALBERT VON CHAMISSO 544

The Wonderful History of Peter Schlemihl 547




I ' ^t' :Ln 't* rnr



MARTIN LUTHER.



Born 14S3. Died 1346.



" Japeti de stirpe satum Dodore Luthcro
Majorem nobis nulla prop a go dabit."



To Martin Luther belongs, with strict
propriety, the foremost place in this collec-
tion intended to represent the German mind.
Luther is regarded by his countrymen as the
original of that mind, — the prototype of all that
is most distinctive in German modes of thougiit
and speech. Other writers of German had
attained to eminence before Iiim. Tauler, in
particular, the celebrated mystic of Strasburg,
is still an honored name. Nevertheless, the
national-intellectual life of Germany dates from
Luther as its parent source, and is emphati-
cally referred to him by a grateful posterity.
There is scarcely another instance in history,
in which an individual, without secular autho-
rity or military achievement, has so stamped
himself upon a people and made himself, to so
great an extent, the leader, the representative,
the voice of the nation. He has been to Ger-
many, in this respect, what Homer was to
Greece.

While devoting himself to the regeneration
of the national religion, he unconsciously con-
ferred upon the national literature a service as
signal in its kind, as any which the church de-
rived from his labors. He first gave to that
literature an adequate organ. He created the
language* which is now written and spoken
by educated Germans. For though a constant
approximation to the modern High German is
undoubtedly visible in the writings of his im-
mediate predecessors, — as e. g. in Albrecht
Diirer, the painter, and the translator of the
Gesta Romanorum, — there is still a great
stride between their language and the Lu-
theran, in point of movement and well-defined
inflection. On the whole, the modern Hiofh
German must be considered as having first at-

*" Er schufdie Deutsche Sprache." Heine. This may
seem too strongly put, when we consider the necessary
laws of language. The Lutheran was not a creation out
of nothing, certainly; but it was the evolution of a per-
fect and harmonious form out of a rude and undigested
mass.



tained its full development and perfect finish
in Luther's version of the Bible. By means
of that book, it obtained a currency which no-
thing else could have given it. It became
fixed. It became universal. It became the
organ of a literature which, more than any
other since the Greek, has been a literature
of ideas. It became the vehicle of modern
philosophy, — the cradle of those thoughts which,
at this moment, act most mtensely on the hu-
man mind.

Martin Luther was bom at Eisleben, in Sax-
ony, during a visit of his parents to that city,
November 10, 1483. His father, Hans Luther,
a poor miner, who had previously resided in
the village of Mohra, removed to Mansfeld the
following year; and here it was that Martin
received the first rudiments of education. At
the age of twenty, he obtained the degree of
Master at the University of Erfurth. His father
had destined him to the study of the Law, but
Theology drew him with irresistible attraction.
He became a monk of the Augustine order, at
Erfurth, and, in process of time. Doctor of Di-
vinity, at Wittenberg.

He began his labors, as a reformer, in the
year 1517, with an attack on the sale of Indul-
gences, in ninety-five propositions, which he
sent forth into the world, as it were a cartel
aimed at Tetzel and Rome. Three years later
we find him at the Diet of Worms, defending
himself and his doctrine before tiie emperor
Charles V. and the German princes. That
was the most remarkable assembly ever con-
vened on earth, — an empire against a man !
Lucas Cranach's picture represents Luther as
he stood there, so lone and strong, with his
great fire-heart, — a new Prometheus, confront-
ing the Jove of the sixteenth century and the
German Olympus. "Here I stand, I cannot
otherwise. God help me ! Amen." Imme-
diately upon this followed his translation of
the Bible, which was his best defence; and

'9)



10



MARTIN LUTHER.



from this time, until his death, which occurred
on the 18th February, 1540, such a succession
of labors in behalf of the Reformed religion, as
to justify tlie epitaph,

" Pestia cram vivens, moriens, tua mors ero Papa .'"

Luther is represented as a man of low sta-
ture* but handsome person, with a " clear brave
countenance," lively complexion, and falcon
eyes. Antonio Varillasf says; "Nature gave
him an Italian head upon a German body ; such
was his vivacity and diligence, his cheerfulness
and health." His voice was clear and pene-
trating, his eloquence overpowering. Me-
lanchthon, on beholding his picture, exclaimed,
" Fultnina erant singula verba tua." Another
contemporary said of him, that he was a man
" to stop the wrath of God." Another calls
him the third Elias. He was a liusband and a
father, fond of society, of a free and jovial na-
ture, much given to music, himself a composer
and an able performer on the flute. A man
of singular temperance and great industry.
He throve best on hard work and spare diet.
An easy life made him sick. As to his cha-
racter, a man without guile, open, sincere,
generous, obliging, patient, brave, devout. " He
was not only the greatest," says Henry Heine,|
" but the most German man of our history. In
his character all the faults and all the virtues
of the Germans are combined on the largest
scale. Then he had qualities which are very
seldom found united, which we are accustomed
to regard as irreconcileable antagonisms. He
was, at the same time, a dreamy mystic and
a practical man of action. His thoughts had
not only wings but hands. He spoke and he
acted. He was not only the tongue but the
sword of his time. Moreover, he was, at the
same time, a scholastic word-thresher and an
inspired, God-intoxicated prophet. When he
had plagued himself all day long with his dog-
matic distinctions, in the evening he took his

* " Untergesetzter Statur." See Des seligen Zeugen
Gottes. D. Martin Luther's Lcbens umstiinde in 4. Th.
von Friedrich Siegmund Keil. Leipzig. 17C4.

^ Liher hist, de hneres, quoted by Keil.

I Ziir Geschiclite iler Religion und Philosophic in
Deutschland. Salon, vol. 2d. Hamburg. 1835.



flute and gazed at the stars, dissolved in me-
lody and devotion. He could scold like a fish-
wife, and he could be soft, too, as a tender
maiden. Sometimes he was wild as the storm
that uproots the oak, and then again, he was
gentle as the zephyr that dallies with the vio-
let. He was full of the most awful reverence
and of self-sacrifice in honor of the Holy Spirit.
He could merge himself entirely in pure spi-
rituality. And yet he was well acquainted
with the glories of this world, and knew how
to prize them ; and out of his mouth blossomed
the famous saying,

" Wer nicht lieht Wein, Wether und Oesang,
Der blcibt ein J^Tarr sein Lebenlang."

He was a complete man, I would say, an ab-
solute man, one in whom matter and spirit
w^ere not divided. To call him a spiritualist,
therefore, would be as great an error as to call
him a sensualist. How shall I express it?
He had something original, incomprehensible,
miraculous, such as we find in all providential
men, — something awfully naive, blunderingly
wise, sublimely narrow; — something invinci-
ble, demoniacal."

The position which Luther holds in the es-
timation of his countrymen, as father of the
German language and literature, together with
the intrinsic worth of his writings, has seemed
to me to justify more copious extracts, than one
who knows him only as the great Reformer
or the dogmatic theologian, might expect to
find in a work like this. I have endeavored
to preserve in the translation the slight taste
of antiquity which marks the writer of the
sixteenth century ; although the language of
Luther is less antiquated than that of contem-
porary English writers. In fact tlie antiquity
resides in the thought ratiier than the idiom.
The idiom is substantially that of the present
day.

The following specimens, with the excep-
tion of the letters, are taken from the edition
of Luther's works by Walch, in twenty-four
vols. 4to. The letters are from the complete
collection published by Martin Leberecht de
Wette, in five vols. 8vo. Berlin. 1826.



MARTIN LUTHER.



11



ON EDUCATION.

FROM A-mSCOUESE ON THE SPIRITUAL ADVANTAGES ARISING FROM
THE FURTHERANCE OF SCHOOLS, AND THE INJURY CONSEQUENT
ON THE NEGLECT OF THEM.

Now if thou hast a child that is fit to receive
instruction, and art able to hold him to it and
dost not, but goest thy way and carest not what
shall become of the secular government, its
laws, its peace, &c., thou warrest against the
secular government, as much as in thee lies,
like the Turk, yea, like the Devil himself. For
thou withholdest from the kingdom, principal-
ity, country, city, a redeemer, comfort, corner-
stone, helper and saviour. And on thy account
the emperor loses both sword and crown; the
country loses safe-guard and freedom, and thou
art the man through whose fault (as much as
in thee lies) no man shall hold his body, wife,
child, house, home and goods in safety. Rather
thou sacrificest all these without ruth in the
shambles, and givest cause that men shall be-
come mere beasts, and at last devour one an-
other. This all thou wilt assuredly do, if thou
withdraw thy child from so wholesome a con-
dition, for the belly's sake. Now art thou not
a pretty man and a useful in the world? who
makest daily use of the kingdom and its peace,
and by way of thanks, in return, robbest the
same of thy son, and deliverest him up to ava-
rice, and labourest with all diligence to this
end, that there may be no man who shall help
maintain the kingdom, law and peace ; but that
all may go to wreck, notwithstanding thou thy-
self possessest and boldest body and life, goods
and honour by means of said kingdom.

I will say nothing here of how fine a plea-
sure it is for a man to be learned, albeit he
have never an office ; so that he can read all
manner of things by himself at home, talk and
converse with learned people, travel and act in
foreign lands. For peradventure there be few
who will be moved by such delights. But see-
ing thou art so bent upon mammon and victual,
look here and see how many and how great
goods God has founded upon schools and scho-
lars, so that thou shalt no more despise learning
and art by reason of poverty. Behold ! empe-
rors and kings must have chancellors and
scribes, counsellors, jurists and scholars. There
is no prince but he must have chancellors, ju-
rists, counsellors, scholars and scribes : so like-
wise, all counts, lords, cities, castles must have
syndics, city clerks, and other learned men ;
nay, there is not a nobleman but must have a
scribe. Reckon up, now, how many kings,
princes, counts, lords, cities and towns, &:c.
Where will they find learned men three years
hence? seeing that here and there already a
want is felt. Truly I think kings will have to
become jurists and princes chancellors, counts
and lords will have to become scribes, and
burgomasters sacristans.

Therefore I hold that never was there a bet-



ter time to study than now ; not only for the
reason that the art is now so abundant and so
cheap, but also because great wealth and honour
must needs ensue, and they that study now will
be men of price ; insomuch that two princes
and three cities shall tear one another for a
single scholar. For look above or around thee
and thou wilt find that innumerable offices wait
for learned men, before ten years shall have
sped ; and that few are being educated for the
same.

Besides honest gain, they have, also, honour.
For chancellors, city clerks, jurists, and people
in office, must sit with those who are placed on
high, and help counsel and govern. And they,
in fact, are the lords of this world, although
they are not so in respect of person, birth and
rank.

Solomon himself mentions that a poor man
once saved a city, by his wisdom, against a
mighty king. Not that I would have, herewith,
warriors, troopers, and what belongs to strife
done away, or despised and rejected. They
also, where they are obedient, help to preserve
peace and all things with their fist. Each has
his honour before God as well as his place and
work.

On the other hand, there are found certain
scratchers* who conceit that the title of writer
is scarce worthy to be named or heard. Well
then, regard not that, but think on this wise:
these good people must have their amusement
and their jest. Leave them their jest, but re-
main thou, nevertheless, a writer before God
and the world. If they scratch long, thou shalt
see that they honour, notwithstanding, the pen
above all things; that they jilace if|' upon hat
and helmet, as if they would confess, by their
action, that the pen is the top of the world,
without which they can neither be equij^ped
for battle nor go about in peace ; much less
scratch so securely. For they also have need
of the peace which the emperors, preachers and
teachers (the lawyers) teach and maintain.
Wherefore thou seest that they place our imple-
ment, the dear pen, uppermost. And with
reason, since they gird their own implement,
the sword, about the thighs ; there it hangs fitly
and well for their work ; but it would not be-
seem the head ; there must hover the plume.
If, then, they have sinned against thee, they
herewith expiate the offence, and thou must
forgive them.

There be some that deem the office of a
writer to be an easy and trivial office ; but to
ride in armour, to endure heat, cold, dust, thirst
and other inconvenience, they think to be la-
borious. Yea ! that is the old, vulgar, daily
tune ; that no one sees where the shoe pinches
another. Every one feels only his own troubles,



* Scharrhansen, men who scratch for money, and think
of nothing else. Tr.

tThe word Feder, feather, is used indifferently in Ger-
man to denote pen or plume. Tr.



12



MARTIN LUTHER.



and stares at the ease of others. True it is, it
would be difficuk for me to ride in armour ; but
then, on the other hand, I would like to see the
rider who should sit me still the whole day
long and look into a book, though he were not
compelled to care for aught, to invent or think
or read. Ask a chancery-clerk, a preacher or
an orator, what kind of work writing and ha-
ranguing is? Ask a schoolmaster what kind
of work is teaching and bringing up of boys ?
The pen is light, it is true, and among all trades
no tool so easily furnished as that of the writing-
trade, for it needeth only a goose's wing, of
which one shall everywhere find a sufficiency,
gratis. Nevertheless, in this employment, the
best piece in the human body, (as the head)
and the noblest member, (as the tongue) and
the highest work (as speech) must take part
and labour most; while, in others, either the
fist or the feet or the back, or members of that
class alone work; and they that pursue them
may sing merrily the while, and jest freely,
which a writer cannot do. Three fingers do
the work (so they say of writers), but the whole
body and soul must cooperate.

I have heard of the worthy and beloved em-
peror Maximilian, how, when the great boobies
complained that he employed so many writers
for missions and other purposes, he is reported
to have said; "what shall I dol They will
not suffer themselves to be used in this way,
therefore I must employ writers." And fur-
ther: "Knights I can create, but doctors I can-
not create." So have I likewise heard of a fine
nobleman, that he said, " I will let my son
study. It is no great art to hang two legs over
a steed and be a rider ; he shall soon learn me
that; and he shall be fine and well-spoken."

They say, and it is true, the pope was once
a pupil too. Therefore despise me not the fel-
lows who say '^ pancm propter Deuni' before the
doors and sing the bread-song.* Thou hearest,
as this psalm says, great princes and lords sing.
I too have been one of these fellows, and have
received bread at the houses, especially at
Eisenach, my native city. Although, afterward,
my dear father maintained me, with all love
and faith, in the high school at Erfurt, and, by
his sore sweat and labour, has helped me to
what I have become, — still I have been a beg-
gar at the doors of the rich, and, according to
this psalm, have attained so far by means of
the pen, that, now, I would not compound with
the Turkish emperor, to have his wealth and



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