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people who ought to be heard, first and last, are those who wish to get
innocent amusement on their one day of leisure; and the only thing which
the police need do is to see that they do get it without being defrauded
or tempted into vice. Only the actual existence of such temptation can
justify interference with dancing or card-playing in a private house.
The Sunday reforms most needed, however, are those which will promote
out-door exercise and mental culture.


1776. Declaration of American independence, July 4th.

1780. Emancipation in Massachusetts and Pennsylvania.

1783. Peace between IL S. A. and Great Britain, September 3d.

1785. Great prosperity of British factories about this time.

1787. Slavery prohibited north of Ohio River; slave-trade opposed in
England; Bentham's Principles of Morals and Legislation published.

1788. Constitution of U. S. A. ratified by a sufficient number of
States, June 21st.

1789. Bastille taken, July 14th.

1791. Paine's Rights of Man, Part L, published, March 13th; Louis XVI.
accepts the new constitution, September 14th.

1792. France a republic, September 21st.

1793. Slavery abolished in French colonies, February 4th.

1795. Insurrection in Paris crushed by Bonaparte, October 5th; free
public schools founded throughout France.

1796. Bonaparte commander of army of Italy, March 4th.

1797. French Directory makes itself absolute, September 4th; Venice
ceded by France to Austria.

1798. Irish rebellion, May 23d.

1799. Usurpation by Bonaparte, November 10th.

1800. Election of Jefferson; Schelling's Transcendental Idealism

1801. Inauguration of Jefferson, March 4th.

1802. Birth of Victor Hugo, February 26th; Lamarck's Recherches

1803. Hayti declares herself independent, January 2d; death of
Toussaint in prison, April 27th; birth of Emerson, May 25th; Emmet's
insurrection in Ireland, July 23d.

1804. The Code Napoleon announced, January; Napoleon pro-Liberty in the
Nineteenth Century claimed Emperor, May 18th; crowned, December 2d;
Schiller's William Tell published.

1805. Battle of Austerlitz, December 2d.

1806. Death of Schiller, May 9th; birth of J. S. Mill, May 20th; battle
of Jena, October 14th; Berlin decree of Napoleon against commerce with
Great Britain, November 21st.

1807. Slave-trade prohibited by Great Britain, March 25th; Peace of
Tilsit, July 7th, raises Napoleon to height of power; embargo laid by U.
S. A., December 22d; Oken announces the vertebral analogy of the skull;
Hegel's Phaenomenologie des Geistes published.

1808. Rebellion of Spaniards against French rule; witchcraft mob in
England; Goethe's Faust, Part L, published.

1809. Birth of Darwin, February 12th; revolt of Tyrolese under
Hofer, April 8th; states of the Church annexed to France, May 17th;
death of Paine, June 8th; Pope imprisoned, July 6th; divorce of
Josephine, December 15th; Lamarck's Philosophie Zoôlogique published.

1810. Hofer shot, February 20th; marriage of Napoleon with Austrian
Archduchess, April 1st; post-offices required to open every Sunday in U.
S. A., April 30th; revolt against Spanish rule of Buenos Ayres, May
25th, and of Chili, September 18th.

1811. Nottingham riots against machinery, November.

1812. Birth of Dickens, February 7th; war against Great Britain declared
by U. S. A., June 18th; Wellington enters Madrid, August 12th; Moscow
burned, September 14th; Byron's Childe Harold, Coleridge's Friend, and
Hegel's Logik published.

1813. Wellington invades France, October 7th; battle of Leipsic, October
16th, 18th, and 19th; Francia ruler of Paraguay; Unitarian disabilities
removed in England; Shelley's Queen Mab and Owen's New View of Society

1814. Napoleon is deposed by Senate, April 1st, and abdicates, April
11th; liberal constitution introduced by Louis XVIII., May; Washington
taken and burned by British, August 24th; Peace of Ghent between U. S.
A. and Great Britain, December 24th; Congress of Vienna opens November
3d; graves of Voltaire and Rousseau violated.

1815. Battle of New Orleans, January 8th; Waterloo, June 18th;
controversy of Unitarians and Trinitarians in U. S. A.; last heretic
burned in Mexico; Lamarck publishes the first volume of his Histoire

1817. Shelley's children taken from him on account of his opinions,
March 26th; demonstration at the Wartburg, October 18th; unusual poverty
in England; her authors and orators made liable to imprisonment without
a trial; Ben-tham demands suffrage for men and women not illiterate;
Shelley's Revolt of Islam published.

1818. Chili liberated by battle of Maipu, won by San Martin, April 5th;
religious tests abolished in Connecticut; Hannah M. Crocker's Rights of
Women published.

1819. Assassination of Kotzebue, March 23d; Carlsbad Conference, August
1st; "Peterloo" massacre at Manchester, August 16th; Shelley's
Prometheus Unbound published.

1820. Revolution in Spain, January 1st; and at Naples, July 2d;
assassination of French princes, February 13th, causes reaction against
liberalism; birth of Herbert Spencer, April 27th; Owen's plan of
Socialism proposed, May 1st; conference of Troppau, December 8th;
Missouri Compromise; Sydney Smith asks, "Who reads an American book?";
Irving's Rip Van Winkle and Legend of Sleepy Hollow published.

1821. Brazil begins a revolt, January 1st, as do Greece and Sardinia
in April, and Peru in July; death of Napoleon, May 5th; Venezuela and
Colombra made free by battle of Carabolo, won June 24th, by Bolivar;
Austria supreme in Italy; Lundy begins his Genius of Universal

1822. Death of Shelley, July 8th; independence of Brazil proclaimed,
September 8th; massacre at Scio; Fourrier's book on Association

1823. Spanish patriots crushed by French army, April; Monroe Doctrine
announced, December 1st; British Anti-Slavery Society formed; Victor
Hugo's Odes and Ballads published.

1824. Mexico a republic, January 31st; Bolivar, dictator of Feru,
February 10th, defeats Spaniards at Ayachuco, December 9th; death of
Byron, April 19th; accession of Charles X., September 16th; repeal
of statutes forbidding English labourers to combine or emigrate;
Westminster Review founded.

1825. Much opposition to slavery in Kentucky, Maryland, and North
Carolina; many socialist communities founded in U. S. A.; elective
courses of study at Harvard College, and also at the University of
Virginia, where attendance at religious exercises is made voluntary;
Coleridge's Aids to Reflection published.

1826. Citizens of New York petition for repeal of Fugitive Slave
Law, and for emancipation in the District of Columbia.

1827. Battle of Navarino, October 20th; Taylor sent to prison for
blasphemy, October 24th.

1828. Test Act repealed; Frances Wright lectures against clergy.

1829. Jackson inaugurated March 4th; Catholic Emancipation Act signed,
April 13th; Miss Wright opens a Hall of Science in New York City on
Sunday, April 25th; James Mill's Analysis and Fourrier's Industrial New
World published.

1830. Independence of Greece acknowledged by Turkey, April 25th;
accession of William IV., July 26th; revolution at Paris begins July
27th; King's troops driven out, July 29th; he is succeeded by Louis
Philippe, August 9th; revolts in Brussels, Warsaw, and Dresden;
independence of Belgium acknowledged, December 26th; Hetherington sent
to prison for six months for publishing The Poor Man's Guardian; Victor
Hugo's Hernani acted; Tennyson's Poems and Lyell's Principles of Geology

1831. First number of The Liberator\ January 1st, and of The
Investigator, April 2d; Carlile sent to prison for his writings, January
10th; Cobbett tried and acquitted, July 31st; massacre of fifty-five
white men, women, and children by slaves in Virginia, Sunday, August
21st; Warsaw surrenders to Russians, September 7th; Reform Bill defeated
by bishops, October 7th; Jamaica insurrection, December 22d; free trade
convention in Philadelphia; Victor Hugo's Notre Dame de Paris published.

1832. New England Anti-Slavery Society founded in Boston, January
1st (becomes Mass. A. S. in 1836); death of Goethe, March 22d; the
insurrection at Paris described in Les Misérables, June 5th and 6th;
Reform Bill passed and signed, June 7th; Jackson re-elected, November
6th; woman suffrage lecture in London, December 2d; Jackson's
proclamation against attempt of South Carolina to secede, December
11th; bloody resistance to tithes in Ireland; Elliott's Corn Law Rhymes

1833. Gradual reduction of tariff voted by Congress, March 1st; death
of Bentham, June 6th; Act of Parliament for emancipation in West
Indies passed August 28th; American Anti-Slavery Society founded at
Philadelphia, December; pro-slavery mobs there and in New York City;
municipal suffrage extended in Scotland; unsectarian public schools in
Ireland; first free town library in U. S. A. founded at Peterboro, N.
H., and opened Sundays thenceforth; Emerson's first lecture; Carlyle's
Sartor Resartus published.

1834. Emancipation in West Indies takes place, August ist; new poor law
in England, August 14th; insurrection headed by Mazzini in Italy.

1835. Death of Cobbett, June 16th; anti-slavery periodicals taken from
post-office at Charleston, S. C, and burned by mob, July; convent at
Charlestown, Mass., burned by a mob, August; Garrison mobbed in Boston,
and other abolitionists in New York and Vermont, October 21st; extension
of municipal suffrage in England; Tocqueville's Democracy in America
and Strauss's Life of Jesus published.

1836. Transcendental Club founded in Boston, September; Parker begins
to preach; tithes commuted in England; taxes on newspapers reduced;
dissenters permitted to marry without disobedience to conscience;
Emerson's Nature and Dickens' Pickwick Papers published.

1837. Discussion of slavery in House of Representatives suppressed,
January; Miss Grimké's anti-slavery lectures, June; Emerson's address
on The American Scholar, August 31st; Anti-Slavery Convention of N. E.
Methodists, October 25th; Carlyle's French Revolution published.

1838. Emerson's Divinity School Address, July 15th; Kneeland imprisoned
sixty days, that same summer, for blasphemy; Pennsylvania Hall burned by
a pro-slavery mob; Irish tithe system reformed; daguerreotypes
invented; Atlantic crossed by steam; railroad from London to Birmingham;
Channing's Self-Culture published.

1839. Anti-Corn-Law League organised, March 20th; unsectarian common
schools in England; great Chartist petition; Pope forbids attendance at
the scientific congress at Pisa.

1840. Penny postage, January 10th; nomination of candidate for
President, April ist, by Liberty party: quarrels in May among
abolitionists; World's Anti-Slavery Convention at London, in June,
refuses seats to female delegates; local self-government in Irish
cities; protest of American Catholics against sectarianism of public
schools; The Dial begins; Carlyle's Heroes and Hero Worship published.

1841, Hetherington imprisoned in England for publishing Letters to the
Clergy, and the editor of the Oracle of Reason for attacking the Bible;
Emerson's first volume of Essays published.

1842. Garrison calls on free States to secede, May; death of Channing,
October 2d; Brook Farm started, as are many communties about this time;
Spencer's theory of the limits of government published, 1844. Morse
proves value of telegraph by announcing nomination of Frelinghuysen for
Vice-President by Whigs, May 1st; disunion banner publicly accepted by
Garrison, June 1st; annexation of Texas and reduction of tariff decided
by election on November 5th; rule against discussing slavery repealed by
House of Representatives; Lowell's Poems published.

1845. Parker begins to preach regularly in Boston, February 16th; potato
rot in Ireland, August; Vestiges of Creation published.

1846. Mexico invaded by U. S. troops, March; free trade established
in England, June 25th, and bill to reduce American tariff signed, June
26th; first volume of Grote's Greece and first number of Lowell's Biglow
Papers published.

1847. Mexicans defeated at Buena Vista by General Taylor, February 22d
and 23d; death of O'Connell, May 15th.

1848. Revolution in Paris, February 22d; King abdicates, February 24th;
insurrections in Munich, Vienna, Berlin, Venice, and Milan in March,
afterwards in other cities; "spirit rappings" at Rochester, N.Y.,
begin March 31st; Chartist demonstration at London, April 10th;
Emancipation decreed by French Republic, April 27th; socialist
insurrection at Paris, June 23d, 24th, 25th, and 26th; "Woman's Rights"
Convention at Seneca Falls, N. Y., July 19th; revolt in Ireland, July
29th; Buffalo Convention of Free Soilers, August 9th; Kossuth dictator
of Hungary, September 25th; State constitution and town ordinances
made in October by citizens of California without Federal sanction;
pro-slavery defeat at election of Taylor, November 7th; flight of Pope
from Rome, November 24th; Louis Napoleon president of France, December
10th; Lowell's Vision of Sir Launfal, Fable for Critics, and Biglow
Papers published, 1849. Defeat of King of Sardinia by Austrians at
Novara, March 23d, prevents liberation of Italy; Rome captured by
French, July 3d; Hungarian army surrendered to Russians by Gorgei,
August 13th; Venice taken by Austrians, August 28th; Emancipation
Convention in Kentucky.

1850. Death of Wordsworth, April 24th, and of President Taylor, July
9th; Fugitive Slave Bill signed, September 18th; first national
"Woman's Rights" Convention at Worcester, Mass., October 23d and 24th;
Bradlaugh's first lecture; Hawthorne's Scarlet Letter, Spencer's Social
Statics, and Tennyson's In Memoriam published.

1851. London Great Exhibition opens May ist; a fugitive slave rescued at
Boston, Sunday, February 16th, another at Syracuse, N. Y., October ist;
usurpation of Louis Napoleon, December 2d, 1851.

1852. Uncle Tom's Cabin published, March 20th; death of Frances Wright,
and accession of Napoleon III., December 2d; Herbert Spencer announces
the principle of Differentiation.

1854. Repeal of Missouri Compromise proposed by Douglas, January
23d; return of Burns, a fugitive slave, from Boston, June 2d; U. S.
Constitution publicly burned by Garrison, July 4th; Kansas election
carried by border ruffians, November 29th; Thoreau's Walden published.

1855. Spencer's Pyschology and Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass published,
1856. Sumner assaulted, May 22d..

1857. Disunion Convention, Worcester, Mass., January 15th; death of
Béranger, July 16th, and of Comte, September 5th; tariff reduced twenty
per cent, in U. S. A.; Buckle's History of Civilisation, vol. i.,

1858. Essays by Darwin and Wallace read in public, July ist; Jews
admitted to Parliament by act passed July 23d; death of Robert Owen,
November 17th; Lincoln and Douglas campaign in Illinois.

1859. Austrians defeated at Magenta, June 4th, and Solferino.

June 24th; Lombardy annexed to Sardinia by treaty of Villafranca, July
nth; John Brown takes possession of Harper's Ferry, Sunday, October
16th, and is tried November 2d; Darwin's Origin of Species published,
November 24th; John Brown hung, December 2d. 1860. Split of Democratic
party, April 30th; death of Theodore Parker, May 10th; Garibaldi enters
Naples, September 7th; election of Lincoln, November 6th; secession of
South Carolina, December 20th; annexation of two Sicilies to Sardinia,
December 26th; Mill on Liberty published.

1861. Confederate States of America organised, February 8th; protective
tariff passed, March 2d; Russian serfs emancipated, March 3d; Lincoln
inaugurated, March 4th; Victor Emmanuel King of Italy, March 17th;
Fort Sumter bombarded, April 12th, surrendered, April 13th; Lincoln's
proclamation, Monday, April 15th, calls all the North to arms; death of
Cavour, June 6th; Union defeat at Bull Run, Sunday, July 21st.

1862. Paper money made legal tender in U. S. A., February 25th; return
of fugitives from slavery by army or navy forbidden, March 13th; negro
soldiers, April; death of Thoreau, May 6th, and of Buckle, May 29th;
disastrous campaign of McClellan in Virginia ends by his retreat, July
8th; Union victory at Antietam, September 19th; emancipation announced
as a possible war measure by Lincoln, September 22d; Union defeat at
Fredericksburg, December 13th; Victor Hugo's Les Misérables published,
also Spencer's First Principles containing his full theory of
Integration and Differentiation.

1863. Lincoln proclaims emancipation, January 1st; signs bills
suspending Habeas Corpus Act and establishing conscription, March 3d;
Union defeat at Chancellorsville, May 3d; Vallandigham sentenced, May
7th; battle of Gettysburg, July 1st, 2d, and 3d, ending in a Union
victory; Vicksburg surrendered to General Grant, July 4th; Mississippi
opened by surrender of Port Hudson, July 9th; Union victories at Lookout
Mountain, November 24th, and Chattanooga, November 25th; Fenian
Convention at Chicago, November 25th; Darwinism much opposed by European
clergy about this time.

1864. General Grant takes command of all the Union armies, March 12th;
undecisive battles in the Wilderness and at Spottsylvania, May 5th-10th;
Fugitive Slave Act repealed, June 23d; Nevada admitted, October 31st;
Lincoln re-elected, November 8th; Sherman marches from Atlanta, November
16th, and enters Savannah, December 22d.

1865. Death of Cobden, April 2d; Richmond entered by coloured cavalry,
April 3d; Lee surrenders, April 9th; Lincoln shot, Good Friday, April
14th, dies April 15th; slavery abolished by Thirteenth Amendment,
December 18th; Lecky's Rationalism published.

1866. Prussian victory over Austria at Kônîggratz, July 3d; Venice part
of Kingdom of Italy, November 4th.

1867. First convention of the Free Religious Association, May 30th;
suffrage extended in England, August 15th; Home Rule in Hungary.

1868. Fourteenth Amendment in force, July 28th; Cuban declaration of
independence, October 10th.

1869. Irish Church disestablished, July 26th; witnesses allowed to
affirm in Great Britain.

1870. Death of Dickens, June 9th; Napoleon III. defeated at

Sedan, September 1st; France a republic, September 4th; Rome part of the
kingdom of Italy, October 9th; Inger-soll begins to lecture; Home Rule
agitation in Ireland, 1871. Paris surrendered to Prussians, January
28th; Communists supreme there, March 18th, suppressed, May 28th;
emancipation in Brazil; Darwin's Descent of Man published.

1872. Death of Mazzini, March 10th; secret ballot in England; Abbot's
"Demands of Liberalism" published in The Index (which began January 1,

1873. Spain a republic, February 11th; death of J. S. Mill, May 8th;
American Liberal League, September 1st.

1874. Military usurpation at Madrid, January 3d; death of Sumner, March
11th; citizens of District of Columbia disfranchised, June 17th;
Alphonso XII. king of Spain, December 30th; Mrs. Besant begins to
lecture; Victor Hugo's Ninety-Three published.

1875. Sunday Society organised at London.

1876. Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia opens, May 10th, and
conventiom of Liberal League, July 1st; disputed election for President,
November 7th; Sunday convention in Boston, November 15th; vivisection
restricted in England; Cuban rebellion suppressed, 242 Liberty in the
Nineteenth Century.

1877. Museum of Fine Arts in Boston open in and after March on Sundays.

1878. Anti-clerical resolution passed by Woman Suffrage Convention,
Rochester, N. Y., July; split of Liberal League at Syracuse, N. Y.,
Sunday, October 27th; Professor Winchell obliged to leave Nashville,
Tenn., for evolutionism.

1879. Specie payment resumed in U. S. A., January 1st; death of
Garrison, May 24th; Henry George's Progress and Poverty published.

1880. Bradlaugh refused his seat in Parliament, May 21st; many patriots
banished to Siberia.

1881. Czar Alexander II. assassinated, March 13th, anti-Jewish mobs on
and after April 27th; Bradlaugh excluded by force, August 1st.

1882. Death of Longfellow, March 24th, of Darwin, April 18th, of
Emerson, April 27th, and of Garibaldi, June 2d.

1883. Foote and Ramsay, English journalists, sentenced respectively to
twelve and nine months in prison for blasphemy.

1884. Death of Wendell Phillips; February 2d; Cleveland elected
President, November 4th; Professor Woodrow dismissed from Presbyterian
Theological Seminary at Columbia, S. C, for teaching evolution, December

1885. Death of Victor Hugo, May 20th, and of General Grant, July 23d.

1886. Bradlaugh takes his seat, January 13th; railroad strike in

Missouri suppressed by Federal troops, March; bloody conflict of Chicago
anarchists with police, May 4th; statue of Liberty unveiled in New York
Harbour, October 28th.

1887. Chicago anarchists hung, November 11th.

1888. U. S. tariff reduced by Mills Bill, July 21st; Cleveland defeated,
November 6th; imprisonment in Sweden for blasphemy; Bellamy's Looking
Backward published.

1889. Brazil a republic, November 15th; death of Browning, December

1890. Australian ballot tried in Rhode Island, April 2d; U. S.
tariff raised by McKinley Bill, passed by the 4 Billion Dollars
Congress, and signed October 1st.

1891. Death of Bradlaugh, January 30th, and of Lowell, August 12th; Jews
expelled from Moscow in April, and much persecuted this year and in
1892; New York Museum of Art opened on Sunday, May 31st, to 10,000

1892. Death of Walt Whitman, March 26th, of Whittier, September 7th, and
of Tennyson, October 6th; bill excluding Chinese from U. S. A. signed,
May 5th; Congress votes for closing Chicago Exposition on Sundays, July
19th; Cleveland re-elected, November 8th; New York Museum of Natural
History open Sundays; revised edition of Spencer's Social Statics

1893. Chicago Exposition formally opened May ist, first open
Sunday, May 28th; Parliament of Religions begins Monday, September nth,
10 a.m.

1894. Death of Kossuth, March 20th, of Holmes, October 7th, of

Lucy Stone, October 18th, and of Tyndall, December 4th; Debs, leader of
a riot in Chicago, enjoined by U. S. judges, July 2d, and put down by
Federal troops; reduction of U. S. tariff, August 2d; Home Rule approved
by House of Commons, September ist, refused by House of Lords, September
8th; universal suffrage and extension of local self-government in
England; a professor in University of Texas dismissed for evolutionism.

1895. Death of Frederick Douglass, February 20th, and of Huxley, June
29th; rebellion in Cuba; men arrested in New York City for selling ice,
umbrellas, etc., on Sunday; eight men who had worked on that day, after
keeping Saturday as the Sabbath, forced to labour in the chain-gang in

1896. British Museum, National Gallery, and other institutions opened
to the public on Sunday, May 24th, and afterwards; two Sabbath-breakers
shot dead that same day by a policeman in Massachusetts; death of
William Morris, October 3d; Democratic candidates defeated on a
free-silver platform, November 3d.

1897. Dingley Bill to increase tariff, signed July 24th; death of
Henry George, October 27th.

1898. War declared by U. S. A. against Spain, April 21st; death of
Gladstone, Ascension Day, May 19th; independence of Cuba secured by
treaty, August 12th.

1899. Death of Ingersoll, July 21st.

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