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as to the reason of this, it has been said substantially that memories and
reminiscences are only gathered up as the departed are able to come in contact
with persons and objects of earth. Strange as it may seem, I get tired and
nervous when this writing is prolonged; it exhausts me much more than it
does Mrs. Underwood, on whom it never leaves any depressing influence.

The intelligence which seems to be extraneous, which invariably claims
to be a departed spirit, now one, now another, is sometimes inferior intellec-
tually to the medium ; at other times, in certain lines of thought, in the use
of words, and in the statement of facts, the intelligence that directs the pen
evinces larger knowledge than Mrs. Underwood consciously possesses. The
spelling is sometimes different from her own, and the style is often stilted, and
even grandiose, while her style is simple and natural. In some cases the
writing relates to what is entirely unknown to the writer to her ordinary
consciousness though in some of these cases I can conceive it as possible,
and deem it probable, that the writing relates to what has been noted or
learned by the passive consciousness, and is evoked therefrom even though
there is no recognition of its having been included in the person's experience.

VOL. II. 2 G


But in other cases the writing has contained evidence of knowledge that Mrs.
Underwood never could have obtained in any known way. She gave one or
two instances in the August Arena. I will relate another of her experiences
which, in my opinion, proves that there are supernormal methods of obtaining

One morning a message purporting to be from a young man recently
deceased was received. Neither Mrs. Underwood nor I had ever seen his
handwriting. We knew his name only as William S. The message was
signed "Z. W. S." At the time I remarked that I did not believe there was
any Z in his name, and in this opinion Mrs. Underwood concurred. A few
days afterwards we met the father and the mother of the young man, who were
so impressed with the resemblance between the handwriting and that of their
son that they wished to take the writing with them. There was a Z in the
name, but it was the initial of his second name, and not of the first, as it was
written. In the presence of the young man's mother, Mrs. Underwood's hand
was moved to write, and the lady asked if her father would give a test by
writing his name. The first name, Solomon, was written slowly ; and after a
pause, the surname was written very quickly. Mrs. Underwood did not know
and never had known the name, which was written correctly; and Mr. S.,
who is a lawyer and a man of critical and discriminating mind, and his wife
both declared that the signature closely resembled that of the old gentleman.
Some days ago I wrote to Mr. S., asking him whether, after further reflection,
he could suggest a possible explanation of what Mrs. Underwood wrote without
recourse to any occult theory. He replied and referred to the message pur-
porting to be from his son, thus: " I have compared it with signatures of our
boy. As I told you in Chicago at the time, the writing bears a -very strong
resemblance to his writing. Mrs. Underwood did not, in my opinion, either
consciously or unconsciously, have any knowledge of Will's full name. The
writing, while quite similar to Will's, is very different from Mrs. Underwood's.
My wife's father's name had not been mentioned at all. Never had been in
Mrs. Underwood's presence. I don't think she had ever met a member of Mrs.
S.'s family by that name, yet she certainly wrote the name of Mrs. S.'s father,
Solomon M., very plainly, when asked to write the name of the person who had
just written that he had something to say. This writing was also -very, very
similar to the handwriting of the old gentleman."

Fully aware that incidents long forgotten may be recalled, that possibly
no lapse of memory is irrevocable, and that under certain conditions from the
submerged self may be sent up memories which cannot be distinguished from
newly-acquired knowledge, still, I am confident that Mrs. Underwood's hand
has written names and statements of facts not only once, but several times,
which were not and never had been any part of her conscious knowledge.

867 A. From Proceedings S.P.R., vol. vi. pp. 343-48.

In Proceedings, vol. v. p. 434, is given a case translated from Psychische
Studien, February 1889, pp. 67-9, which describes a communication
made to Mdlle. Emma Stramm concerning the death of a M. August
Duvanel. M. Aksakoff has kindly sent me additional matter of high
interest bearing on this case, which I here translate from his letter dated
May Qth, 1889 (new style). It will be well first to reprint the case as it
stood in Psychische Studien.


On January ipth, 1887 (says M. Aksakoff), I received a visit from the engineer
Kaigorodoff, who resides in Wilna. He narrated to me the following circum-
stances. He had as governess for his children Mdlle. Emma Stramm, a Swiss,
from the town of Neufchatel, who possessed the gift of automatic writing. At
a stance held at nine o'clock on the evening of January i5th, at the house of
Herr Kaigorodoff, at Wilna, the following communication was given in French
in his presence. I have been shown the original, and quote this from a copy
of it. The medium, who was in her normal state, asked:

" Is Lydia here ? " (This was a personality which had manifested itself at
previous sittings.)

" No, Louis 1 is here, and wishes to impart a piece of news (une nouvelle) to
his sister."

"What is it?"

"A person of thy acquaintance passed away (est partie) about three o'clock

" What am I to understand by this ? "

" That is to say, he is dead."


"August Duvanel."

" What was his illness ? "

" The formation of a clot of blood (d'un engorgement de sang). Pray for the
redemption of his soul."

Two weeks later Herr Kaigorodoff, who was again in St. Petersburg, showed
me a letter from David Stramm, the father of the medium, dated from Neuf-
chatel, on January i8th, 1887 (new style) ; thus written three days after the
death of Duvanel. This letter was received at Wilna on January 23rd. In it
her father informs her of the event in the following words. I copy them liter-
ally from the original :

" My much loved daughter. ... I will now tell thee a great piece of news
(une grande nouvelle). August Duvanel died on January 1 5th, about three o'clock
in the afternoon. It was, so to speak, a sudden death, for he had only been ill
a few hours. He was attacked by blood-clotting (engorgement de sang*) when
he was at the bank. He spoke very little, and everything that he said was for
thee. . . . He commended himself to thy prayers. These were his last words."

The difference in time between Wilna and Switzerland is about an hour. It
would thus be four o'clock in Wilna when Duvanel's death occurred, and five
hours later this piece of news was communicated by automatic writing.

But who was Duvanel ? And why should his death be " a great piece of
news " for Mdlle. Emma Stramm ? In reply to questions which I put to him
in writing, Herr Kaigorodoff gave me the following explanation : " When
Mdlle. Emma Stramm lived with her parents in Neufchatel, this Herr Duvanel
wanted to marry her. But he was met with a decided refusal on the part of the
young lady. As her parents, on the other hand, were in favour of the marriage,
and endeavoured to persuade her to consent to it, she resolved to leave her
fatherland and take a situation as a governess. The last communication she
had with Duvanel was some time before her departure, in the year 1881. She

1 The name of a deceased brother of the medium, who usually manifests at her
seances. Louis died in 1869, aged eleven months. At the beginning of the seances,
about the end of 1886, he was the first to communicate, announcing himself as his sister's
"spirit protector." A. A.


did not keep up any correspondence with him. She had seen DuvanePs family
only two or three times in all. A year after her departure he left Neufchatel,
and remained in Canton Zurich until his death."

To this M. Aksakoff adds, in a letter to me (May gth, 1889) :

I have delayed answering your letter of April ist, because on receiving it I
wrote to Colonel Kaigorodoff and to Mdlle. Emma Stramm for further details,
which seemed to me needful for the completion of our critical judgment on the
Duvanel case. I have just received their letters, dated April i6th and April i8th.

I will begin answering your questions.

(1) This case was published in Psychische Studien for February 1889, but
it had been written by me in February 1888, which explains my saying that I
had lately received it.

(2) I find in my book of memoranda a notice dated January 7th (i9th) of
M. Kaigorodoff 's visit and his communication concerning the death of Duvanel.

(3) M. Kaigorodoff is a military engineer, living at present at Grodno, a seat
of provincial Government in West Russia. In the autumn of 1886 M. Kaigoro-
doff endeavoured to hypnotise Mdlle. Emma, but soon she began to speak and
write in mediumistic fashion. (M. Kaigorodoff was not wholly a novice in
Spiritualism, having been present, some ten years earlier, at a very elementary
series of stances.) Automatic writing, however, seemed to fatigue the medium,
and the method of trance-utterance was usually preferred. The medium saw
and described the [deceased] persons in whose name she spoke. M. Kaigoro-
doff asked questions in Russian, and the medium answered in German or
French. M. Kaigorodoff, who was a widower, naturally desired a personal and
absolutely conclusive message from his wife. She (the influence speaking
through E. S. as Madame Kaigorodoff) replied that she could give such a
message only by impressing the medium during her ordinary sleep ; and she
effected her purpose by causing the medium to see, in a dream, a series of four
scenes [tableaux] ; which Mdlle. Emma described to M. Kaigorodoff and in
which he recognised the perfect representation of an episode in his married
life. These dream-communications form a special feature in the mediumship
of Mdlle. Stramm ; the same subject being sometimes thus treated for a week

[On this point M. Aksakoff adds, February I5th, 1890: "M. Kaigorodoff
informs me of the following peculiarity of his wife's (he married Mdlle. Stramm
as his second wife in 1889) : During her ordinary sleep one can enter into
conversation with her. She continues to sleep, answering questions, and
describing the fantastic dreams which she sees. In her replies she generally
uses the third person. On awaking, she remembers nothing. If during her
sleep M. Kaigorodoff makes some passes over her face she immediately passes
into magnetic (somnambulic) sleep: and the character of her conversation
entirely changes. In her ordinary sleep ' spirits ' never appear on the scene ;
in the secondary form of sleep, always. A few reverse passes, and the mag-
netic sleep gives place, with a sigh, to the ordinary sleep."]

(4) As to your question whether the communications have or have not
included " many definite statements found to be untrue," [as is the case with
so many similar series,] M. Kaigorodoff cannot recollect any such statements.
As an instance to the contrary, he reminded me of a prediction made March
2nd, 1887, of which he informed me in his letter of August 25th, 1887 (still in


my hands). It was announced to Mdlle. E. that her sister (who is in Switzer-
land) would be delivered in five months of a boy, who would not live more than
three or four years. Mdlle. Emma did not even know at the time that her
sister was expecting a baby. In fact the sister was delivered of a boy at the
end of July, iSS;. 1

I pass on to the case of Duvanel, which needs some details to complete it.

The first question which presents itself to the mind is as follows : " What
proof have we that Mdlle. Emma had not received a telegram announcing
Duvanel's death?" I asked this question of M. Kaigorodoff by letter; I give
an abstract of his reply.

(1) The death of Duvanel took place (by Wilna time) at about 4.30 P.M.
On that day, from 7 P.M. till the beginning of the stance, M. Kaigorodoff, as
he positively remembers, was constantly with Mdlle. E. ; and even supposing
that the telegram had been despatched half-an-hour after A. D.'s death (!),
nevertheless it would have been impossible for a telegram sent from Switzer-
land to have been received and delivered at Wilna in the short interval between
5 and 7 P.M. On that day, moreover, Mdlle. E. did not leave the house after
3 P.M.

(2) All Mdlle. E.'s correspondence was addressed, care of Colonel Kaigoro-

(3) The telegram could not have been received without the knowledge of
the servants and the children. There would have been no reason for keeping
it secret.

(4) The relations of Mdlle. E. are poor persons, and there was not sufficient
motive for the immediate communication of this piece of news.

But might not a telegram have been sent by the friends or family of
Duvanel? Considering that all relations between Duvanel and Mdlle. E. had
been broken off in 1881, such a telegram would have had no reasonable object.
Moreover, in my letter to Mdlle. E., I had begged her to tell me what was the
exact place of D.'s death and whether those who lived with him could have
known her address. To this she replied in her letter of April i6th, 1889. " D.
died in a little hamlet of the Canton of Zurich, called, I think, Hirche', but I
am not sure, for my brother [from whom I inquired] had himself forgotten the
name. D. lived alone, and had only one brother, who lived in another town."
Impossible, therefore, that a telegram should have been despatched immediately
from that quarter.

When M. Kaigorodoff came to see me the second time, in January 1887,
with the letter of Mdlle. E.'s father, I was struck with the identity of the ex-
pression, " un engorgement de sang," employed in the trance-message, which
was in French, and also in the father's letter, which was likewise in French, to
explain the cause of D.'s death. This identity of phrase appeared very strange,
not to say suspicious. I drew M. Kaigorodoff 's attention to it, and begged him
to ask the medium about it, as soon as a stance gave the opportunity. This
identity of expression suggested a curious action of telepathy.

This is what M. Kaigorodoff's letter, just received, says on the subject :

"On the day after the stance of January 3rd (i5th), 1887, Mdlle. E., not
expecting to receive a letter from her father with the confirmation of the fact
of D.'s death, wrote to her sister in Switzerland, stating that she had had a

1 One prediction has since proved erroneous ; viz., that Madame Kaigorodoff her-
self would have a boy ; whereas her child is a girl.

47 o APPENDICES [867 A

vision as though D. were dead, and asking whether this was really the case.
The dream was an expedient used because Emma's relations had no knowledge
of Spiritualism, still less of E.'s personal proceedings in that direction. The
letter of Mdlle. E.'s sister arrived ten days after her father's letter. The sister,
not knowing that their father had already announced D.'s death, desired to hide
the fact from her [for a reason presently to be shown] and answered that D.
was not dead, but gone to America."

M. Kaigorodoff, after a six weeks' absence, returned to Wilna at the be-
ginning of March 1887. At the first stance held, early in March, he begged
of Louis (the controlling spirit) to explain the contradiction between the letters
of the father and the sister of Mdlle. E. touching the death of Duvanel. The
medium was entranced, and spoke in the name of Louis. M. Kaigorodoff took
notes, and this is word for word the answer which was given :

" He is dead; only [her] sister does not wish that she should know of his
death, because it was not of a stoppage of blood (engorgement} as I had written."
(The message of January 3rd Osth) 1887, had been given by automatic writing,
in French.) " I could not tell the truth frankly (directement}, for her health
would have been affected by it."

" Where and how, then, did he die ? "

" He died in the Canton of Zurich ; but he killed himself, and she must not
know it. She must remain ignorant of this, for if she learns, even indirectly,
of his self-inflicted death, her health may suffer. You must not speak to her
of the matter, for she suspects the truth."

" How does it happen, then, that the identical expression, stoppage of blood,
is found both in your message and in the father's letter ? "

" It is I who inspired him with that expression."

As you perceive, the case becomes increasingly complicated and interesting.
In point of fact, Mdlle. E., some days after the message of January 3rd (iSth)
did in fact see in a dream Duvauel covered with blood (ensanglante"). The con-
tradictory statements in the letters (of her father and sister) led her to suspect
that the truth was being concealed from her, and that there had really been a
suicide. It was only in the autumn of 1887, when Mdlle. E. made a journey to
Switzerland to see her relations, that she learnt all the truth, confirming the
second message.

The fears of Louis and of her relations as to the bad effect which the news
of the suicide might have upon Mdlle. E. were in fact exaggerated. For
Mdlle. E. had left Switzerland in 1881, and up till the message of January
3rd Osth), 1887, had received no news of Duvanel. Some time after Mdlle.
E.'s departure Duvanel left Neufchatel for Geneva, where he was employed at
a bank; which explains the phrase in the father's letter, saying that D. had
died of a stoppage of blood "while he was at the bank." But of late he had
lived in a little hamlet of the Canton of Zurich. All this Mdlle. Emma learnt
on her visit to her relations.

After all these facts, however, the problem as to the possibility of a tele-
pathic influence from the parents of Mdlle. E. is not yet decided. To clear
up this point we must know the exact day when the father of Mdlle. E. learnt
the death of Duvanel, and we must know the details he then heard. If
Mdlle. E.'s relations had heard the news of D.'s suicide on the very day of his
death ; and if it had been decided in family discussion that they would conceal
from her the manner of his death, and adopt the expression " stoppage of


blood " ; then one might still conjecture that there had been a telepathic
transmission of thought.

But the father's letter was written January i8th, and, as Mdlle. E. says
[in her letter of April i6th, 1889], it is probable that the meeting in the train
[when the father heard of Duvanel's death from Duvanel's brother] took
place on the I7th, and thus after the sitting of January 3rd (i5th). In that
case, if telepathy there were, it would be needful to seek the inspirer (the
"agent provocateur!") in some factor outside the minds of Mdlle. E. or her

But this probability is not enough ; and the essential question as to the day
when Mdlle. E.'s relations learnt the death of Duvanel is not yet determined.
I will write again on this point to the ci-devant Mdlle. Stramm, who is now
Madame Kaigorodoff ; for the Colonel in his last letter to me announces his mar-
riage with Mdlle. Emma Stramm. I will beg her to ask her father to fix as
precisely as possible the day of his meeting with Duvanel's brother. The reply
shall be sent to you at once.

Thus, then, we have in this case of spiritualistic communication : (i) the
news of a death at a distance ; (2) the manner of death ; (3) the place of death ;
all unknown to the medium.

On June 24th (July 6th) 1889, M. Aksakoff again wrote to me as
follows :

M. Kaigorodoff has had the kindness to send me in original the letter of
Madame Kaigorodoff's sister. I enclose a copy. As you perceive, the father
learnt the news of Duvanel's death on January I7th, two days, therefore, after
the death itself, and two days after the news of the death was received at
Wilna in Russia. The circumstance that this news was heard by M. Stramm
in a merely accidental way, and only on the day of the funeral, proves that in
fact all relations between Duvanel and the Stramm family had been suspended.
The letter of Mdlle. Bertha is dated from Rochefort ; that is a small town, at
twenty minutes' railway journey from Neufchatel ; and it is there, strictly
speaking, and not at Neufchatel, that the Stramm family reside.

Copy of part of Mdlle. Bertha Stramm's letter to her sister, Madame
Kaigorodoff, dated Rochefort, June i6th, 1889.

" Duvanel died January I5th, and papa learnt the news on the 1 7th, for he
met Duvanel's brother, who was setting out for the funeral. The brother was
to leave for America a few days later. It is I who have recollected this, by
searching my memory, for papa is old and feeble and does not now remember
anything of the matter. I cannot tell you the name of the village where the
death occurred."

868 A. From Proceedings S.P.R., vol. vi. pp. 355-5 7. For the follow-
ing case also I am indebted to M. Aksakoff.


Document I. Copy of report of stance held November i8th, 1887, in the
house of M. Nartzeff, at Tambof, Russia.

Present: M. A. Nartzeff [landed proprietor, belonging to the Russian
nobility, in the Government of Tambof] ; Madame A. Slepzof [aunt of M.


Nartzefif]; Madame Ivanof [M. Nartzeff's housekeeper]; M. N. Touloucheff
[official physician of the municipality of Tambof].

The sitting began at 10 P.M. at a table placed in the middle of the room, by
the light of a night-light placed on the mantelpiece. All doors closed. The
left hand of each was placed on the right hand of his neighbour, and each foot
touched the neighbour's foot, so that during the whole of the sitting all hands
and feet were under control. Sharp raps were heard in the floor, and after-
wards in the wall and the ceiling, after which the blows sounded immediately
in the middle of the table, as if some one had struck it from above with his fist ;
and with such violence, and so often, that the table trembled the whole time.

M. Nartzeff asked : " Can you answer rationally, giving three raps for yes,
one for no ? " " Yes." " Do you wish to answer by using the alphabet ? "
"Yes." "Spell your name." The alphabet was repeated, and the letters in-
dicated by three raps " Anastasie Pe're'liguine." "I beg you to say now why
you have come and what you desire." " I am a wretched woman. Pray for
me. Yesterday, during the day, I died at the hospital. The day before
yesterday I poisoned myself with matches." " Give us some details about
yourself. How old were you? Give a rap for each year." Seventeen raps.
" Who were you ?" "I was housemaid. I poisoned myself with matches."
" Why did you poison yourself ? " " I will not say. I will say nothing more."

After this a heavy table which was near the wall, outside the chain of hands,
came up rapidly three times, towards the table round which the chain was
made, and each time it was pushed backwards, no one knew by what means.
Seven raps (the signal agreed upon for the close of the sitting) were now heard
in the wall; and at 11.20 P.M. the stance came to an end.


I certify that this copy is in complete accordance with the original.


Document II. The undersigned, having been present at the se'ance of
November i8th, 1887, at the house of M. A. N. Nartzeff, hereby certify that they
had no previous knowledge of the existence or the death of Anastasie Pe're'-
liguine, and that they heard her name for the first time at the above-mentioned

TAMBOF, April 6th, 1890.

Document III. Letter of Dr. Touloucheff to M. A. Aksakoff.

TAMBOF, rue du Slminaire, April \$h, 1890.

SIR, At the sitting held at M. Nartzeff's house, November i8th, 1887, we
received a communication from an intelligence giving the name of Anastasie
Pe're'liguine. She asked us to pray for her; and said that she had poisoned
herself with lucifer matches, and had died on the I7th of that month. At the
first moment I did not believe this ; for in my capacity as physician of the
municipality I am at once informed by the police of all cases of suicide. But
since Pe're'liguine had added that her death had taken place at the hospital ;
and since at Tambof we have only one hospital, that of the " Institutions de

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