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after that event the Baroness Wrangel left, with her sister-in-law, Madame
Obuchow, for the town of Plock, and her mother went abroad. At that date
the will had not been found. And since the letter of Prince Emile Wittgen-
stein to his parents, in which he informs them of the finding of the will by
spiritual communication, is dated July I7th, 1867, it follows that the letter of
Prince Emile Wittgenstein to the widow of Baron Korf, enclosing that com-
munication, and consequently the communication itself, must have been re-
ceived between June I7th and July I7th, 1867.

V. As to the place where the will was found. I asked Baron Paul Korf :
" Is it a fact that the will was found ' in a chest of drawers ' (armoire) as was
predicted in the communication?" He answered: "That is what both my
sister and I heard."

VI. The elder son of Baron Korf, who busied himself at Warsaw with
the affairs of the inheritance, was named Baron Joseph Korf, and has since

876 B. From Proceedings S.P.R., vol. viii. pp. 238-42.

The following case of a communication indicating the whereabouts


of a missing note of hand was sent to Dr. Hodgson by Judge W. D.
Harden, of Savannah, Georgia, who is well known to him :


October yd, 1888.

DR. RICHARD HODGSON, My DEAR SIR, Thinking that you may pos-
sibly be back from your vacation, I send you with this the account of the
finding of the note by Mrs. B. and the letter to me from Dr. Knorr.


SAVANNAH, GA., September i6tA, 1888.

Judge W. D. HARDEN,

DEAR FRIEND, This morning, when I paid a professional visit to Mrs.
B.'s sick son, she showed me a rough draft of the statement she intended to
send to you. . . .

I think I need to add very little to Mrs. B.'s statements. You are
acquainted with the modus oferandi of the communications with the sliding
rod, the rod and the alphabet board being at B.'s house, the same you saw at
Miss Maggie R.'s. In order to facilitate your description for Dr. H. I send
you a paper model of the rod and a printed alphabet (with other convenient
inscriptions), that is to be pasted near the two (right and left) edges, leaving
a space between of sufficient width for the points of the rod to point out the
desired letters.

I have to remark that a couple of days after the death of Miss Nina B.'s
fianct (Mr. N. H.) I assisted her to get into communication with him. We
succeeded, Miss Nina turning out to be feebly mediumistic, and many com-
munications were received from him.

This attracted Major B.'s attention. He tried then with me (the major
was then an agnostic), and found that he also was mediumistic, and he got
communications from his father and his uncle that were so characteristic that
he became convinced of the reality of spirit communion. So when the major
departed, last spring or summer, he was well acquainted with the modus
operandi of spirit communion ; and therefore the very day after his departure
we could receive a few words from him. Later on we received many messages
from him.

I think I was present at the sdance when he stated that the note was
deposited somewhere, but could not tell where. It looks as if at that time
he had not yet discovered the whereabouts of the note, but continued hunting
for it, and at last discovered it.

L. KNORR, Savannah.

Judge HARDEN, In compliance with your request I will state: After my
honoured husband Major Lucius B.'s departure from this life, I was in distress
of mind that none could understand but one surrounded by similar circum-
stances. Of his business transactions I knew but little. After a week or
two of stunning agony, I aroused myself to look into our financial condition.
I was aware that he had in his keeping a note given by Judge H. W. Hopkins
to some several hundred which was due, and I searched all the nooks and
corners of his secretaire, manuscript, letters, memorandum-books, read several
hundred letters ; but all for naught. For two months I spent most of the time
going over and over, but with the same result. I finally asked him at a stance
about the note.


Q. " Have you deposited the note anywhere ? " A. " I have."
Q. " Where ? " No answer.

Finally I wrote to Judge H. (who had written me about it): "I had as
well tell you the note has not been found. I cannot imagine where it is."
This was on Friday. The following Sunday, about four o'clock, my daughter
Nina, who possesses some singular power, proposed we try if we could not
get a communication from our loved ones. While she went to get a little
arrangement (a rod that worked on a board upon which the letters of the
alphabet were printed) I sat in my room alone, thinking, if it were possible
for Major B. to see the heart filled to overflowing with anguish, and added to
this the mind distressed by business cares, would he not communicate with me
and try to give some consolation or assistance.

But I did not express my thoughts to any one. Nina returned, and after
a little conversation we put our hands on the rod and it promptly spelt
" Look in my long drawer and find Willie." I became excited, ran to the
bureau and pulled out the bottom drawer, turned the contents upon the floor,
and commenced to search. Under all the things was a vest; in its little
breast pocket was the note.

Major B. was in the habit of calling the bottom drawer, where only his
under-garments were kept, " My long drawer," to designate it from several
small drawers set aside for his use. The vest was the only garment, other
than underwear, in the drawer. The vest was the one taken off him when
he first became ill. He was unconscious during the first day of his illness.
The vest was put in the drawer after or during his illness by my friend, I
think, who assisted in caring for him while sick.

The drawer had not been opened that we knew of after he left us until
the note was discovered. Although I had moved to another room, I gave
instructions that the bottom drawer was not to be disturbed.

As soon as the rod spelt " Look in my long drawer and find Willie," I was
perfectly electrified with the knowledge that Willie H.'s note was in that
drawer, although I never would have thought of looking in such a place for a
valuable paper.

Major B. and myself always spoke to and of Judge H. as " Willie," he
being a relation of mine and a favourite of Major B. from Willie's childhood.

I have just read the above to my daughter, and she says she will endorse
the statement as being correct. I am, very respectfully,

Mrs. E. F. B. B., widow of the

late Major Lucius C. B.
N. H. B.

SAVANNAH, GA., September i6M, 1888.

The two signatures have been made in my presence, and I corroborate
many of the facts and circumstances mentioned in the above report. I am
now requested by the ladies to say that they do not wish their names to appear
in public. Louis KNORR, M.D.

SAVANNAH, October 2-jth, 1888.
Judge W. D. HARDEN,

MY DEAR FRIEND, The delay in answering yours of the gth inst. was
caused by Mrs. 13., who sent me her answer only an hour ago, notwithstanding
my having reminded her a dozen times.

VOL. II. t I


As you see from her statement, the exact date of the memorable stance
cannot be given by her. But some coincidental occurrences [mentioned in
detail, show that it was most likely] the I3th or the 2oth of May last. It is
certain that it was a Sunday, as Mrs. B. states, for I remember that, when I
returned from Wilmington Island that Sunday, Mrs. K. told me that Miss
Nina B. had been here and had told her to inform me that something impor-
tant had happened that afternoon, and she had pleasant news to communi-
cate to me. I guessed at once what it referred to ; for they had all along
been so anxious to get some information about that note, and I was present
at the several previous stances, when ineffectual attempts had been made to
get that information. . . .

I see Mrs. B. does not answer No. 2 of Dr. H.'s questions (date of sitting
where question about the note was first asked) at all ; so I will do so as far as
I can. It was about a week after Major B.'s demise that the question was put
in my presence, and further at several subsequent stances at which I was pre-
sent ; but no exact dates could be given, further than that it occurred, say,
between the 6th of April and the I3th of May, on several occasions in my
presence, and in the presence of Mrs. B., Miss Nina B., and sometimes of the
youngest child (Lettie, eight or nine years).

In answer to No. 5 of Dr. H.'s questions (" Is Mrs. B. certain that neither
she nor her daughter put the vest away?") I have to state that I have the
repeated assurance of both the ladies that they feel sure that they did not put
the vest away, nor that they had the least suspicion that there could have been
so valuable a paper in that vest-pocket, or else they would have hunted for the
vest in that drawer, among others where clothing might have been stowed
away, and thus should have discovered what they hunted for.

And as to question No. 4 (" Can any more definite statement be obtained
concerning the putting away of the vest ? ") I have to state that Mrs. B. and
Miss B. always thought that their cousin (Miss Mel Thomas), who had with
the most self-sacrificing devotion nursed the major during his sickness and
had the entire management of the sick room, had put it away. But on ques-
tioning her she said she had no recollection of so trifling an occurrence.

In answer to question No. 6 (" Who were present ? ") Mrs. B. says, " Pos-
sibly one of the children." I have to explain this answer. She ought to have
answered, " Possibly my youngest child, Lettie." For of her children, besides
Miss Nina, it is only Lettie who has something to do with these stances she
being a far stronger medium than Mrs. B. or Miss B. but at the same time
does not feel the least interest in the matter ; on the contrary, hates to be called
away from her dolls, puts her hands on the sliding-rod with a great deal of
grumbling, and is always very glad to get off, the sooner the better.

Miss Nina reported to me that that Sunday she and her sister Lettie were
first holding communication with their father and received some pleasant and
convincing messages from their father; then Lettie would not continue any
longer. It was then that Miss N. called her mother to take Lettie's place,
and the result was the getting of that message in regard to the note. So, you
see, it may have been possible that Lettie had not left the room yet at
the time. Louis KNORR.

October 2jtA, 1888.

MR. RICHARD HODGSON, DEAR SIR, In answer to your questions I will
say: i. Major B. died just at sunrise (Easter morning), first dayof April, 1888.


2. I told all I know about putting away the vest. 3. About three o'clock,
Sunday, the first or second week in May. Myself and daughter were the only
ones present that I remember possibly one of the children. It happened just
as I stated. To me there is but one solution. In great haste, very respectfully,

[Signed] E. F. B.

877 A. Note. I think it very desirable that as many persons as
possible should provide a decisive test of their own identity, in case they
should find themselves able to communicate through any sensitive after
their bodily death. The simplest plan is to write down some sentence
embodying an idea or a name which you feel it probable that you will
remember, if you remember anything, and then to seal this sentence up
in an envelope, without communicating it to any person whatever. Then
label the envelope " Posthumous letter," and send it, accompanied by a
letter giving name and address, to the Secretary, Society for Psychical
Research, 20, Hanover Square, London, W. The Secretary will acknow-
ledge receipt, and store the letter safely, with others of the kind. If,
then, the writer (it may be many years afterwards) finds himself capable
of sending a message from the other world, let him mention this test
sentence, and try to reproduce it. The sealed envelope can then be
opened ; and if the spirit's message should be found to coincide with the
words therein written, there will be as good a proof as we can get that that
message has at any rate not emanated from any living mind ; and has
emanated, therefore, from some unlimited source of knowledge, or which
will seem to most persons more probable from the surviving mind of the
original writer.

[912 A




912 A. The following account of Dr. John L. Nevius's book on
Demon Possession and Allied Themes (2nd Edition. Fleming H. Revell
Co., Chicago, New York, Toronto, 1896) is taken from a review by
Professor W. Romaine Newbold in Proceedings S.P.R., vol. xiii. p. 602.

Dr. Nevius was for forty years a missionary in China. Early in his
ministry he found that demon possession is a common occurrence among the
Chinese, and although he was able to observe in person one case only, he suc-
ceeded in collecting a large amount of information about the phenomena and
the construction put upon them by the natives. This material forms the basis
of his book.

A few illustrations will serve to give a conception of its general character.
The second case is that of a mountaineer, Kwo by name, who gives an account
of his own experiences. He had been arranging for the household worship of
the Goddess Wang-Muniang, when one night he dreamed that the goddess
appeared to him and announced that she had taken up her abode in his house.
This was followed after the lapse of a few days by a feeling of restlessness
coupled with an irrational impulse to gamble ; his mind became confused,
memory was impaired. He was then seized by an epileptiform attack, to which
succeeded mania with homicidal impulses. The " demon " proclaimed its
presence, demanded worship. Upon compliance with its demands it departed.
For some months the "demon" reappeared at intervals, promised to heal
disease. Kwo notes that "many diseases were not under its control, and it
seemed as if it could perfectly cure only such as were inflicted by spirits " a
significant remark. When the sufferer became a Christian, the " demon " dis-
appeared, saying " This is no place for me."

Case 3 is narrated by a native Christian. He described the patient as
" sitting up, her eyes closed, with a fluttering motion of the eyelids, her
countenance like one weeping and the fingers of both hands tightly clenched.
She would allow no one to straighten her closed fingers. I then, hardly expect-
ing an answer, as the woman had hitherto been speechless, said to the demon :
' Have you no fear of God ? Why do you come here to afflict this woman ? '
To this I received instantly the following reply: 'God and Christ will not
interfere. I have been here seven or eight years ; and I claim this as my
resting-place. You cannot get rid of me.'" This patient was relieved by

In several instances the " demon " claims identity with the spirit of some



deceased human being. Thus in case 24 a bride on her wedding night was
seized by what purported to be the spirit of a girl to whom her husband had
been engaged, and who had drowned herself on account of the ill-treatment of
her future mother-in-law. In other cases the " demon " claims to be one of the
lower animals e.g. in one which occurred in Japan (page 105) it professed
itself a fox.

The entire collection gives a most interesting glimpse of Chinese spiritism.
We find the cult of spirits a recognised institution. " Physical phenomena "
are alleged to be matters of daily occurrence. Every village has its " medium."
The " developing stance " has its counterpart (page 67). The medium some-
times goes into " quiet trance," and sometimes communication with the unseen
world is effected by means of an instrument essentially identical with plan-
chette (pages 48, 69).

Evidence of this sort is not without its value as going to show that spiritism
is a growth indigenous to many countries, that it is a plausible interpretation of
phenomena which occur spontaneously among all races, and is not merely a
mass of imposture based upon the " Rochester knockings " and peculiar to the
last half of the nineteenth century. But if one asks what Dr. Nevius has done
towards vindicating the popular interpretation of these phenomena, the reply
cannot but be unfavourable.

Every page bears witness to the author's desire to be exact in description,
unbiassed in interpretation, and just in criticism; it is rather his misfortune
than his fault that he has fallen so far short of the mark in all three respects.
Practically all his material rests upon the evidence of native Chinese or Mon-
golian witnesses. All are fully convinced of the diabolical origin of the pheno-
mena, and Dr. Nevius himself takes the same view, so that we can scarcely
accept the accounts as literally true and uncoloured by preconceptions. Such
evidence can scarcely do more than supply illustrations of facts already inde-
pendently established.

Of alleged supernormal phenomena the book is almost barren. One case
of a " Poltergeist " rests solely upon the evidence of Mongolians, whom the
missionary transmitting the account stigmatises as " so imbued, one and all,
with the spirit of lying that I have found it useless to repeat what the most
respectable say." In a few other cases it is claimed that the demoniac was
possessed of supernormal knowledge and of the gift of healing, but no definite
facts are given.

923 A. For accounts of the impostures of Madame Blavatsky and
other members of the Theosophical Society, see :

(i) "Report of the Committee appointed to Investigate Phenomena
connected with the Theosophical Society," in Proceedings S.P.R. (vol. iii.
pp. 201-400). This Committee was appointed in 1884 by the Council
of the Society for Psychical Research. It consisted of the following
members : Messrs. E. Gurney, R. Hodgson, F. W. H. Myers, F. Podmore,
Professor and Mrs. H. Sidgwick, and Mr. J. H. Stack. The report is
prefaced by the " Statement and Conclusions of the Committee " ; next
comes Dr. Hodgson's " Account of Personal Investigations in India, and
discussion of the authorship of the ' Koot Hoomi ' letters " ; numerous
facsimiles of the letters are given, together with a report by the expert,


Mr. F. G. Netherclift, on the character of the handwritings. An account
of some other phenomena four cases of letters received in a mysterious
manner, and four cases of supposed " astral " apparitions was contributed
by Mrs. Sidgwick.

(2) "The Defence of the Theosophists," by Dr. R. Hodgson, in
Proceedings S.P.R. (vol. ix. pp. 129-159). This consists of replies to
attacks on the above Report.

(3) A Modern Priestess of Isis : abridged and translated on behalf of
the Society for Psychical Research from the Russian of V. S. Solovyoff,
by Walter Leaf, Litt. D. (Longmans, Green & Co., London, 1895). To
Mr. SolovyofPs narrative are added in appendices a defence of Madame
Blavatsky by her sister, Madame Jelihovsky, and Mr. Solovyoff s reply to
the latter.

(4) Isis very much Unveiled: being the Story of the great Mahatma
Hoax, by Edmund Garrett; reprinted from the Westminster Gazette,

(5) The chapter on " Madame Blavatsky and Theosophy," in Mr.
F. Podmore's Studies in Psychical Research (Kegan Paul, Trench,
Trtibner & Co., London, 1897).

See also, for reviews of (3) and (4), Proceedings S.P.R., vol. xi. pp.

923 B. The following articles in the Proceedings S.P.R. relate -to
work done by members of the Society in exposing fraud in connection
with some alleged " physical phenomena " of spiritualism, and in showing
what conditions are necessary in order to guard against it.

"Results of a Personal Investigation into the Physical Phenomena of
Spiritualism, with some critical remarks on the evidence for the genuine-
ness of such Phenomena," by Mrs. H. Sidgwick * (vol. iv. p. 45).

" Accounts of some so-called ' Spiritualistic ' Stances," by Professor
H. Carvill Lewis and others (vol. iv. p. 338).

" The Possibilities of Mai-observation and Lapse of Memory from a
practical point of view," by R. Hodgson and S. J. Davey (vol. iv. p. 381).

The two last-named articles relate chiefly to the " slate-writing " per-
formances of the medium Eglinton, and Mr. Davey's successful imitation
of them by conjuring. Numerous discussions on the same subject
appeared in the Journal S.P.R. during 1886 and 1887 (vols. ii. and iii.).

"On Spirit Photographs," by Mrs. H. Sidgwick (vol. vii. p. 268).

"Mr. Davey's Imitations by Conjuring of Phenomena sometimes
attributed to Spirit Agency," by R. Hodgson (vol. viii. p. 253).

" Indian Magic and the Testimony of Conjurers," by R. Hodgson
(vol.ix. p. 354).

"Resolute Credulity," by F. W. H. Myers (vol. xi. p. 213).

" Eusapia Paladino," an account by Professor Sidgwick of sittings held
with her at Cambridge in 1895, in ihejournat S.P.R. (vol. vii. p. 148).

1 See also Mrs. Sidgwick's article on " Spiritualism " in the Encyclopedia Britannica.

925 A] TO CHAPTER IX 503

I may further refer my readers to the following books :

Studies in Psychical Research, by Frank Podmore (Kegan Paul, Trench,
Triibner & Co., London, 1897).

Modern Spiritualism : a History and a Criticism, by Frank Podmore
(Methuen & Co., London, 1902).

Preliminary Report of the Commission appointed by the University of
Pennsylvania to investigate Modern Spiritualism, in accordance with the
request of the late Henry Seybert (J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia,

The Death-Slow to Spiritualism : being the true story of the Fox
Sisters, as revealed by authority of Margaret Fox Kane and Catherine
Fox Jencken, by Reuben Briggs Davenport (New York : J. W. Dillingham
Co., 1888; also 1897).

Revelations of a Spirit Medium ; or Spiritualistic Mysteries Exposed:
a detailed explanation of the methods used by fraudulent mediums. By
a Medium (St. Paul, Minn. : Farrington & Co., 1891).

The Bottom Facts concerning the Science of Spiritualism derived from
careful investigations covering a period of twenty-five years, by John VV.
Truesdell. With many descriptive illustrations (New York : G. W. Carle-
ton & Co. ; London : S. Low & Co., 1884).

Confessions of a Medium (Griffith & Farran, London, 1882).

Spirit Slate-writing and Kindred Phenomena, by William E. Robinson
(New York : Munn & Co., 1898 ; London : Sampson Low, Marston & Co.).
This contains a good account by a professional conjurer of various methods
of producing slate-writing by trickery.

Some Account of the Vampires of Onset, Past and Present (S. Wood-
berry & Co., Boston, 1892).

Modern Spiritualism, by J. N. Maskelyne (London : F. Warne & Co.).

925 A. An instance of a supposed telekinetic phenomenon which
was probably to be attributed to motor automatism is that mentioned in
the case of Mme. X. (see 833) when, as she was standing on a chair,
" the chair was violently snatched from under her feet and pushed to a
distance " by as she believed some " invisible force." Some incidents
of a similar kind are described in Professor Flournoy's history of Mdlle.
Smith (but not referred to in my account of this sensitive in 834-842).

Raps are mentioned in the case of Professor Rossi- Pagnoni (864 A) ;
in the Perdliguine case (868 A) raps and the movement of a heavy un-
touched table are described ; and in the case of Mr. F. Hodgson (868 B)
there seem to have been various telekinetic movements besides raps. In
these last two cases the telekinetic phenomena were apparently connected
with a recent death, and it will be remembered that many of the better
evidenced groups of supernormal phenomena seemed to cluster about the
point of death, some occurring shortly before and some shortly after it,
while others more closely coincide with the death itself. I quote here a
simple case of an isolated movement, occurring shortly before a death


under circumstances which seem to give it a kind of coincidental or pur-
posive character. The reader should compare with this the account of the
" Woodd knockings " to which I have briefly referred in 868 C.

From Proceedings S.P.R., vol. vii. p. 154. The account is given by the
Rev. Edward T. Vaughan, of Langleybury Vicarage, King's Langley, who

writes :

August 2yk, 1884.

Some three or four years back, I had occasion to visit a parishioner who
was seriously ill, one afternoon in the winter time as it was growing dark. I
had seen him several times before since his illness commenced, and had always

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