assemble. The Governor, speaking in the name of the
^ Rel. 1657-58. Jes. Rels. xliv. 223.
2 Cf. Letter. August 15, 1658. La Montague to M. De la Petrie.
O'Callaghan. Hist, of New Netherland. ii. 366.
; i'W im .'m- ;^i
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3o8 RELIGION IN NEW NETHERLAND
to their country, while the two Oneidas were retained
until two Frenchmen taken by the Onondagas should
be restored/ In spite of the promises made by these
Mohawks at the time of their departure, eight French-
men were taken captive a month later by a band of one
hundred Mohawks near Three Rivers, but, shortly before
this, some savages had killed nine Iroquois a day's
journey above Montreal.^ The Dutch requested the
Mohawks to release their eight French prisoners and to
restore them to their country, but the Mohawks
deferred the answer to this request until the as-
sembly of a council of their castles. They com-
plained bitterly that the French did not keep the
peace, as French savages attacked them, whenever
they were out hunting, and thrashed them with
the help of the disguised Frenchmen always among
them.^ On January i6, 1660, Abraham Staes of
Beverwyck wrote to Stuyvesant that the Mohawks had
declared that they would bring back to Canada the
French prisoners in the spring and then make a solid
peace with the French. However, with the arrival of
spring, the Iroquois threatened all the French settle-
ments on the St. Lawrence.^ Seventeen young French-
men of Montreal under Dollard, with forty Huron War-
riors, decided to cut off the Iroquois returning from the
chase, but, in the month of June, they were hemmed in,
in an old dilapidated fort at Long Sault, by seven
hundred Iroquois, composed of two hundred Ononda-
^ Journal des PP. J^stiites. 1659-1660. Jes. Rels. xlv. 81-95.
2 Ibid. 107, 109.
^ Minutes of the Court of Fort Orange. September 24, 1659. Col.
Docs. N. Y. xiii. 113.
* Journal des PP. J^suites. 1660. Jes. Rels. xlv. 153.
mi im 11
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3IO RELIGION IN NEW NETHERLAND
existence there in want of all things." This misery
was the work of a handful of Iroquois, who all together
did not equal the thousandth part of those whose salva-
tion they prevented. The Jesuits estimated the force of
the Five Nations at this period at twenty-two hundred
warriors, of which the Mohawks constituted five hun-
dred "in two or three wretched villages," the Oneidas
one hundred, the Onondagas and the Cayugas three
hundred each, and the Senecas one thousand. Even
this number was not composed solely of pure Iroquois,
of whom scarcely more than twelve hundred could be
found in the whole of the Five Nations.^ The soul of
the hostility of the Iroquois to the French was the
Mohawk, who, before the advent of the Dutch, had been
overcome in a ten years war by the Andastes and some-
time before by the Algonquins so that the nation had
been almost rendered extinct. They were then so humi-
liated that the mere name of Algonquin made the Mo-
hawks tremble. However, when the Dutch took posses-
sion of New Netherland, they furnished those people
with firearms, with which it was easy for them to con-
quer their conquerors, who were filled with terror at
the mere sound of their guns. They became victorious
everywhere and aspired to sovereign sway over all the
Nations. There was, therefore, no hope of peace and
the Jesuits felt that the destruction of these Indian was
necessary to open the approaches to at least ten
^ Mrs. Schuyler van Rensselaer says: "Yet even in the days of
their greatest strength and power, during the first half of the
seventeenth century, when they had procured firearms from the
white men, they numbered not more than four thousand warriors,
twenty thousand souls in all. Twice as many of their descendants,
it has been computed, now survive in and near the State of New
York." History of the City of New York. i. 58.
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312 RELIGION IN NEW NETHERLAND
twenty Frenchmen in captivity at Onondaga depended
on this journey." The demand was reinforced by the
production of a leaf torn out of a book with the sig-
natures of the twenty Frenchmen to guarantee the good
faith of the ambassadors. When the four Frenchmen,
former captives at Onondaga, gave testimony of the
kind treatment received by the French at the hands of
those savages, the Governor and his councillors, after
mature deliberation, accepted the proposals of the
Indians. Father Le Moyne accompanied the ambassa-
dors with the liberated Cayugas, after they had pledged
their word to return at the end of forty days with the
French captives and with some of their elders to deliber-
ate on matters of public interest.^
Father Le Moyne was received with great honor in
Onondaga, where he found the twenty French captives
under the protection of Garacontie. He reminded the
savages of the promise to restore the French, but they
consented to liberate only nine of them, seven at Onon-
daga and two at Cayuga, while the other Frenchmen
were to remain at Onondaga with Father Le Moyne until
next spring, when they also would obtain their liberty.^
Garacontie headed the embassy, which left Onondaga
towards the middle of September with the nine French-
men. Some of the Indians wished to abandon the
enterprise, when they met an Onondaga chieftain,
clothed in the cassock of Father Le Maistre, whom he
had murdered shortly before, but Garacontie was able
to overcome their fear of retaliation on their own per-
^ Relation 1660-1661. Jes. Rels. xlvi. 223-241.
'Letter of Le Moyne. August 25, and September 11, 166 1, to
Lalemant. Jes. Rels. xlvii. 69-83.
1^ M M-
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314 RELIGION IN NEW NETHERLAND
kill US where they find us, without burdening them-
selves with us."^
During the winter, Father Le Moyne consoled the
French in their captivity, strengthened the Huron
Christians in their faith and laid the foundations to the
conversion of the Iroquois. His life was not without
danger from the hands of savages under the domination
of the demon of dreams and of the demon of drink.
One, who in a dream had seen himself dressed in a cas-
sock, broke into the chapel, determined to strip the
missionary of this garment. Another in a drunken fit
attempted to pounce on the crucifix over the altar. ^
His hatchet was raised to strike the Jesuit, who was
resolved to give his life sooner than surrender the image
of the Crucified Saviour, but he was rescued by the
Elders of the village. Some of the Indians "threw the
blame on the Dutch, who (they say) furnish them a
certain drink that makes madmen of the wisest, and
deprives him of his reason before he knows it." For
the Indians brought brandy "from New Holland in such
quantities as to make a veritable Pot- House of Onon-
daga." To rid him of these afflictions for a time, the
less cruel Cayugas invited Le Moyne to visit their
villages. Here there was established a Huron village
entirely Christian. A month later Father Le Moyne re-
turned to Onondaga, where Garacontie had arrived from
^ Letter to a friend at Three Rivers . The captive was soon
delivered through the intervention of Garacontie. Jes. Rels. xlvii.
2 This crucifix, about two feet in height, had been carried off the
year previous by the Mohawks from Argentenay on the Island of
Orleans. Garacontie saw it at Agni6, and obtained it by giving
them a rich present and holding an eloquent eulogy on the Crucifix.
Cf. Relation. 1661-1662. Jes. Rels. xlvii. 215.
3l6 RELIGION IN NEW NETHERLAND
to render thanks to God in the church."* The war
between the Iroquois and the Andastes prevented the
renewal of the French missions in that country during
the two following years, while the domination of the
Dutch in New Netherland still continued.
^Relation. 1661-1662. Jes. Rels. xlvii. 191-193.
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320 NEW NETHERLAND
1629. Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions: grants in the form
patroonships and colonies outside of Manhattan Island.
First explicit legal recognition of the Dutch Reformed
Church, for which the patroons and colonists are bound
1630. Foundation of patroonships: on the Delaware, Swanendael;
on the Hudson at its mouth, Pavonia, and at Fort Orange
Rensselaerswyck. The last patroonship was the only
permanent foundation of this kind in New Netherland.
1632. Minuit recalled.
Lords Say and Seal, etc., receive from the Earl of Warwick
the grant of Connecticut, but neglect colonization till
several years later.
1633. Wouter Van Twiller, Director General. Everardus Bogar-
dus, the second Dutch minister. Adam Rolandsen, the
first schoolmaster. The "William of London" goes up
the Hudson to trade, on the plea that this is English ter-
ritory. Fort Good Hope on the Connecticut completed.
A wooden church erected at Manhattan. Winthrop
protests against Dutch occupation of Connecticut, which
is claimed to be within the possessions of the English
King. A little above Fort Good Hope, Plymouth erects
a stockade (Windsor.)
1634. Trouble between the Dutch and the Raritans about New
Pequods surrender to Massachusetts their rights to the
Connecticut River country.
1635. A "Part of New England" and Long Island granted by the
Plymouth Council to Lord Stirling. English encroach-
ments on the Connecticut. Eight hundred English in
Connecticut Valley. English settlements at Wethersfield
and Windsor, and the following year at Springfield.
1638. William Kieft, Director General.
Swedes settle on the Delaware and build Fort Christina.
New Sweden founded in spite of the protests of Kieft by
the former Director Minuit.
1639. English settlements along Long Island Sound : New Haven,
Stratford, Norwalk, Greenwich, encroachments on Dutch
territory. Organization of Connecticut, and New Haven
1640. Farret visits Manhattan and in the name of Lord Stirling
lays claim to all Long Island. He is arrested, but then
dismissed. English attempt to settle there, but are
New Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions extended to all in
friendly relations with the United Provinces, but pro-
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322 NEW NETHERLAND
1645. General peace with the Indians.
English settlers return to Mespath and reestablish colony
in its vicinity under the name of Newtown. Flushing
founded by Massachusetts exiles. Gravesend patent
Ctuagoa, Aruba and neighboring West India Islands placed
under the jurisdiction of the Director of New Netherland.
Quarrel between Director Kieft and Rev. Bogardus.
1646. New Haven encroaches on Dutch territory in the North and
the Swedes do the same in the South. Kieft protests
against the meeting of the New England commissioners at
New Haven, which he claims to be within the limits of
New Netherland. Amsterdam Chamber instructs Kieft
to oppose all further English encroachments with all
means at his disposal short of war. The Swedes pull
down the arms of Holland erected on the site of Philadel-
phia, purchased by the Dutch from the Indians.
Colendonck founded near Spyt den Duyvel. Patent
issued for Katskill. Breuckelen incorporated.
Father Jogues, S. J. put to death by the Mohawks.
1647 Peter Stuyvesant, Director. Population of New Nether-
land estimated at 2000.
Cornelis Melyn and Jochem Pietersen Kuyter, two of the
"Eight Men,' ' prosecuted for their criticism of the previous
administration, fined and banished.
The board of "Nine Men" appointed to represent the com-
monalty, and to furnish revenue in support of the colonial
Conflicts with the English. Lady Stirling's agent repre-
sents himself at Flushing and Hempstead as her governor
of Long Island. He is arrested and sent to Holland, but
escapes in England. Stuyvesant declares Dutch claim
to all territory between the Delaware and the Connecticut
and then he extends claim to territory between Cape
Henlopen and Cap Cod. A Dutch ship seized at New
Haven and brought to Manhattan.
1648. Conflicts with the Swedes on the Delaware. Swedes crowd
the Dutch. Dutch trade ruined. New England com-
plains of Dutch trading regulations. Stuyvesant anxious
for a settlement of differences and for the establishment
of an alliance. Unsettled condition of England prevents
a settlement in Europe. Directors of West India Com-
pany recommend Stuyvesant "to endeavor to live in
the best possible terms," as the English are too strong for
General discontent results in the Dutch Province from the
loss of trade. The "Nine Men" propose a mission to
Holland to make known the state of the province.
1649. The journal of the "Nine Men", kept by Van der Donck for
324 NEW NETHERLAND
1653. London. Stuyvesant suggests that New England agen,ts
visit New Netherland to examine the evidence of such a
plot, which is done.
Connecticut and New Haven urge war with New Nether-
land, but Massachusetts persistently refuses to engage
in such war. Captain Underhill raises the parliament flag
on Long Island, and is banished. He seizes Fort Good
Hope "with permission from the General Court of
Convention of delegates from various towns of the Province
assemble at New Amsterdam, and vote a Remonstrance
on the State of New Netherland, demanding a represen-
tative government, etc. This petition is sent to Holland.
Stuyvesant dissolves the convention.
1654. Lutherans at New Amsterdam are denied permission to call
a minister of their own persuasion and to worship publicly
An English expedition against New Netherland sails from
England. Troops raised in New England, but the con-
clusion of peace prevents the invasion of New Netherland.
The Swedes, under their new governor Rising, capture the
Dutch fort Casimir, and call it Fort Trinity. A Swedish
ship seized at Manhattan. English settle in Westchester
in spite of Stuyvesant's prohibition to do so. Oyster Bay
applies to New Haven to be under its jurisdiction. No
attention is paid to Stuyvesant's complaints.
Dutch ambassadors try to settle boundary question in
England. Cromwell has received no information from
New England and refuses to decide the question on the
allegations of only one party.
1655. Some English raise the flag of England at Gravesend, L. L,
and arrests follow. English settlers in West Chester re-
fuse to recognize Dutch jurisdiction before the settlement
of the boundary by England.
Swedes on the Delaware reduced on the order of the West
India Company. Lutheran Swedes are allowed the min-
istry of one Lutheran clergyman. The vice-director
instructed by Stuyvesant to "maintain and protect the
Reformed Religion." Indians invade New Amsterdam;
Hoboken, Pavonia and Staten Island laid waste. General
French settle at Onondaga. Mission begun by Fathers
Chaumonot and Dablon. Jesuit chapel erected.
1656. Stuyvesant orders the formation of compact villages in
imitation of "our New England neighbors" for better
defense against the Indians.
"Conventicles," or places of worship not in harmony with
the established Dutch church are prohibited under heavy
fines. Religious persecution ensues.
The English of Westchester forced to acknowledge Dutch
326 NEW NETHERLAND
1662 Connecticut receives a royal charter to all territory south
of Massachusetts to the ocean and West to the Pacific
ocean with "the islands thereunto adjoining." West-
chester and English towns on Long Island annexed.
City of Amsterdam grants land on the Delaware to a colony
New Proclamation against the public exercise of any religion
but that of the Dutch Reformed Continued persecution
of the Quakers. John Bowne and others banished.
1663. The whole of the Delaware River surrendered to the City of
The authorities in Holland reprove Stuyvesant's severity
in his treatment of dissenters. They would like some
connivance, "at least the consciences of men ought to
remain free and unshackled." The Directors insist on
liberty of conscience, but not on liberty of worship, public
New Haven Puritans continue to negotiate for a settlement
under Dutch jurisdiction.
Massacre of the Dutch at the Esopus. Vigorous war against
Connecticut foments a revolt of the English on Long Island.
Stuyvesant tries to refer "the matters unsettled to both
superiors." Connecticut knows no New Netherland
without "a patent for it from his majesty, but agrees not
to exercise any jurisdiction "over the English plantations
on the westerly end of Long Island," provided the Dutch
agree to the same.
Convention of Delegates from the Dutch towns in New
Amsterdam. Remonstrance, with an exposition of the
dangers from the English, adopted and dispatched to
Revolution on Long Island. Names of the English villages
1664. New Netherland granted to the Duke of York. The English
towns of Long Island elect Captain John Scott "to act as
their president until his Royal Highness the Duke of
York or his majesty should establish a government
among them." Stuyvesant agrees to have the English
towns under the King of England for twelve months until
the settlement of the question by his majesty and the
States General, and Scott agrees to have the Dutch towns
remain for the same period under the States General.
General Provincial Assembly of the Dutch at New Amster-
dam refuses to vote supplies in defense of the Province
against the Indians and the English.
Peace with the Esopus Indians.
English towns received under the government of Connecti-
cut, which claims Long Island for one of those Islands
expressed in the charter. Scott imprisoned by Connecti-
cut. Winthrop removes Scott's officers and installs
'â– â– 'T^#'%r"W'"As
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332 RELIGION IN NEW NETHERLAND
Colonial History. New York State Library Bulletin, 56.
Bibliography 24, 1901.
Keen, G. B., Critical Essay on the Sources of Information
(for the History of New Sweden or the Swedes on the Dela-
ware), in Narrative and Critical History of America, ed.
Justin Winsor, vol. iv. 468-502, 1884.
Onderdonck, H., Jr., Bibliography of Long Island, in Furman,
Antiquities of Long Island, ed. by F. Moore, New York, 1875.
New York Public Library Bulletin :
Check List of American County and State Histories in the
New York Public Library, vol. v, 11.
Works Relating to the State of New York in the New York
Public Library, vol. iv. 5-6.
Check List of the Works Relating to the History of Brook-
lyn and other places on Long Island now included in the
City of New York, in the New York Public Library, vol.
List of Works Relating to New York City History in the
New York Public Library, vol. v. 3.
Bowerman. A Selected Bibliography of the Religious Denomi-
nations of the United States, New York, 1896.
- Hurst, J F., Literature of Theology (with a bibliography of
American Church History), New York, 1896.
Jackson, S. M. Bibliography of American Church History,
1820-1893, in vol xii. of American Church History Series,
New York, 1908.
New York Public Library Bulletin. List on the Churches and
the Ecclesiastical History of New York in the New York Pub-
lic Library, vol. v. 5.
(ii) Guides to Manuscript Materials
Andrews, C. M. Davenport, Frances. Guide to Manuscript
Materials for the History of the United States to 1783 in the
British Museum, in Minor London Archives and in the librar-
ies of Oxford and Cambridge, Washington, 1908.
Annotated List of the Principal Manuscripts in the New York
State Library. State Library Bulletin. History 3, Albany,
Brodhead, J. Romeyn. Calendar to the Holland Documents
in the Office of the Secretary of State at Albany, Transcribed
from the originals in the Royal Archives at The Hague and
the Archives of the City of Amsterdam in New York Papers.
Final Report to the Governor, February 12, 1845. Senate
Document 47, Albany, 1845.
Catalogue of Historical Papers and Parchments received from
the Office of the Secretary of State and deposited in the New
York State Library, Albany, 1849.
Check List of the Municipal and other Documents Relating to
334 RELIGION IN NEW NETHERLAND
Book GG. 1636-1649.
(Manuscript Index: "Index; Account of Dutch Records;
Alphabetical Index of the Two Dutch Books of Provincial
Patents GG and HH."
List of Patents in GG and HH, in O'Callaghan's Cal. Hist.
MSS. vol. i, pp. 36 4-387.
Translations of Book GG, vol. xxvi. 1642-1649, 514 pp. F.
byD. Westbrook, July 23, 1841 â€” "on whole satisfactory
Contents: Patents of July 12, 1630 â€” September 20, 1651, in
GG. Deed of Maryn Andriesen to Jan Jansen Damen,
September 20, 1642 (N. Y. Col. MSS. ii, 53). Commissions
to Martin Crieger and Cornelis van Ruyven, September
22, 23, 1659 (N. Y. Col. MSS.xvii.68).
Translations of Dutch patents and transports, 1652-1674, 86
pp. F. by James Van Ingen. â€” "carefully prepared."
Contents: Parti, of Book HH. Patents of September 5,
1652 â€” October 15, 1653. Translations of Dutch Patents,
1654-1655, 171, pp. F. by James Van Ingen â€” "Correct and
Contents: Part 2 of HH. Patents of February 26, 1655 â€”
April 5, 1664. Translation of "Index" of Dutch Patents,
1 63 0-166 1. 49 pp. F. Index of Names to the Translations â€”
"not implicity to be relied upon."
Albany County Clerk's Office
Court minutes of Fort Orange:
Vol. i. 1652-1656, 321 pp. F.
Contents: Minutes of April 15, 1652 â€” December 12, 1656,
MS. Cal. by B. Fernow (Fort Orange Recs of October 4,
1656 â€” December II, 1657 are in N. Y. Col. MSS. vol. xvi.
Part 2, pp. I. 124.
Vol. ii. 1658-1660; Mortgage No. I, 1652-1660, 447 pp F.
Contents: Title on front page: "Fort Orange Proceedings,
deeds, Indian treaties, bills of sale, etc., bonds, etc., powers
of attorney, January, 1652 â€” November, 1660." 211 pp. Min-
utes of the Court of Fort Orange, Januarys, 1658 â€” Decem-
ber 2, 1659, calendared by O'Callaghan, Cal. Hist. MSS. vol.
i. (Dutch), pp. 317-322.
Mortgages, etc., calendared in MS. Cal. in County Clerk's
(Fort Orange Recs. of January 13, December 30, 1660 in
N. Y. Col. MSS. vol. xvi. part "3, pp. 133-232.)
Notarial Papers of Beverwyck,
Vol. i. 616 pp. F. 1660-1676.
Contents: Contracts, leases, inventories, bonds, indentures of
apprenticeship, powers of attorney, etc., acknowledged
before Dirck Van Schelluyne and Adriaen Van Ylpendam,
:.#/- 1*r .'VilT
M JC^ ^%
336 RELIGION IN NEW NETHERLAND
vi. Burgomasters and Schepens, 1662-1664.
viii. Burgomasters and Schepens, 1657-1661.
Two Additional Volumes:
Vol. i. Original records of Burgomasters and Orphanmasters,
ii . Record of deeds , bonds etc . , of New Orange , 1671-74.
(Translations by O'Callaghan in MS.)
Vol. I. Mortgages of lots and pieces of land in the City of
New Amsterdam, 1654-1660. vol. ii. of original.
2. Deeds and conveyances of real estate in City of New
Amsterdam, 1659-1665, 380 pp. Contents of iii.
and parts of v. and vi. of original.
3. Deeds and conveyances of real estate in City of New
Amsterdam, 1654- 163 8, 311 pp. Contents of iii.
and parts of v. and vi. of original.
4. Register of Salomon Lachair, notary public of New
Amsterdam, 1662-1664, 432 pp. vols. iv. and
viii. and part of Orphan's Court Records of orig-
5. Register of Waleyn van der Veen, notary public of
New Amsterdam, 1662-1664, 115 pp. vol. vi., in
part, of original.
6. Deeds and Mortgages of lots and tracts of land in the
City of New York and New Orange, 166 4- 1675, 233
pp. vol. ii. of Additional Volumes and a part of