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Handbook of American Indians north of Mexico; ed (Volume 1) online

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became the central figure of a cycle of in
terrelated legends. Longfellow has made
the name of Hiawatha everywhere famil
iar, but not so the character of the great
reformer. Schoplcraft, in his Algic Re
searches, embodied a large number of leg
ends relating to Chippewa gods and demi
gods, and, while compiling his Notes on
the Iroquois, Gen. Clark communicated
to him this cycle of mythic legends misap
plied to Hiawatha. Charmed with the
poetic setting of these tales, Schoolcraft
confused Hiawatha with Manabozho, a
Chippewa deity, and it is to these two
collections of mythic and legendary lore
that the English language owes the charm
ing poem of Longfellow, in which there
is not a single fact or fiction relating to the
great Iroquoian reformer and statesman.
For further published information see
Hale (1) Iroquois Book of Rites, (2) A
Lawgiver of the Stone Age; Hewitt in
Am. Anthrop., Apr. 1892. (J.N.B.H.)

Hicaranaou. An ancient Timuquanan
village in N. Florida. DeBry, Brev. Nar.,
n, map, 1591.

Hiccora, Hiccory. See Hickory.

Hichakhshepara ( eagle ) . A subgens
of the Waninkikikarachada, the Bird gens
of the Winnebago.

Hi-tca-qce-pa-ra. Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. A. E.,
240, 1897.

Hichucio. A subdivision or settlement
of the Tehueco, probably inhabiting the
lower Rio Fuerte or the Fuerte-Mayo di
vide, in N. w. Sinaloa, Mex. Orozco y
Berra, Geog., 58, 1864.

Hickerau A small Santee village on a
branch of Santee r., S. C., in 1701.



BULL. 30]



HICKORY HIDATSA



547



Black house. Lawson (1714), Hist. Carolina, 45,
1860 (so called by traders). Hickerau. Ibid.

Hickory. A walnut tree belonging to
any one of several species of the genus
Hicoria. The word is spelled by early
writers in a great variety of ways: po-
hickery (Farrar, 1653), pekickery (Shrig-
ley, 1669), peckikery, pokickery, hickorie,
hiccora, hiccory, hickory (1682), etc.
Capt. John Smith (Hist. Va., n, 26,
1624) describes pawcohiccora, a food of
the Algonquian Indians of Virginia, as a
preparation of pounded walnut kernels
with water. From the cluster words paw-
cohiccora, etc., transferred by the whites
from the food to the tree, has been de
rived hickory. Derivative words and
terms are: Hickory-borer (Cyllenepicta),
hickory-elm ( Ulmus racemosa), hickory-
eucalyptus (Eucalyptus punctata), hick-
ory-girdler (Oncideres cingulatus) , hick
ory-head (the ruddy duck), hickory nut
(the nut of the hickory, specifically of
Hicoria ovata or H. laciniosa), hickory-oak
( Quercus chrysolepis) , hickory-pine (Pinus
balfouriana and P. pungens), hickory pole
(a Democratic party emblem), hickory
poplar (Liriodendrontulipifera), hickory-
shad (the gizzard-shad), hickory shirt (a
coarse cotton shirt). As an adjective the
word hickory took on the sense of firm, un
yielding, stubborn, as applied to religious
sectarians, members of a political party,
etc. Gen. Andrew Jackson was called
Old Hickory." In Waterloo co., On
tario, according to W. J. Wintemberg, the
German residents call a Pennsylvania
German a Hickory, possibly in reference
to their fellows in Pennsylvania having
voted the Jackson ticket. (A. r. c. )

Hickory Indians. A small band for
merly occupying a village near Lancaster,
Pa. (Day, Penn., 397, 1843). Probably
a part of the Dela wares.

Hickory Log. A former Cherokee set
tlement on Etowah r., a short distance
above Canton, Cherokee co., Ga.
Mooney in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 545, 1900.

Wane -asuh tlunyi. Mooney, ibid, ( hickory foot-
log place : native name).

Hickorytown. A former Munsee and
Delaware village,- probably about East
Hickory or West Hickory, Forest co., Pa.
On account of the hostility of the western
tribes the Indians here removed in 1791
to the Seneca and were by them settled
near Cattaraugus, N. Y. (j. M. )

Hickory town. Procter (1791) in Am. State Papers,
Ind. Aff., I, 154, 1832. Munsee settlement. Ibid.,
153.

Hictoba. One of the 5 divisions of the
Dakota recorded by Pachot (Margry,
Dec., vi, 518, 1886) about 1722. Uniden
tified.

Scioux de la chasse. Ibid.

Hidatsa. A Siouan tribe living, since
first known to the whites, in the vicinity of
the junction of Knife r. with the Missouri,
North Dakota, in intimate connection with
the Mandan and Arikara. Their language



is closely akin to that of the Crows, with
whom they claim to have been united un
til some time before the historic period,
when the two separated in consequence of
a quarrel over the division of some game,
the Crows then drawing off farther to the w.
The name Hidatsa, by which they now
call themselves, has been said, with doubt
ful authority, to mean willows, and is
stated by Matthews to have been origi
nally the name only of a principal village
of the tribe in their old home on Knife r.
( see Elahsa). It probably came to be used
as the tribe name, after the smallpox epi-




HIDATSA (CHESHAKHADAKHI, LEAN WOLF)



demic of 1837, from the consolidation of
the survivors of the other two villages
with those of Hidatsa. By the Mandan
they are known as Minitari, signifying
they crossed the water, traditionally said
to refer to their having crossed Missouri r.
from the E. The Sioux call them He-
waktokto, said to mean dwellers on a
ridge, but more probably signifying
spreading tipis, or tipis in a row, the
name by which they are known to the
Cheyenneand Arapaho. The sign gesture
in each case would be nearly the same
( Mooney ) . The Crows call them Amashi,
earth lodges, and they are now officially



548



HIDATSA



[B. A. E.



known as Gros Yentres (q. v. ), a name
applied also to the Atsina, a detached
tribe of the Arapaho.

According to their own tradition the
Hidatsa came from the neighborhood of a
lake N. E. of their later home, and identi
fied by some of their traditionists with
Mini- wakan or Devils lake, N . Dak. They
had here the circular earth-covered log
house, in use also by the Mandari, Ank
ara, and other tribes living close along
the upper Missouri, in addition to the
skin tipi occupied when on the hunt.
Removing from there, perhaps in conse
quence of attacks by the Sioux, they
moved s. w. and allied themselves with
the Mandan, who then lived on the w.
side of the Missouri, about the mouth of
Heart r. The three tribes, Hidatsa, Man-
dan, and Arikara were all living in this
vicinity about 1765. From the Mandan
the Hidatsa learned agriculture. Some
time before 1796 these two tribes moved
up the river to the vicinity of Knife r. ,
where they were found by Lewis and
Clark in 1804, the Hidatsa being then in
three villages immediately on Knife r.,
while the Mandan, in two villages, w r ere
a few miles lower down, on the Missouri.
The largest of the three villages of the
tribe was called Hidatsa and was on the
N. bank of Knife r. The other two, Ama-
tiha and Am hami, or Mahaha, were on
the s. side. The last named was occupied
by the Amahami (Ahnahaway of Lewis
and Clark ) , formerly a distinct but closely
related tribe. In consequence of the in
roads of the Sioux they had been so far
reduced that they had been compelled to
unite with the Hidatsa, and have long
since been completely absorbed. The
three villages together had a popula
tion of about 600 warriors, equivalent to
about 2, 100 souls. Of these the Amahami
counted about 50 warriors. There was no
change in the location of the villages until
after the terrible smallpox epidemic of
1837, which so greatly reduced the Indian
population of the upper Missouri, and in
consequence of which the survivors of the
three villages consolidated into one. In
1845 they, and about the same time the
remnant of the Mandan also, moved up
the river and established themselves in a
new village (see Hidatscdi] close to the
trading post of Ft Berthold, on the N. bank
of the Missouri and some distance below
the entrance of the Little Missouri, in
North Dakota. In 1862 the Arikara
moved up to the same location, the three
tribes now occupying a reservation of
884,780 acres on the N. E. side of the Mis
souri, including the siteof the village. In
1905 the Hidatsa (Gros Ventres) were offi
cially reported to number only 471.

Early writers describe the Hidatsa as
somewhat superior intellectually and
physically to their neighbors, although



according to Matthews this is not so evi
dent in later days. In home life, reli
gious beliefs and customs, house building,
agriculture, the use of the skin boat, and

fneral arts, they closely resembled the
andan with whom they were associated.
Their great ceremony was the Sun dance,
called by them Da-h pi-ke, which was ac
companied with various forms of torture.
Their warriors were organized into vari
ous military societies, as is the case with
the Plains tribes generally.

Morgan (Anc. Soc., 159, 1877) gives a
list of 7 Hidatsa "gentes," which were
probably really original village names, or

Csibly society names, viz: Mit-che-ro x -
( knife ) , Min-ne-pa-ta ( water ) , Bii-
ho-hii -ta ( lodge ), Seech-ka-be-ruh-pa/-
ka ( prairie chicken ) , E-tish-sho / -ka
( hill people ), Ah-nah-ha-mi -me-te (an
unknown animal), E-ku -pa-be-ka ( bon
net ). The list of "bands" given by Cul-
bertson (Smithson. Rep. 1850, 143, 1851 ) is
really a list of military societies, viz: Fox,
Foolish Dog, Old Dog, Bull, and Black-
tailed Deers.

Consult Clark, Ind. Sign Lang., 1885;
Coues, Exped. Lewis and Clark, 1893;
Orig. Jour. Lewis and Clark, i-vm, 1904-
05; Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 1897;
Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Yal.,
1867; Matthews, Ethnog. and Philol. Hi
datsa, 1877; Maximilian, Trav., 1843; Mc-
Gee in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 1897. (j. M. )

A-gutch-a-ninne. Tanner, Narr. , 58, 1830. A-gutch-
a-ninne-wug. Ibid, ( the settled people : Chip-
pewa name). A-me-she . Hayden, Ethnog. and
Philol., 402, 1862 ( people who live in earth
houses : Crow name). Ar-me-shay. Anon. MS.
Crow vocab., B. A. E. Belantse-etea. U. S. Ind.
Treaties, 354, 1826. Belautse-etea. Cass (1834) in
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 609, 1853. E-nat -za.
Morgan in N. A. Rev., 47, Jan. 1870 (national
name; ct. Ehartsar). Gi-aucth-in-in-e-wug. War
ren in Minn. Hist. Coll., v, 178, 1885 ( men of
the olden time : Chippewa name). Gi-aucth-
in-ne-wug. Ibid., 261. Grosventres. For various
forms of this name applied to the Hidatsa, see
Gros Ventres. Hedatse. Hamilton in Trans.
Nebr. Hist. Soc., I, 75, 1885. He-wa -kto-kta.
Cook, Yankton, MS. vocab., B. A. E., 184, 1882.
Hewaktokto. Matthews, Ethnog. and Philol.,
36, 1877 (Dakota name). He-war-tuk-tay. Cor
liss, Lacotah MS. vocab., B. A. E., 106, 1874.
Hidatsa. Matthews. Ethnog. and Philol., 3, 1877
(own name). Hidatza. Baxter in Harper s Mag.,
June, 1882. Hidhatsa. Dorsey in Am. Nat., 829,
1882. Manetores. Ramsey in Ind. Aff. Rep., 75,
1849. Maniataris. Du Lac, Voy. dans La., 225,
1805. Manitaries. Maximilian, Trav., vii, 1843.
Mannatures. Gumming in H. R. Ex. Doc. 65, 34th
Cong., 1st sess., 8, 1856. Menetare. Lewis and
Clark, Discov., 26, 1806. Me-ne-ta-rees. Orig.
Jour. Lewis and Clark (1805), I, 249, 1904. Mene-
tarres. Lewis and Clark, Discov., 25, 1806. Me ne
tar res. Orig. Jour. Lewis and Clark ^1805) , I, 248,
1904 (also Mene tar re s). Metaharta. Lewis and
Clark, Exped., I, 121, 1814. Miditadi. Matthews,
Ethnog. and Philol., 193, 1887. Mimetari. Meigs
in Smithson. Rep. 1867, 414, 1868. Minataree.
Clark and Cass in H. R. Ex. Doc. 117, 20th Cong.,
2d sess., 98, 1829. Minatarees. Bradbury, Trav.,
109, 1817. Minatares. Brown, West. Gaz., 215,
1817. Minatories. Dougherty in H. R. Ex. Doc.
276, 25th Cong., 2d sess., 16, 1838. Minetaire.
Drake, Bk. Inds., vi, 1848. Minetarees. Lewis
and Clark, Exped., I, 163, 1817. Minetares. Orig.
Jour. Lewis and Clark (1805), I, 324, 1904. Mine-



BULL. 30]



HIDATSATI HILLIS HADJO



549



tari. Prichard, Phys. Hist. Man., v, 409, 1847.
Minetaries. Gallatin in Trans. Am. Antiq. Soc., n,
125, 1836. Minetarre. Lewis and Clark, Exped., I,
map, 1814. Minetarries. Orig. Jour. Lewis and
Clark (1805), i, 283, 1904. Minitare. Latham in
Jour. Ethnol. Soc. Lond.,i, 160, 1848. Minitarees.
Orig. Jour. Lewis and Clark (1804), I, 216, 1904.
Minitares. Ibid., 10. Minitari. Brownell, Ind.
Races N. Am., 466, 1853 (Mandan name). Mini-
tarres. Orig. Jour. Lewis and Clark, I, 13, 1904.
Minnetahrees. Tanner, Narr., 316,1830. Minne-
tahse. Ibid., 325 (misprint). Mln-ne-ta-re. Long,
Exped. Rocky Mts., II, Lxx, 1823. Minnetarees.
Lewis and Clark, Exped., I, 115, 1S14. Minne
tarees Metaharta. Ibid., 131. Minnetarees of the
Willows. Ibid. Minnetares of the Knife R.
Orig. Jour. Lewis and Clark (1805), i,2S3, 1904.
Minnetaroes. Lewis and Clark, Exped., I, 164,
1817. Minnetarres. Warren, Nebr. and Ariz., 50,
1875. Minnitarees. Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol.
Mo. Val., 420, 1862. Minnitarees Metaharta.
Lewis and Clark, Exped.. 1, 131, 1814. Minnitarees
of the Willows. Ibid. Minnitaris. Am. Nat., 829,
1882. Minntaree. Trans. Anthrop. Soc. Wash., in,
65, 1885. Moennitarris. Maximilian, Trav., 337,
1843. Quehatsa. Brown, West. Gaz., 213, 1817.
Stationary Minetares. Gallatin in Trans. Am. An
tiq. Soc., u, 125, 1836 (as distinguished from
"Minitarees of Fort de Prairie," i.e., the Atsi-
na). Wa-nuk -e-ye -na. Hayden, Ethnog. and
Philol. Mo. Val.. 326, 1862 ( lodges planted to
gether : Arapaho name). Wetitsaan. Mat
thews, Ethnog. and Philol. Hidatsa, 36, 1877 (Arik-
ara name). Winetaries. Orig. Jour. Lewis and
Clark (1804), 1,220, 1904. Wi-tets -han. Hayden,
op.cit.,357 ( well-dressed people : Ankara name).
Hidatsati (from Hidatsa and ati: dwel
ling of the Hidatsa Indians ). The Hi
datsa village formerly at Ft Berthold,
N. Dak. In 1872 it contained 71 Arikara
and 104 Hidatsa and Mandan dwellings.
See Elahsa.

Berthold Indian Village. Royce in 18th Rep.B.
A. E., pi. cxviii, 1899. Hi di tsa ti. Matthews,
Ethnog. and Philol. Hidatsa, 211, 1877.

Hidlis Hadjo. See Hill-is Hadjo.

Highahwixon. One of several tribes
displaced by the whites in 1651 from their
homes in Charles and St Mary cos., Md.,
and given a tract at the head of the Wi-
comoco. They were probably Conoy.
Eozman, Maryland, u, 421, 1837.

High Tower Forks. A former Cherokee
settlement mentioned in a document
of 1799 (Royce in 5th Rep. B. A. E., 144,
1887). It was probably one of the places
called Etowah (I t&wti, ), q. v.

Higos (Jndios de los Hiyos, Span.: Fig
Indians ). A tribe of s. Texas, so named
by Cabezade Vaca in 1528 (Smith trans.,
84, 1851) from their custom of subsisting
on the prickly pear, or tuna, in its season.
Cabeza de Vaca states that they counted
the seasons by the ripening of the fruits,
the "dying" or (according to Smith) the
biting oi the fish, and by the appearance of
certain constellations. Nothing is known
of their ethnic relations. (A. c. F. )

Higtiguk. A former Aleut village on
Agattu id., Alaska, one of the Near id.
group of the Aleutians, now uninhabited.

Hihagee. An unidentified Lower Creek
town mentioned in a census list of 1833.
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 578, 1854.

Hihakanhanhanwin ( women the skin of
whose teeth dangles ). A band of the
Brule Teton Sioux.



Hi-ha kaijharjharj win. Dorsey (after Cleveland)
in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 219, 1897. Hi-ha ka"ha n ha"
win. Ibid.

Hihames. A former tribe of Coahuila,
N. E. Mexico, which was gathered into the
mission of El Santo Noinbre de Jesus
Peyotes when it was refounded in 1698.
This tribe probably belonged to the
Coahuiltecan family.

Gijames. Morfi (1777) quoted by Bancroft, Nat.
Races, I, 611, 1886. Hijames. Revillagigedo
(1793), ibid. Xijames. Ibid.

Hilakwitiyus (Hll-d-kwl-ti-y&s ). A for
mer Siuslaw village on or near Siuslaw r r.,
Oreg. Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk-lore,
in, 230, 1890.

Hilksuk. A former Aleut village on
Agattu id., Alaska, one of the Near id.
group of the Aleutians, now uninhabited.

Hillabi (pron. hi -la-pi). A former Up
per Creek town near the present Ashland,
Clay co., Ala., in the "central district"
between Coosa and Tallapoosa rs., on
Koufadi cr., a branch of Hillabee cr.
Most of the Hillabi people had settled
before 1799 in the 4 villages called Hlan-
udshiapala, Anatichapko, Istudshilaika,
and Uktahasasi. In the vicinity of Hillabi
town its inhabitants, with other "Red
Sticks," or hostiles, were vanquished by
Jackson s army, Nov. 18, 1813, when 316
of them were killed or captured and their
tow r n devastated. (A. s. G.)

Halibee. Drake, Bk. Inds.,bk.iv, 54,1848. Halle-
bac. Jefferys, Am. Atlas, map 5, 1776 (on w. bank
of Loucushatchee [Tallapoosa] r. ). Hallibees.
Drake, Ind. Chron., 198,1836. Hi -la-pi .Gatschet,
Creek. Migr. Leg., I, 131, 1884 (proper pronuncia
tion). Hillaba. Bartram, Travels, 462, 1791(on a
branch of Coosa r.). Hillabees, Swan (1791) in
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, v, 262, 1855. Hillabys.
Woodward, Reminiscences, 96, 1859. Hill-au-bee.
Hawkins (1799), Sketch, 43, 1848. Hillebese. Cor
nell (1793) in Am. State Papers, Ind. Aff., i, 385,
1832.

Hillabi. A town of the Creek Nation,
s. w. of Eufaula, between North fork and
Canadian r., Ind. T. Gatschet, Creek
Migr. Leg., n, 185, 1888.
Hilabi. Gatschet, ibid.

Hillis Hadjo. (hilix medicine , hadsho
crazy , an official at the busk, q. v. ).
A noted Seminole leader in the early
part of the 19th century, usually known
among the whites as Francis the Prophet,
and whose name is also recorded as Hid
lis Hadjo, Hillishago, Hillishager, etc.
He took an active part in the Semi
nole war, and is accused of having been
one of the chief instigators of the sec
ond uprising. He seems to have come
into public notice as early as 1814, as on
Apr. 18 of that year Gen. Jackson wrote
from his camp at the junction of Coosa
and Tallapoosa rs., Ala., that "Hillisha-
gee, their [the Seminole s] great prophet,
has absconded." Led by some abandoned
English traders to believe that the treaty
oi Ghent in 1814 provided for the restora
tion of the Seminole country, and in the
hope of obtaining aid for his tribe against
the Americans, he went to England, where



550



HILUYS HITCHAPUKSASSI



[B. A. E.



he received much attention. An English
journal thus mentions his arrival: "The
soundof trumpets announced the approach
of the patriot Francis, who fought so glo
riously in our cause in America during
the late war. Being dressed in a most
splendid suit of red and gold, and wearing
a tomahawk set with gold, gave him a
highly imposing appearance." His mis
sion led to no practical result. Near the
close of 1817 an American named McKrim-
mon, who had been captured by a Semi-
nole party, was taken to Mikasuki, where
dwelt Hillis Hadjo, who ordered him to be
burned to death, but at the last moment
his life was saved by the entreaties of
Milly (q.v.), the chief s daughter, who,
when her father wavered, showed her de
termination to perish with him. Francis
shortly thereafter fell into the hands of
the Americans and was hanged. His
wife and several daughters afterward sur
rendered to the Americans at St Marks,
Fla., where Milly received much attention
from the whites, but refused McKrim-
mon s offer of marriage until assured that
it was not because of his obligation to her
for saving his life. (c. T.)

Hiluys. An unidentified tribe, said to
have lived on Laredo channel, Brit. Col.,
about lat. 52 30 (Scott in Ind. Aff. Rep.,
316, 1868). This is in the country of the
Kittizoo.

Himatanohis (Himdtanolus, l bowstring
men ). A warrior society of the Chey
enne, q. v. (j. M. )
Bow-String (Society). Dorsey in Field Columb.
Mus. Pub., no. 99, 15, 1905. inverted (Society).
Ibid.

Himoiyoqis (Ht moiyoqls, a word of
doubtful meaning). A warrior society
of the Cheyenne (q. v. ); also sometimes
known as Oomi-nu tqiu, Coyote warri
ors. (.T. M.)
Coyote (Society). Dorsey in Field Columb. Mus.
Pub., no. 99, 15, 1905.

Hinama (Hi n&md, referring to the head
of a variety of fish). A former Maricopa
village whose people now live on the s.
bank of Salt r., E. of the Mormon settle
ment of Lehi, Maricopa co., s. Ariz. Rus
sell, Pima MS., B. A. E., 16, 1902.

Hinanashiu (Hinana shiu, golden
eagle ) . A gens of the Kineuwidishianun
or Eagle phratry of the Menominee.
Hoffman in 14th Rep. B. A. E., pt. i, 42,
1896.

Hinauhan s Village. A summer camp
of a Stikine chief on Stikine r., Alaska.
In 1880, 31 people were there. -Petroff
in Tenth Census, Alaska, 32, 1884.

Hinhanshunwapa ( toward the owl
feather ). A band of the Brule Teton
Sioux.

Hi n ha n -cu n -wapa. Dorsey (after Cleveland) in 15th
Rep. B. A. E., 219, 1897. Hip han-sun-wapa. Ibid.

Hiocaia. A former village, governed by
a female chieftain, situated 12 leagues



N. of Charlefort, the French fort on St
Johns r., Fla., in the 16th century.
Hiocaia. Laudonniere (1564) in French, Hist.
Coll. La., n. s., 286, 1869. Hiouacara. De Bry,
Brev. Narr., n, map, 1591.

Hioqua. See Iliaqua.

Hios. A branch of the Nevome who
lived 8 leagues E. of the pueblo of Tepa-
hue, in Sonora, Mexico (Orozco y Berra,
Geog., 58, 351, 1864). The name doubt
less properly belongs to their village.

Hipinimtch (hipi prairie , nimtch
road, portage ) . A former Chitimacha
village on the w. side of Grand lake, at
Fausse Pointe, near Bayou Gosselin, La.

Hipinimtch namu. Gatschef in Trans. Anthrop.
Soc. Wash., n, 152, 1883 (ndmu= t village ).

Hiqua. See Iliaqua.

Hirrihigua. A province and town, pre
sumably Timuquanan, on the w. coast of
Florida, on or near Tampa bay, where
De Soto landed in May, 1539. Possibly
the same as Ucita.



Harriga. Shipp, De Soto and Fla., 257, 1881.

Hihirrigua. Ga

1723. Hirriga. Shipp, op. cit.,



Hihirrigua. Garcilasso de la Vega, Hist. Fla., 30,



Hisada ( legs stretched out stiff , re
ferring to a dead quadruped). A Ponca
gens on the Chinzhu side of the camp
circle.

Hisada. Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 228, 1897.
Thunder people. Ibid.

Hishkowits ( Htshkowl ts, porcupine ,
known to the whites as Harvey White-
shield). A Southern Cheyenne inter
preter, born in w. Oklahoma in 1867;
eldest son of the chief White-shield (see
Wopowats}. After 5 years attendance at
the agency schools he entered Carlisle
School, Pa., in 1881, afterward attending
other schools at Ft Wayne, Hanover
(Ind.), and Lawrence (Kan.). In 1893
he became assistant teacher in the Men-
nonite mission school among the Chey
enne at Cantonment, Okla., which posi
tion he held for 4 years. He still serves
as interpreter for the mission and has
been chief assistant of the Rev. Rudolph
Petter, missionary in charge, in the prep
aration of a number of translations and a
manuscript dictionary of the Cheyenne
language. (.T. M.)

Hisiometanio (Htsiomela nio, ridge
men ; sing., Ittsiometa n], A principal
division of the Cheyenne, q. v.

Hisiometa nio. Mooney, inf n, 1905 (see p. 255 of
this Handbook). Hissi o me tan i u. Grinnell, So
cial Org. Cheyennes, 136, 1905. I sium-ita niuw .
Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 1025, 1*96.

Histapenumanke. A Mandan band, the
first, according to their mythology, to
come above ground from the subterran
ean lake.

E-sta-pa . Morgan, Anc. Soc., 158, 1877 ( those
Avith the tattooed faces ). Flat-head. Ibid. Hi-
sta pe nu-man -ke. Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. A. E.,
241, 1897. Histoppa. Maximilian, Trav., 366, 1843.

Hitchapuksassi. A former Seminole
town about 20 m. from the head of
Tampa bay, in what is now Hills bo ro
co., Fla.



BULL. 30]



HITCHITI HIZO



551



Hechapususse. Bell in Morse, Rep. to Sec. War,
307, 1822. Helch-puck[sasy]. H. R. Ex. Doc. 74
(1823), 19th Cong., 1st sess., 23, 1826 (the last two
syllables of this name arc joined to the next
town name, -chicu-chaty.} Hich-a-pue-susse.
Bell, op. cit. Hichipucksassa. Taylor, War map,
1839.

Hitchiti (Creek: ahtichita, to look up
stream ) . A Muskhogean tribe formerly
residing chiefly in a town of the same
name on the E. bank of Chattahoochee
r., 4 m. below Chiaha, and possessing a
narrow strip of good land bordering on
the river, in w. Georgia. When Haw
kins visited them in 1799 they had spread
out into two branch settlements one, the
Hitchitudshi, or Little Hitchiti, on both
sides of Flint r. below the junction of
Kinchafoonee cr., which passes through a
country named after it; the other, Tuta-
losi, on a branch of Kinchafoonee cr. , 20 m.
w. of Hitchitudshi. The tribe is not often
mentioned in history, and appears for the
first time in 1733, when two of its del
egates, with the Lower Creek chiefs, met
Gov. Oglethorpe at Savannah. The lan
guage appears to have extended beyond
the limits of the tribe as here defined, as it
was spoken not only in the towns on the
Chattahoochee, as Chiaha, Chiahudshi,
Hitchiti, Oconee, Sawokli, Sawokliudshi,



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