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Handbook of American Indians north of Mexico; ed (Volume 2) online

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on the x. shore of L. Superior at Grand
Portage and Thunder bay.
Hawoyzask. Long, VOY. and Trav., 62, 1791 Mus
quash. Ibid. Omackasiwag. -Wm. Jones, inf n,
1907. Omaschkase Wenenewak. Long, Exped
St. Peter s R.. n, 153, 1824. Omush-kas. Warren
(1852) in Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll., v. 84, 1885.
0-mush-kas-ug. Ibid. Rat nation. Long, Voy.
and Trav., 117, 1791.

Waziknte ( shooters among pine trees ).
A division of the Upper Yanktonai Sioux.
It was an ancient and important division,
from which in early times the Assiniboin
seceded.

Gens des Pin. Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo.
Val., 371, 1802. Ouapeontetons. La Harpe (1700)
in Shea, Early Voy., Ill, 1*61 (trans, village of
those who shoot in a great pine ). Ouapetonte-
tons. Le Sueur (1700) quoted by Neill Hist
Minn., 170, 1858 (trans. village of those who shoot
at the large pine ). Ouasiconteton. Le Sueur
(1700) in Margry. Dec., vi, 87, 1886 (trans. village
of those who shoot at the large pine ). Pine-
Band. Hayden, op. cit. Pole people. Culbertson
in Smithson. Rep. 1850, 141. 1851. Shooters in the
Pines. H. R. Ex. Doc. 96, 42d Cong., 3d sess., 5,
1873. Siouxs who Shoot in the Pine Tops. Treaty
of 1816 in U. S. Ind. Treat., 870. 1873. Tca-ona.
Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 218, 1897. Those that
Shoot in the pines. Culbertson in Smithson. Rep.
1850, 141, 1851. Tlciclt a". Dorsey in Cont. N. A.
Ethnol., vi, 412, 1890 (trans, plenty of lodge
poles ). Wa-ge -ku-te. Hayden, Ethnog. and
Philol. Mo. Val., 371, 1862. Wah-zu-cootas.
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, n, 169, 1852.

Wea (probably a contraction of the
local name Wawiaqtenang, place of the
round, or curved, channel (Schoolcraft);
possibly contracted from Wayahtdnuki,
eddy people, from wayagtonuri, eddy,
both renderings coming from the same
root. Wawaqtenang was the common
Algonquian name for Detroit. Cf. Waw-
yachtonoc). A subtribe of the Miami.
They are first mentioned in the Jesuit Re
lation for 1673 as living in E. Wisconsin.
In the later distribution of the tribes of
the confederacy they occupied the most
westerly position. Allouezin 1680 found
a Wea town on St Joseph r. , Ind. Mar-
quette visited a Wea village at Chicago
which Courtemanche found still there in
1701. A part of them were for a time with
the bands of various tribes gathered about
La Salle s fort near Peoria, 111. La Salle
says their band had 35 cabins. In 1719
their chief village, Ouiatenon, was on the
Wabash, below the mouth of Wea cr.,
where, according to Charlevoix, they
were living nearly half a century before.
This is possibly identical with "Les
Gros" village (q. v. ) of a document of
1718. Besides this they had two or three
villages near by. Ouiatenon was one of
the principal headquarters of the French



traders. In 1757 the Wea and Pianka
shaw endeavored to come into fr , ,I? y
relations with the whit., and an ain^
mentto this end wan entered into^kh
U>l. George Crogan, but \va n-jn-t.-d bv
the assembly of Virginia. Subsequently
various agreements of peace with other
tribes and the whites were enter*! into
chiefly through the efforts of (\,1. On win
and Sir Wm. Johnson, to be a* often fol
lowed by outbreaks. In 1791 their
neighboring villages were destroyed by
the U. S. troops under (Jen. Scott They
participated in the treaty of Greenville
Ohio, Aug. 3, 1795, their deputies Bignina
for them and the Piankashaw. In IHL>O
they sold their last lands in Indiana, near
the mouth of Raccoon cr. in I arke co
and removed with the Piankashaw to
llmois and Missouri. In 1832 the united
tribes in turn sold their claims in those
states and removed to Kansas, where
some had already settled. The few Wea
still remaining in Indiana afterward
joined them there. In 1854 the Wea and
Piankashaw, having rapidly dwindled
away, joined the remnants of the connate
Illinois, then known as the Peoria and
Kaskaskia. The united body, all that
remained of 7 tribes, then numbered hut
259, a large proportion of whom were of
mixed blood. In 1868 they removed to
a tract on Neosho r., in the N. E. corner
of the present Oklahoma, where they
now are. In 1885 the united trit>es num
bered 149 souls. In 1909 the numU-r of
the confederated Peoria was 204, only
about 75 of whom had as much as one-
half Indian blood. (j. M.)
Abinones. Barcia, Ensayn, 236, 1723. Aoiatcnon.
La Salle (1682) in Margry". D6e.,n.216. 1,^77. Aonia
tinonis. La Hontan (17(8). Xe\v Voy.. map. !7:56.
Aouiatinons. Gale, Upper Miss., 176, 1867. Aouit-
tanons. La Hontan (1703), New Voy., map. 1
Newcalenous. McKenney and Hall, Ind. Trlbea,
ill, 114, 1854. Ochiatenenr Allouez (16W) in
Margry, D6c., II, 99, 1H77. Oiatenon. La Salle
(1680)," ibid., 201. Oiatinon. Hentiepin. New
Disco v., Ill, 1698. Ojachtanichroenee Living-ton
(1720) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., V, 667, 1855 (Iro-
quoisname). Ojatinons. IA Hontan. New Voy.,
1,231,1703. Oniactmaws. Dalton (17s:!) in Mav.
Hist Soc. Coll., 1st s., x, 123. 1809. OnUt. Stone,
Life of Brant, H, 278, 1864 (misprint). Onia
tonons Imlay. West. Ter., 291 1797 (misprint).
Oniattanon.-Wilkinson (1791) quoted by Rupp,
West. Penn., app., 237, 1846 (misprint). OmlUr-
Gale, Upper Miss., 75. 1H67 (misprint). OouiaU-
nons Beanharnois (173-J) in N. "i Doc. Ool. II
IX, 1035, 1855. 08iat*8tenon -MS. Jes. Kd (
79) quoted bv Shea in Wis. Cist. Boc. Coll., III. <
18.57 Otiara Satenon. .les. Rel. (1C.76) quot^l, i!
Oua -McKennevand Hall. Ind.TriU^ in. H
OuachUnons.-Smith. Bouquet Ex pud . <
Ouachtenons.-Trader quoted by Smith. ii
oSSSon.-Rnpp.Wek ^nn. 149,1 JW. 8*aj.-
tion.-Doc. of 1695 in N. Y. Doc. Col. His i
1855 Ouaouiartanoni.-Bacqueville d ;
riT Hist-, , 261, 17,53. Ouaouiatanoukak-* h.
lev^oix (1744) quoted by Ta.lhan Pern. Mon ,
222 note, 1864. Ouaoujatenonoukak.-Je*.
(1672) quoted by Shea in Wis. Hist. *. Op L,
35 1867 OuaouyarUnont.-Bacqueville d



926



WEAK AOTE WE APEMEOC



[B. A. E.



tonons. Hildreth, Pioneer Hist., 307, 1848. Ouat-
tonon Croghan (1765) quoted in Monthly Am.
Jour. Geol., 264, 1831. Oucatonons. Boudinot,
Star in the W., 128, 1816. Oiieas. Tailhan, Perrot
Mem., 222, note, 1864. Ougatanous. Chauvigne-
rie (1736) quoted by Sehoblcraft, Ind. Tribes,
in 555, 1853. Ouias. Montreal conf. (1756) in N.
Y. Doc. Col. Hist., X, 447, 1858. Ouiatanon.
Frontenac (1682) , ibid., ix, 178, 1855. Ouiatenons.
Perkins and Peck, Annals of the West, 411, 1850.
Ouiatinons. Drake, Bk. Inds., xii, 1848. Ouiato-
nons. Beauharnois (1736) in N. Y. Doc. Col.
Hist., ix, 1050, 1855. Ouiattanon. Harmar (1790)
quoted by Rupp, West. Penn., app., 229, 1846.
Ouiattons. Harmar, ibid. Ouicatonans. Croghan
(1765) in Monthly Am. Jour. Geol., 267, 1831. Ouil-
las. De Bougainville (1757) in N. Y. Doc. Col.
Hist., x, 608, 1858. Ouitanans Brown, West.
Gaz., 71, 1817. Ouitanons. Vaudreuil (1704) in
N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 763, 1855. Ouitatot-
nons. Jefferson (1785), Notes, 143, 1825. Ouiti-
maus. Writer of 1812 quoted by Schoolcraft, Ind.
Tribes, in, 555, 1853. Oujatanons. Doc. of 1718 in
N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., IX, 890, 1855. Ouroctenon.
Royce in 1st Rep. B. A. E., map, 1881 (village).
Oufaganons. Doc. of 1756 in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist.,
x, 424, 1858 (misprint). Outias. Malartie (1758),
ibid., 840 (misprint). Outinon. Schermerhorn
(1812) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s., n, 8, 1814.
Ouyas. Vater, Mith., pt. 3, sec. 3, 351. 1816. 8yas.
Longueuil(1752) inN.Y.Doc.Col. Hist., x, 248,1858.
Syatanon. Longueuil (1752), ibid., 246. Ouyata-
nons. La Salle (1679) in Margry, Dec., I, 463, 1875.
Ouyatonons. Frontenac (1682) in N. Y. Doc. Col.
Hist., ix, 178, note, 1855. Syatonons, Longueuil
(1752), ibid., x, 246, 1858. Ouyattanons. Chauvig-
nerie (1736), ibid., ix, 1057, 1855. Ouyaws. Bou
quet (1760) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 4th s., ix, 345,
1871. Ouyslanous. McKenney and Hall, Ind.
Tribes, 79, 1854 (misprint). Oyachtownuk Roanu.
Dqbbs, Hudson s Bay, 28, 1744. Oyaghtanont.
Post (1758) quoted by Proud, Penn., u, app.,
113, 1798. Oyatonons. Vaudreuil (1711) in N. Y.
Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 860, 1855. Oyyatanous. Jef-
ferys, Fr. Dorns., pt. 1, 117, 1761. Pea. Brinton,
Lenape Leg., 11, 1885 (misprint). Potanons.
Maximilian, Trav., 82, 1843 (misprint). Pyato-
nons. Perkins and Peck, Annals of W., 687, 1850.
Qurachtenons. Buchanan, N. Am. Inds., 155, 1824.
Selugrue. Frontenac (1682) in N. Y. Doc. Col.
Hist., ix, 178, 1855. Uitanons. Maximilian, Reise,
I, 186, 1837. Waas. Drake, Bk. Inds., xii, 1848.
Wah-we-ah -tung-ong. Dunn, True Ind. Stories,
315, 1909 (full name, of which Wea is the abbrevia
tion). Wah-wee-ah-tenon. Hough, map in Ind.
Geol. Rep. 1882, 1883. Wak-we-ot-ta-non. Ibid.
(village). Warraghtinooks. Canajoharie conf.
(1759) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vil, 384, 1856. Wash-
tenaw. Harvey quoted by Day, Penn., 315, 1843.
Watanons. Nuttall, Jour., 251, 1821. Waughwe-
oughtennes. Croghan (1760) in Mass. Hist. Soc.
Coll. ,4th s., ix, 260, 1871. Waugweoughtannes.
Croghan (1759) quoted by Proud, Penn., n, 296,
1798. Wauwaughtanees. Mitchell map (1755)
quoted in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., iv, 501, note, 1854.
Wawaightonos. German Flats conf. (1770), ibid.,
VIII, 233, 1857. Wawcottonans. Croghan (1765)
quoted in Monthly Am. Jour. Geol., 267, 1831 (mis
print). Wawehattecooks. Doc. of 1747 in N Y
090. Col. Hist., vi, 391, 1855. Waweotonans.
Hildreth, Pion. Hist., 71, 1848. Waweoughtannes.
Croghan (1760) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 4th s., ix,
372, 1871. Wawiachtanos. Loskiel (1794) quoted
by Ruttenber, Tribes Hudson R., 336, 1872 Wa-
wiaghta. Johnson (1763) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist.,
Vil, 583, 1856. Wawiaghtanakes. German Flats
conf. (1770), ibid., ym, 244, 1857. Wawiaghtanon.
Johnson (1765), ibid., vii, 716, 1856. Wawiaghto-
noB. Johnson (1763), ibid., 583. Wawia hta nua
Gatschet, Shawnee MS., B. A. E., 1880 (Shawnee
name; plural, Wawiata nuagi). Wawiotonans
Croghan (1765) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vil, 780,
1856. Wawioughtanes. Croghan (1757), ibid., 268.
Wawyachtenoke. Livingston (1700), ibid., iv 651
1854. Waya hto nuki. Gatschet, Miami MS.,
B. A. E., 1888 (correct Miami form). Wayough-
tanies Croghan (1765) in Monthly Am Jour
Geol. ,272, 1831. Wea. Harmar (1790) in Am. State
Papers, Ind. AfY., i, 105, 1832. Weah. Jones, Ojeb-



way Inds., 178, 1861. Weaus. Doc, of 1786 in Mass.
Hist. Soc. Coll., Ists., in, 26, 1794. Weaws. Brown,
West. Gaz., 348, 1817. Weeah. Harmar (1790) in
Rupp, West.Penn.,app.,229, 1846. Weea s. Green
ville treaty (1795) in U. S. Ind. Treat., 184, 1873.
Weeaws. Brown, West. Gaz., 72, 1817. Weeds.
Rupp, West. Penn., app., 253, 1846 (misprint). Wi-
ahtanah. Barton, New Views, xxxiii, 1798. Wi -
ah-ton-oon-gi. Dunn, True Indian Stories, 315,
1908 (Miami name of the Wea town). Wiata-
nons. Doc. 1756 in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., x, 401,
1858. Wiaut. Lattre, map U. S., 1784. Wyachte-
nos. Putnam (1792) in Am. State Papers.Ind. Aff.,
1, 240, 1832. Wyahtinaws. Imlay, W. Ter. , 364, 1797.
Wyatanons. Duquesne (1754) in N. Y. Doc. Col.
Hist., x, 263, 1868. Wyeacktenacks. Lindesay
(1749), ibid., vr, 538, 1855. Wyogtami. McKenney
and Hall, Ind.Tribes, in, 80, 1854. Yeahtentanee.
Drake, Bk. Inds., xii, 1848.

Weakaote (probably from wiyaka ota,
much sand ). A former band or vil
lage of the Mdewakanton Sioux. Long,
Exped. St Peters R., i, 385, 1824.

Weanoc. A tribe of the Powhatan
confederacy, formerly living in Charles
City co., Va., on the N. bank of James r.
In 1608 they numbered about 500. They
seem to have crossed over to the s. bank
of James r. toward the close of the 17th
century, perhaps in consequence of a dis
astrous attack from the Iroquois in 1687.
In 1722 Beverley stated that their former
settlement in Prince George co., s. of the
James, was extinct, and in 1727 it was stated
that they had lived at different times on
upper Nottoway r. and on a tributary
stream, then called Wyanoke cr., near
the North Carolina frontier. Nottoway
r. was also at one time known by their
name.

Chawopoweanock. Pots in Smith (1629), Va., I,
204, repr. 1819 (incorrect combination of Chawopo
and Weanock). Weanocks. Smith, ibid., 116.
Wianoes. Boudinot, Star in the W., 129, 1816
(misprint).

Weanoc. The principal village of the
Weanoc in 1608, situated below the mouth
of Appomattox r., at the present Wey-
anoke, Prince George co., Va.

Wayanoak. Golden (1727), Five Nat., 58, 1747.
Wyanoke. Beverley, Va., 199, 1722. Wynoack. -
Moll in Humphreys^ Acct.,map, 1730. Wyonoke.
Doc. of 1727 in Martin, N. C., i, app., xvi, 1829.

Weantinock. The chief village of the
Wawyachtonoc, situated on Housatonic
r., near the present New Milford, Litch-
field co., Conn.

Oweantonoge. Trumbull, Hist. Conn., II, 82, 1818.
Wean tinock. Trumbull, Ind. Names Conn., 80,
1881. Wyantenock. Doc. of 1702 quoted by Trum
bull, Hist. Conn., n, 82, 1818.

Weapemeoc. An Algonquian (?) tribe
met by Raleigh s colonists in 1584-89,
occupying the territory N. of Albemarle
sd., N. C., including probably most of
what is now Currituck, Camden, Pasquo-
tank, and Perquimans cos. Their chief
town, of the same name, seems to have
been in Pasquotank co. Other towns
apparently in the same jurisdiction were
Pasquenock (Pasquotank?), Chepanoc,
and Mascoming. They were said then
to have 700 or 800 (warriors), under their



30]



WEAPONS WEATHERFORD



chief Okisco. A century later the same
territory was occupied by the Yeopim or
Jaupim ( Weapom-oc? ) , Pasquotank Per-
quiman, and Poteskeet. In 1662 the
Yeopim chief sold lands. In 1701 ac
cording to Lawson, the other bands still
counted 40 warriors, but of the Yeopim
only one man survived. ( T M \

T " n. Lawson (1714), Hist. Car., 186(



927



Vov

N A T^ a-

N C l?7
IN. c-., II, 167,



- oes - I)rake -
P Doe. 1693 in Hawks,
Yeopim. Ibid., 450.



Weapons. The offensive weapons of
the Indians may be classified by their
working ^ parts and halting, and their
use. Striking weapons are of stone, bone
or wood, in the shape of clubs or balls,
and into the shapes of the clubs the tribes
carved a marvelous amount of their my
thology, especially those among whom
tractable wood was abundant; cutting
weapons, before the introduction of iron,
were made of stone or copper; piercing
weapons were of any hard substance
that would take a point. Many weap
ons had two or more functions. The
Sioux had clubs armed with blades or
points; among other tribes cutting or
thrusting weapons were weighted. All
three classes are subdivided according to
the manner of holding or mounting.
They were held in the hand, perhaps
wrapped with a strip of fur, set in a grip
for one hand, mounted on a longer shaft
for two hands, or slung to a line. Missile
weapons were thrown from a sling, darted
from a throwing-stick, hurled from the
hand, or shot from a bow. Not all these
were equally common. The chisel-edged
arrow of Africa was almost unknown in
the Western Hemisphere. Piercing im
plements for hunting were often com
bined with a device for holding the
quarry, and the Mexicans are said to
have shot the soldiers of Cortes with
harpoon arrows thrown from atlatls;
but war arrows had lanceolate, not
I barbed points. The war arrow also had
I a single head. The poisoning of arrows
is a much mooted question.

The most common defensive weapon of

the North Americans was the shield, worn

, on the left arm by means of thongs fast-

! ened on the inside and used both for

parrying and for covering the vitals.

Shields were usually circular in form and

made of the thickest raw r hide, though

bark, basketry, and rods woven together

| served the purpose here and there. The

j making of a shield, for which one or more

covers were prepared, was attended with

great ceremony. On the surface were

| painted heraldic devices, and the shield

! was further adorned with fringes, pre-

: cious objects, tassels, and the plumes of



ineering inventions or coTm-
v dt man l5 th united
a number of men. See Armor,
Arrows, rfoto, Dayjer*, Knir ,., /xm , rj ,
Poisons, Shields Ming*, Spear*, Ur.nnn.j.
stick, Tomahawk, etc. ( o . T. M.)

Weare. A Tenankutehin village at tin-
mouth of Tanana r., Alaska. Baker
Creog. Diet. Alaska, 1902.

Weataug. A village formerly near the
site of the present Salisbury, Litchfield
co., Conn., containing 70 wigwams in
1740. Its inhabitants were probably a
part of the Mahican.

Weataug. Trumbull, Ind. Names Conn., Ml 1W1
Weatog. Trumlmll, Hist. Conn., n. 109, WK

Weatherford, William (known also as
Lamochattee, or Red Kagle). A half-
blood Creek chief, born about 17s<);
noted for the part he played in the Creek
war of 1812-14, in which (ien. Jackson
was leader of the A merican f< >r< vs. There
is some uncertainty as to his, parentage.
Claiborne (quoted by Drake, Inds. N.
Am., 388, I860) says his "father was an
itinerant peddler," sordid, treacherous,
and re vengeful; hismothera full-blooded
savage of the tribe of the Scininolen."
Another authority says that a trader,
Scotch or English, named Charles
Weatherford (believed to have )>een the
father of William), married a half-sister
of Alexander Mc(iillivrav (q. v.), who
was the daughter of an Indian chief of
pure blood. In person he was toll,
straight, and well proportioned, and na
ture had }>estowed upon him genius, elo
quence, and courage, but his moral char
acter was far from commendable. *He
led the 1,000 Creeks at the massacre
of Ft Minims, Aug. MO, 1S13. < ien. Jack
son having entered the field, the Creeks
were driven from point to point until
Weatherford resolved to make a desperate
effort to retrieve his waning fortunes by
gatheringall the force he could command
at the (ireat Horseshoe Ix iid of the Tal-
lapoosa. The signal defeat hi.s forces suf
fered at this point ended the war, and
Weatherford, to save further bl ..... Isned,
or perhaps shrewdly judging the result,
voluntarily delivered himself to Jackson
and was released on hi* promise t> u
his influence to maintain peace.
Mar 9,1824, leaving many childn
intermarried with the whites.
that after the war his character chan



WEAVING



[B. A. K.



and he became dignified, industrious,
and sober. Consult Red Eagle, by G. C.
Kggleston, 1878. (c. T.)

Weaving. Among the Indians N. of
Mexico weaving was done generally by




hand; baskets, bags, and mats were made,
without the aid of apparatus. But in the
Atlantic states, the Aleutian ids., and
doubtless else
where, the warp
of wallets was
suspended from
limbs of trees or
some other sup
port, this con
stituting the
first step toward
the loom. The
Chilkat of s. E.
Alaska, in set
ting up the \varp
for their elabo
rate Man kets ,
d r o v e t w o
forked stakes
into the ground
as fur apart as
the width of
the blanket and
laid a stout bar
or | tole across for
a warp beam.
From this was
suspended a
thong or stout
cord stretched
from side to side,

which held the NAVAHO sp|

war]> of goats
hair and cedar bark. The woman, sitting
in front, wrought her intricate patterns
with her fingers alone, as does the basket
maker, using neither shuttle, heddle,




batten, or other device. The technic in
many varieties of twined weaving in
volved two or more weft strands. The
designs were in black, white, yellow r ,
blue, and green, first sketched out in
black on a pattern board. Farther
s., in the Columbia drainage basin, fine
blankets were woven after the same tech
nic, but they were rectangular in form,
lacking the elaborate fringes and borders
of the Chilkat, and the decorations w r ere
geometrical.

In the E. at the time of the discovery
and later in the Pacific states the Indians
w r ere found weaving into blankets feath
ers and down of birds as well as rabbit
skins cut into narrow strips. The strips
of skin were twisted into rolls as thick as
a finger, and the shafts of feathers were
caught between the strands of tw T ine in
twisting. These fluffy rolls constituted
a kind of warp, held in place by rows of
twined weaving of stout cord or babiche.
In the S. W. the Spaniards introduced
sheep and probably taught the Indians
the use of European hand looms. With
these the Pueblo tribes and the Navaho
developed a genuine native art, producing
narrow garters, belts, girths, and sashes,
and, by different processes, larger fabrics,
such as dresses and blankets. In these
fabrics, as well as in all others produced
in this area, the length of the web was that
of the article to
be produced; no
cloth was made
in the piece to
be afterward
cut up. Cotton,
yucca, mulberry
bark, and other
fibers, hair of
quadrupeds, and
the dow y n of
birds formerly
furnished the
materials for

Eurely native
ibrics. A slen
der rod with a
circular block
for a fly-wheel
served for spin
dle. Variety in
color was given
by the native
hue of the mate
rials and with
dyes. The set
ting up of the
warp was a com
bination of the
Chilkat process
and that of the
conquerors. The Zuni even adopted the
western European hand neddle. In the
S. the woman in weaving also sat on the
ground in front of her w r ork, using little



BULL. 30]



WECHIKHIT- WECQCJAESGEEK



029



balls of yam tied to the warp or a simple
bobbin fo* a shuttle. See Art, Basketry,
Clothing, Dyes and Pigments, Ornament.

The intricate processes with crude ap
paratus are discussed and illustrated by
Matthews in 3d Rep. B. A. E., 1884.
Consult also Mason in Nat. Mus. Rep!
1901, and the bibliography therein; Bush-
nell in Am. Anthr., xi, no. 3, 1909; Dixon
in Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist,, xvn, pt 3
1905; Ni black in Rep. Nat. Mus. 188s




NAVAHO LOOM.



1890; NordenskiOld, Cliff Dwellers of
Mesa Verde, 1893; Speck in Am. Anthr.,
ix, 293, 1907; Guide to Anthr. Coll. Prov.
Mus. Victoria, 1909; Emmons and Boas,
Chilkat Blanket, Mem. Am. Mus. Nat.
Hist., in, pt. 4, 1907; Stites, Economics
of Iroquois, 1905. (o. T. M.)

Wechikhit. A Yokuts (Mariposan)
tribe formerly living on lower Kings r.,
Cal., in the plains, and one of the group
of tribes which ceded their lands to the
United States by treaty of Apr. 29, 1851.
They were then placed on Fresno res.,
where theyw ere still represented in 1861.
Two or three individuals survive.
Wa-cha-et Royce in 18th Rep., B. A. E., 782,
1899. Wa-cha-hets. McKee et al. in Senate Ex.
Doc. 4, 32d Cong., spec, sess., 75, 1853. Wa-che-ha-
ti. Wessells (1853) in H. R. Ex. Doc. 76, 31th
Cong., 3d sess., 31, 1857. Wa-che-nets. Inrl. Aff.
Rep., 223, 1851. Wa-che-ries. Senate Ex. Doc. 4,
32d Cong., spec, sess., 93, 1853. Waches. Henley
in Ind. Aff. Rep., 511, 1854. Watch-abets. John
ston in Sen. Ex. Doc. 61, 32d Cong., 1st sess., 22,
1852. Wat-ches. Lewis in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1857, 399,
1858. Wechikhit. KroeberinUniv. Cal. Pub.. Am.
Arch, and Eth. ,n, 360, 1907. Wi -chi-kik. Powers
in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., m,370, 1877.

Wechotookme (We-cho-took-me). One
of the 7 Seminole towns in Florida in
1799; exact locality unknown. Hawkins
(1799), Sketch, 25, 1848.

Wechquadnach. (properly Wequaefadn-
auke, place at the end of, or extending
to, the mountain ; the earlier name was
Pachquadnach, bare mountain land. -
Trumbull). A Mahican village, prob
ably belonging to the Wawyachtonoc
tribe, formerly near Indian pond, N. w.of
Sharon, Litchfield co., Conn., adjoining

3456Bull. 30, pt 207 59




Wechquetank iwyntnnknr viw .tank
the Lenape name of a shrub which
grew near that vicinity. Heckewoldi-r)
A Delaware village al>out H m b
vondthe Blue Ridge, x. w. fro,,, Beth
lehem probably near the present Mau.-h
Chunk in Carbon co., Pa. It wan settled
in 1760 by a colony of Moravian Indian*
from the mission of Nain. They were
driven off by the whites and theirvillaee
burned in 1763. (.,. M >

Naquetank. Flint, Ind. Wars. 41, 1KJ3 Wechau.

~ 1 Hist - Miss - l nit - Hrt>th -



- -

1/W. Wequtank.-Losklel (1794) in Day. ivnn..
">lo, 1843.

Wechurt ( ]Ve tcu(r)t, opposite ). A
Pima village at North Blackwater, s
Ariz. Russell in 26th Rep. B. A. K >:{
1908.

Wecquaesgeek (from triktnwkik, end of
the marsh, or H wain p. (ierard). An
important tribe of the Wappinger con
federacy that formerly occupied s. Fair-
field co., Conn., and \Vestche8lcr co.,
X. Y., from about Norwalk, Conn., to
Hudson r. They were a strong tril**
until they had trouble with the Putrh.
In 1643 the Dutch massacred more than
100 in a single night, and in th<* war
which ensued two of their three fortified
villages were destroyed. In a massa
cre near Greenwich, Conn., a party 1M
by Underbill killed between 500 and
700 men, women, and children of the
Wecquaesgeek and Wappinger, only H
men escaping. Peace was finally con



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