Frederick William Holls.

The peace conference at The Hague, and its bearings on international law and policy online

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Roi Apostolique de Hongrie; Sa Majeste le Roi des Beiges;
Sa Majeste TEmpereur de Chine ; Sa Majeste le Roi de
Danemark ; Sa Majeste le Roi d'Espagne, et en son nom



FIXAL ACT 379

by it, may be studied by the Governments with the ol)ject
of coming to an agreement respecting the emph)yment of
new types and calibres.

4. The Conference ex[)resses the wisli that the Govern-
ments, taking into consideration tiie proposals made at
the Conference, may examine the possibility of an agree-
ment as to the limitation of armed forces by land and
sea, and of war budgets.

5. The Conference expresses the wisli tiiat the proposal,
which contemplates the declaration of the inviolability of
private property in naval warfare, may be referred to a
subsequent Conference for consideration.

6. The Conference expresses the wish that the j^roposal
to settle the question of the bombardment of ports, towns,
and villages by a naval force may be referred to a subse-
quent Conference for consideration.

The last five wishes were voted unanimousl}', saving
some abstentions.

In faith of wliich, the Plenipotentiaries liave signed the
present Act, and have affixed their seals thereto.

Done at The Hague, 29th July, 1899, in one copy only,
which shall be deposited in the Ministry for Foreign
Affairs, and of which copies, duly certified, shall be
delivered to all the Powers represented at the Conference.

(Signatures.)



CONVENTION FOR THE PEACEFUL ADJUSTMENT
OF INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES

His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia ;
His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia,
etc., and Apostolic King of Hungary; His Majesty the
King of the Belgians ; His Majesty the Emperor of
China ; His Majesty the King of Denmark ; His Majesty



380 PREMIERE CONVENTION

Sa Majeste la Reine-llegeiite du Royavime ; le President
des Etats-Unis d'Amerique ; le President des Etats-Unis
Mexicaiiis ; le President de la Republiqiie Frangaise ; Sa
iNIajeste la Peine du Royaume-Unis de la Grand Bretagne
et d'lrlaiide, Jmperatrice des Indes; Sa Majeste le Roi des
Hellenes ; Sa iNIajeste le Roi d' Italic ; Sa Majeste I'Em-
pereur du Japon ; Son Altesse Royale le Grand Due de
Luxembourg, Due de Nassau; Son Altesse le Prince de
Montenegro ; Sa Majeste la Peine des Pays-Bas ; Sa
Majeste Imperiale le Seliali de Perse ; Sa Majeste le Roi
de Portugal et des Algarves ; Sa Majeste le Roi de
Roumanie ; Sa Majeste I'Empereur de Toutes les Pussies ;
Sa Majeste le Roi de Serbie ; Sa Majeste le Roi de Siara ;
Sa Majeste le Roi de Suede et de Norvege ; le Conseil
Federal Suisse ; Sa iNIajeste PEmpereur des Ottomans, et
Son Altesse Royale le Prince de Bulgarie,

Animes de la ferme volonte de concourir au maintien de
la paix generale;



Resolus a favoriser de tons leurs efforts le reglement
amiable des conflits internationaux ;

Reconnaissant la solidarite qui unit les membres de la
societe des nations civilisees ;

Voulant etendre Pempire du droit, et fortifier le senti-
ment de la justice Internationale ;

Convaincus que I'institution permanente d'une juridic-
tion arbitrale, accessible a tons, au sein des Puissances
independantes pent contribuer efficacement a ce re-
sultat ;

Considerant les avantages d'une organisation generale
et reguliere de la procedure arbitrale ;

Estimant avec I'auguste Initiateur de la Conference
Internationale de la Paix qu'il importe de consacrer dans
un accord international les principes d'equite et de droit



FIRST CONVENTION 381

the King of Spain, and in his name Her ^Majesty the
Queen-Regent of the Kingdom ; the President of the
ITnited States of America ; the President of the United
States of ^Mexico ; the President of the French Republic ;
Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland, Empress of India ; His Majesty the
King of the Hellenes ; His Majesty the King of Italy ;
His Majesty the Emperor of Japan ; His Royal Highness
the Grand Duke of Luxemburg, Duke of Nassau ; His
Highness the Prince of Montenegro ; Her INIajesty the
Queen of the Netherlands ; His Imperial Majesty the
Shah of Persia ; His Majesty the King of Portugal and
the Algarves ; His Majesty the King of Roumania ;
His Alajesty the Emperor of All the Russias ; His ^Majesty
the King of Servia; His jNIajesty the King of Siam ; His
Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway : The Swiss
Federal Council ; His ^Majesty the Emperor of the Otto-
mans, and His Royal Highness the Prince of Bulgaria,

Animated by a strong desire to concert for the mainten-
ance of the general peace ;

Resolved to second by their best efforts the friendly
settlement of international disputes ;

Recognizing the solidarity which unites the members of
the society of civilized nations ;

Desirous of extending the empire of law, and of
strengthening the appreciation of international justice ;

Convinced that the permanent institution of a Court
of Arbitration, accessible to all, in the midst of the in-
dependent Powers, will contribute effectively to this
result ;

Having regard to the advantages attending the general
and regular organization of arbitral procedure ;

Sharing the opinion of the august Initiator of the Inter-
national Peace Conference that it is expedient to solemnly
establish, by an international Agreement, the principles of



382 PR I:M1KH JC ( 'OX I 'ENTION

sur lesqiiels reposent la securite des Etats et le bien-etre
des peuples ;

Desiraiit conclure une Convention a cet effet, ont nomine
pour leurs Pleni2)otentiaires, savoir : —

(Nonis.)

I^escjuels, a,prt;s, s'etre communique leurs plein pouvoirs,
trouves en bonne et due forme, sont convenus des dispo-
sitions suivantes : —

TiTiiE I. — Bu Maintien de la Paix Generale

AETICLE I

En vue de prevenir autant que possible le recours a la
force dans les rapports entre les Etats, les Puissances
Signataires conviennent d'employer tons leurs efforts pour
assurer le reglement pacifique des differends interna-
tionaux.

TiTRE II. — Des Sons Offices et de la Mediation

ARTICLE II

En cas de dissentiment grave ou de conflit, avant d'en
appeler aux armes, les Puissances Signataires conviennent
d'avoir recours, en tant que les circonstances le permettront,
aux bons offices ou a la mediation d'une ou de plusieurs
Puissances amies.

ARTICLE III

Independamment de ce recours, les Puissances Sig-
nataires' jugent utile qu'une ou plusieurs Puissances,
etrangeres au conflit, offrent de leur propre initiative, en
tant que les circonstances s'y pretent, leurs bons offices ou
leur mediation aux Etats en conflit.



FIRST CONVENTION 383

equity and right on which repose the security of States
and the welfare of peoples ;

Being desirous of concluding a Convention to this effect,
have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, to Avit : —

(Names.)

Who, after communication of their full powers, found in
good and due form, have agreed on the following provi-
sions : —

Title I. — On the Maintenance of General Peace

ARTICLE I

With a view to obviating, as far as possible, recourse
to force in the relations betw^een States, the Signatory
Powers agree to use their best efforts to insure the pacific
settlement of international differences.



Title II. — On Good Offices and Mediation

ARTICLE II

In case of serious disagreement or conflict, before an
appeal to arms, the Signatory Powers agree to have
recourse, as far as circumstances allow, to the good offices
or mediation of one or more friendly Powers.

ARTICLE III

Independently of this recourse, the Signatory Powers
consider it useful that one or more Powers, strangers to
the dispute, should, on their own initiative, and as far as
circumstances will allow, offer their good oflices or medi-
ation to the States at variance.



384 PREMIERE CONVENTION

Le droit d'oifrir les bons offices on la mediation ap-
partient aux Puissances etrangeres au conflit, meme
pendant le cours des hostilites.

L'exercice de ce droit ne pent jamais etre considere par
I'une ou I'autre des parties en litige comme un acte peu
amical.

ARTICLE IV

Le role du mediateur consiste a concilier les pretentions
opposees et a apaiser les ressentiments qui peuvent s'etre
produits entre les Etats en conflit.

ARTICLE V

Les fonctions du mediateur cessent du moment ou il est
constate, soit par I'une des parties en litige, soit par le
mediateur lui-meme, que les moyens de conciliation pro-
poses par lui ne sont pas acceptes.

ARTICLE VI

Les bons offices et la mediation, soit sur le recours des
parties en conflit, soit sur I'initiative des Puissances
etrangeres au conflit, out exclusivement le caractere de
conseil, et n'ont jamais force obligatoire.

ARTICLE VII

L'acceptation de la mediation ne pent avoir pour effet,
sauf convention contraire, d'interrompre, de retarder, ou
d'entraver lalnobilisation et autres mesures preparatoires
a la guerre.

Si elle intervient apres I'ouverture des hostilites, elle
n'interrompt pas, sauf convention contraire, les operations
militaires en cours.



FIRST CONVENTION 385

The right to offer good offices or mediation belongs to
Powers "who are strangers to the dispute, even during the
course of hostilities.

The exercise of this right shall never be regarded by
one or the other of the parties to the contest as an
unfriendly act.

ARTICLE IV

The part of the mediator consists in reconciling the
opposing claims and in appeasing the feelings of resentment
which may have arisen between the States at variance.

ARTICLE V

The functions of the mediator are at an end when once
it is declared, either by one of the parties to the dispute,
or by the mediating Power itself, that the methods of
conciliation proposed by it are not accepted.

ARTICLE VI

Good offices and mediation, whether at the request of
the parties at variance, or upon tlie initiative of Powers
who are strangers to the dispute, have exclusively the
character of advice, and never have binding force.

ARTICLE VII

The acceptance of mediation cannot, unless there be an
agreement to the contrary, have the effect of interrupting,
delaying, or hindering mobilization or other measures of
preparation for war.

If mediation occurs after the commencement of hostili-
ties, it causes no interruption to the military operations in
progress, unless there be an agreement to the contrary.

2c



380 PREMIERE CONVENTION

ARTICLE VIII

Les Puissances Signataires sont d'accord pour recom-
mander rapplication, dans les circonstances qui le permet-
tent, d'une mediation speciale sous la forme suivante : —

En cas de differend grave compromettant la paix, les
Etats en conflit choisissent respectivement une Puissance
a laquelle ils confient la mission d'entrer en rapport direct
avec la Puissance choisie d'autre part, a I'effet de prevenir
la rupture des relations pacifiques.

Pendant la duree de ce mandat dont le terme, sauf
stipulation contraire, ne pent exceder trente jours, les
Etats en litige cessent tout rapport direct au sujet du
conflit, lequel est considere comme defere exclusivement
aux Puissances Mediatrices. Celles-ci doivent appliquer
tons leurs efforts a regler le differend.

En cas de rupture effective des relations pacifiques, ces
Puissances demeurent chargees de la mission commune de
profiter de toute occasion pour retablir la paix.



TiTRE III. — Des Commissions Internationales cCEnquHe

ARTICLE IX

Dans les litiges d'ordre international n'engageant ni
riionneur ni des interets essentiels, et provenant d'une
divergence d'appreciation sur des points de fait, les
Puissances Signataires jugent utile que les parties qui
n'auraient pu se mettre d'accord par les voies diplomatiques
instituent, en tant que les circonstances le permettront, une
Commission Internationale d'Enquete chargee de faciliter
la solution de ces litiges en eclaircissant, par un examen
impartial et consciencieux, les questions de fait.



FIRST CONVENTION 387

ARTICLE VIII

The Signatory Powers are agreed in recommending the
application, when circumstances allow, of special mediation
in the following form : —

In case of a serious difference endangering the peace,
the States at variance shall each choose a Power, to
whom they intrust the mission of entering into direct
communication with the Power chosen on the other side,
with the object of preventing the rupture of pacific
relations.

During the period of this mandate, the term of Avhich,
unless otherwise stipulated, cannot exceed thirty days, the
States in conflict shall cease from all direct communica-
tion on the subject of the dispute, which is regarded as
having been referred exclusively to the mediating Powers,
who shall use their best efforts to settle the controversy.

In case of a definite rupture of pacific relations, these
Powers remain charged with the joint duty of taking
advantage of every opportunity to restore peace.



Title III. — On Internatiotial Commissions of Inquire/

ARTICLE IX

In differences of an international nature involving
neither honor nor vital interests, and arising from a dif-
ference of opinion on matter of fact, the Signatory
Powers recommend that parties who liave not been able
to come to an agreement by diplomatic methods should,
as far as circumstances allow, institute an International
Commission of Inquiry, to facilitate a solution of the dif-
ferences by elucidating the facts, by means of an impartial
and conscientious investigation.



388 PREMIERE CONVENTION



ARTICLE X



Les Commissions Internationales d'Enqnete sont consti-
tuees par convention specialc entre les parties en litige.

La Convention d'Enquete precise les faits a examiner et
I'etendne des pouvoirs des Commissaires.

Elle regie la procedure.

L'enquete a lieu contradictoirement.

La forme et les delais a observer, en tant qu'ils ne sont
pas fixes par la Convention d'Enquete, sont determines par
la Commission elle-meme.

ARTICLE XI

Les Commissions Internationales d'Enquete sont formees,
sauf stipulation contraire, de la maniere determinee par
I'Article XXXII de la presente Convention.

ARTICLE XII

Les Puissances en litige s'engagent a fournir a la Com-
mission Internationale d'Enquete, dans la plus large mesure
qu'elles jugeront possible, tous les moyens et toutes les
facilites necessaires pour la connaissance complete et I'ap-
preciation exacte des faits en question.

ARTICLE XIII

La Commission Internationale d'Enquete presente aux
Puissances en litige son Rapport signe par tous les
membres de la Commission.

ARTICLE XIV

Le Rapport de la Commission Internationale d'Enquete,
limite a la constatation des faits, n'a nullement le caractere
d'une sentence arbitrale. II laisse aux Puissances en litige



FIRST CONVENTION 389

ARTICLE X

International (■ommissions of Inquiry shall be consti-
tuted by a special agreement between the parties to the
controversy. The agreement for the inquiry shall specify
the facts to be examined and the extent of tlie powers of
the commissioners. It shall fix the procedure. Ujion the
inquiry both sides shall be heard. The procedure to be
observed, if not provided for in the Convention of In-
quiry, shall be fixed by the Commission.



ARTICLE XI

The International Commissions of Inquiry shall be
formed, unless otherwise stipulated, in the manner fixed
by Article XXXII of the present Convention.

ARTICLE XII

The Powers in dispute agree to supply the Inter-
national Commission of Inquiry, as fully as they may con-
sider it possible, with all means and facilities necessary to
enable it to arrive at a complete acquaintance and correct
understanding of the facts in question.

ARTICLE XIII

The International Commission of Inquiry shall present
to the parties in dispute its report signed by all the mem-
bers of the Commission.

ARTICLE XIV

The report of the International Commission of Inrpiiry
shall be limited to a statement of the facts, and shall in
no way have the character of an arbitral award. It leaves



390 PREMIERE CONVENTION

une entiere liberte pour la suite a donner a cette consta-
tation.



TiTRE IV. — De V Arbitrage International

Chai'ITRE I. — De la Justice Arhitrale

ARTICLE XV

L'arbitrage international a pour objet le reglement de
litiges entre les Etats par des juges de leur clioix et sur la
base du respect du droit.

ARTICLE XVI

Dans les questions d'ordre juridique, et en premier lieu
dans les (questions d'interpretation on d'application des
Conventions Internationales, l'arbitrage est reconnu jiar
les Puissances Signataires comme le moyen le plus efficace
et en meme temps le plus equitable de regler les litiges qui
n'ont pas ete resolus par les voies diplomatiques.

ARTICLE XVII

La convention d'arbitrage est conclue pour des contes-
tations deja nees ou pour des contestations eventuelles.

Elle pent concerner tout litige ou seulement les litiges
d'une categoric determinee.

ARTICLE XVIII

La convention d'arbitrage implique I'engagement de se
soumettre de bonne foi a la sentence arbitrale.

ARTICLE XIX

Independamraent des Traites generaux ou particuliers
qui stipulent actuellement I'obligation du recours a I'arbi-



FIRST CONVENTION 391

the Powers in controversy freedom as to the eifect to be
given to such statement.

Title IV. — On International Arbitration

Chapteii I. — On Arbitral Justice

AETICLE XV

International arbitration has for its object the deter-
mination of controversies between States by judges of
their own choice, upon the basis of respect for law.

ARTICLE XVI

In questions of a judicial character, and especially in
questions regarding the interpretation or api)lication of
international treaties or conventions, arbitration is recog-
nized by the Signatory Powers as the most efficacious and
at the same time the most equitable method of deciding
controversies which have not been settled by diplomatic
methods.

ARTICLE XVII

An agreement of arbitration may be made with refer-
ence to disputes already existing or those which may
hereafter arise. It may relate to every kind of contro-
versy or solely to controversies of a particular character.

ARTICLE XVIII

The agreement of arbitration implies the obligation
to submit in good faith to the decision of the arbitral
tribunal.

ARTICLE XIX

• Independently of existing general or special treaties
imposing the obligation to have recourse to arbitration on



392 PREMIERE CONVENTION

trage pour les Puissances Signataires, ces Puissances se
reservent de conclure, soit avant la ratification du present
Acte, soit posterieurement, des accords nouveaux, generaux,
ou particuliers, en vue d'etendre I'arbitrage obligatoire a
tous les cas qu'elles jugeront possible de lui soumettre.



Chapitre II. — De la Cour Permanente d^ Arbitrage

AETICLE XX

Dans le but de faciliter le recours immediat a I'arbitrage
pour les differends internationaux qui n'ont pu etre regies
par la voie diplomatique, les Puissances Signataires s'en-
gagent a organiser une Cour permanente d'arbitrage,
accessible en tout temps et fonctionnant, sauf stipulation
contraire des parties, conformement aux Regies de Pro-
cedure inserees dans la presente Convention.

ARTICLE XXI

La Cour Permanente sera competente pour tous les cas
d'arbitrage, a moins qu'il n'j^ ait entente entre les parties
pour I'etablissement d'une juridiction speciale.

ARTICLE XXII

Un Bureau International etabli a La Haye sert de greffe
a la Cour.

Ce bureau est I'intermediaire des communications rela-
tives aux reunions de celle-ci.

II a la garde des archives et la gestion de toutes les
affaires administratives.

Les Puissances Signataires s'engagent a communiquer
au Bureau International de La Haye une copie certifiee
conforme de toute stipulation d'arbitrage intervenue entre



FIRST COXVEXTION 393

the part of any of the Signatory Powers, these Powers
reserve to themselves the right to conclude, either before
the ratification of the present Convention, or subsequent
to that date, new agreements, general or special, with a
view of extending the obligation to submit controversies
to arbitration, to all cases wliich they consider suitable for
such submission.

Chapter II. — On the Permanent Court of Arbitration

ARTICLE XX

With the object of facilitating an immediate recourse
to arbitration for international differences which could not
be settled by diplomatic methods, the Signatory Powers
undertake to organize a permanent Court of Arbitration
accessible at all times, and acting, unless otherwise stipu-
lated by the parties, in accordance with the rules of
procedure included in the present Convention.

ARTICLE XXI

The permanent Court shall have jurisdiction of all cases
of arbitration, unless there shall be an agreement between
the parties for the establishment of a special tribunal.

ARTICLE XXII

An International Bureau shall be established at The
Hague, and shall serve as the record office for the Court.
This Bureau shall be the medium of all communications
relating to the Court. It shall have the custody of the
archives, and shall conduct all the administrative business.
The Signatory Powers agree to furnish the Bureau at The
Hague Avith a certified copy of every agreement of arbi-
tration arrived at between them, and of any award therein
rendered by a special tribunal. They also undertake to



394 PREMIERE CONVENTION

elles et de toute sentence arbitrale les concernant et rendue
par des juridictions speciales.

Elles s'engagent a communiquer de meme au bureau les
Lois, Jieglements, et doc.uiiieiits constatant eventuellement
I'execution des sentences rendues par la Cour.

ARTICLE XXIII

Chaque Puissance Signataire designera, dans les trois
mois qui suivront la ratilication par elle du present Acte,
quatre personnes au plus, d'une competence reconnue dans
les questions de droit international, jouissant de la plus
haute consideration morale et disposees a accepter les
fonctions d'arbitres.

Les personnes ainsi designees seront inscrites, au titre
de membre de la Cour, sur une liste qui sera notifiee a
toutes les Puissances Signataires par les soins du bureau.

Toute modification a la liste des arbitres est portee, par
les soins du bureau, a la connaissance des Puissances
Signataires.

Deux ou plusieurs Puissances peuvent s'entendre pour
la designation en commun d'un ou de plusieurs membres.

La meme personne pent etre designee par des Puissances
differentes.

Les membres de la Cour sont nommes pour un terme de
six ans. Leur mandat pent etre renouvele.

En cas de deces ou de retraite d'un membre de la Cour,
il est pourvu a son remplacement selon le mode fixe pour
sa nomination.

ARTICLE XXIV

Lorsque les Puissances Signataires veulent s'adresser a
la Cour Permanente pour le reglement d'un differend
survenu entre elles, le choix des arbitres appeles a former
le tribunal competent pour statuer sur ce differend, doit
etre fait dans la liste generale des membres de la Cour.



FIRST CONVENTION 395

furnish the Bureau with the hivvs, rules, and documents,
eventually declaring the execution of the judgments ren-
dered by the Court.



ARTICLE XXIII

Within three months following the ratification of the
present act, each Signatory Power shall select not more
than four persons, of recognized competence in questions
of international law, enjoying the highest moral reputa-
tion, and disposed to accept the duties of arbitrators.
The persons thus selected shall be enrolled as members
of the Court, upon a list which shall be communicated by
the Bureau to all the Signatory Powers. Any alteration
in the list of arbitrators shall be brought to the knowledge
of the Signatory Powers by the Bureau. Two or more
Powers may unite in the selection of one or more mem-
bers of the Court. The same person may be selected by
different Powers. The members of the Court shall be
appointed for a term of six years, and their appointment
may be renewed. In case of the death or resignation of a
member of the Court, his place shall be filled in accord-
ance with the method of his appointment.



ARTICLE XXIV

Whenever the Signatory Powers wish to have recourse
to the permanent Court for the settlement of a difference
that has arisen between them, the arbitrators selected to
constitute the Tribunal which shall have jurisdiction
to determine such difference, shall be chosen from the



396 PREMIERE CONVENTION

A (lefaut de constitution dvi trilnmul arbitral par I'accord
immediat des parties, il est precede de la nianiere
suivante : —

Chaqiie partie nomme deux arbitres et ceux-ci clioisissent
ensemble un surarbitre.

En cas de partage des voix, le choix du surarbitre est



Online LibraryFrederick William HollsThe peace conference at The Hague, and its bearings on international law and policy → online text (page 27 of 39)