Frederick William Holls.

The peace conference at The Hague, and its bearings on international law and policy online

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vieff himself stated to your Excellency that the
Russian Government must for the present observe
a similar attitude. It is indeed clear that, in regard
to some of these points, much must depend upon



THE CALLINC OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE 31

the views cand intentions which may be found to be Chapter i
entertained by the majority of the Powers, and a
conchision in respect to them can scarcely be arrived
at without careful expert examination. As regards
the eighth point, it is not necessary for Her Maj-
esty's Government to make any fresh declaration
of their earnest desire to promote, by all possible
means, the principle of recourse to mediation and
arbitration for the prevention of war.

" Her Majesty's Government accept willingly the
proviso made by Count Mouravieff, that questions
concerning the political relations between States, the
order of things established by Treaties, and gener-
ally all questions not directly included in the pro-
gramme of the Conference, should be excluded from
its deliberations.

" They also agree with Count Mouravieff that it
may be desirable that the meeting should be held
at some other place than the capital of one of the
Great Powers, although it would have been a satis-
faction to them that the Conference, which owes
its initiative to the Emperor, should have assembled
at St. Petersburg, had His Imperial Majesty thought
fit to propose it.

" You will read this despatch to Count Mouravieff
and leave his Excellency a copy of it.
" I am, etc.,

(Signed) '•' Salisbury."

The Hague

On February (January 28, old style), Count sei^^|'^<«"}ii«tbe
Mouravieff' informed the invited Governments that meeting.



32 THE PEACE CONFERENCE AT THE HAGUE

Chapter I the Imperial Government bad communicated with
the Government of Her Majesty, the Queen of the
Netherlands, regarding the choice of The Hague as
the eventual seat of the proposed Conference, and
that the Netherlands Government having expressed
its assent, the representatives were requested to
inform their Governments of this selection, which
would, no doubt, be received with general sympathy.
(Blue Book, p. 6.) On the 15th of the same month,
Sir Henry Howard, the British Minister to The
Hag-ue, informed the British Government that M.
de Beaufort, the Foreign Minister of the Nether-
lands, had informed him that the Conference would
meet at The Hague, and that the Netherlands Minis-
ter at St. Petersburg would discuss the necessary
preliminary details with Count Mouravieff. M. de
Beaufort added that he expected that, in accord-
ance with precedent, the Russian Foreign Office
would, in the first instance, designate the Powers
to be invited to send representatives to the Confer-
ence, and that then the Netherlands Government
would issue the invitations ; and he added that
both the Queen and the Government of the Nether-
lands were greatly pleased at the selection of The
Hag-ue for the Conference.

Text of the rj.|^^ formal invitation of the Netherlands Govern-

formal invita-
tion of the ment w^as extended by the Minister of the Nether-
Government, lands to each of the invited Powers, and was dated

April 7, 1899. It read as folio w^s : —

" The Imperial Russian Government addressed on

the 12th (24th) August, 1898, to the Diplomatic



THE CALLING OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE 33

Representatives accredited to the Court of St. Peters- chaptori
burg a Circular expressing a desire for the meeting
of an International Conference which should be com-
missioned to investio;ate the best means of securing;
to the world a duraljle peace, and of limiting the
progressive development of military armaments.

" This proposal, which w'as due to the noble and
generous initiative of the august Emperor of Russia,
and met everywhere with a most cordial reception,
obtained the general assent of the Powers, and His
Excellency the Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs
addressed on the 30th of December, 1898 (11th Janu-
ary, 1899), to the same Diplomatic Representatives
a second Circular, giving a more concrete form to
the general ideas announced by the magnanimous
Emperor, and indicating certain questions which
might be specially submitted for discussion by the
proposed Conference.

" For political reasons the Imperial Russian Gov-
ernment considered that it w^ould not be desirable
that the meeting of the Conference should take
place in the capital of one of the Great Powers,
and after securing the assent of the Governments
interested, it addressed the Cabinet of The Hague
with a view of obtaining its consent to the choice
of that capital as the seat of the Conference in ques-
tion. The Minister for Foreign Affairs at once took
the orders of Her Majesty the Queen in regard to
this request, and I am happy to be able to inform
you that Her Majesty, my August Sovereign, has
been pleased to authorize him to reply that it will



31 THE PEACE CONEERENCE AT THE HAGUE

Chapter I be particularly agreeable to lier to see tlie proposed
Conference at The Hague.

" Consequently, my Government, in accord with
the Imperial Russian Government, charges me to
invite the Government of to be good

enough to be represented at the above-mentioned
Conference, in order to discuss the questions indi-
cated in the second Russian Circular of the 30th
December, 1898 (11th January, 1899), as well as all
other questions connected with the ideas set forth in
the Circular of the 12th (24th) August, 1898, exclud-
ing, however, from the deliberations every thmg which
refers to the political relations of States, or the order
of things established by Treaties.

" My Government trusts that the Gov-

ernment will associate itself with the great humani-
tarian work to be entered upon under the auspices
of His Majesty, the Emperor of all the Russias, and
that it will be disposed to accept this invitation, and
to take the necessary steps for the presence of its
Representatives at The Hague on the 18th May, next,
for the opening of the Conference, at which each
Power, whatever may be the number of its Delegates,
will have only one vote."

What states Tlicsc invitatious were issued to all Governments
having regular diplomatic representation at St. Peters-
burg, as well as to Luxemburg, Montenegro, and Siam.
No official explanation of the principle upon which
invitations were issued or withheld was given,
and any discussion of the causes which led to the



THE CALLING OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE 35

exclusion of the South African republics, as well as Chapter i
the Holy See would have to be based upon surmises.
The government of the United States regretted the
absence of delegates from the sister republics of Cen-
tral and South America very sincerely, and with
good reason, for the Conference was in consequence
deprived of the valuable assistance among others of The aiisom-o
M. Calvo, of the Argentine Republic, certainly one south"" '^"
of the most eminent authorities on International:^""^''";!'"

Kepuhhcs.

Law, — a science to which he and other South
American scholars have made such notable contril)u-
tions. The American commissioners at The Hao-ue
did not fail to remendjer that, with the excep-
tion of the Mexican delegates, they were the sole
representatives of the Western Hemisphere, and in
the entire course of the Conference, and esjDccially
in the discussions in the Comite cV Exmnen, careful
efforts were made to safeguard the peculiar interests
of Central and South America.

With reference to the other Powers who were not
invited, it seems unquestionable that the course of
the Russian Government was not only wise and just,
but that it was, in fact, the only possible method of
avoiding questions which would most certainly have
led to an absolute and unqualified failure of the
Conference itself. The merit of having successfully
averted this danger, with notable tact and in ])erfect
good will, is certainly one of the greatest achieve-
ments of modern Russian diplomacy.



CHAPTER 11

THE OPENIXG OF THE CONFERENCE

On Thursday, the 18th of May, 1899, the beau-
tiful Netherhxnds Capital of The Hague joresented
a stirring and picturesque spectacle. From all of the
public buildings, the principal hotels, the various
embassies and legations, and from many private
houses, especially in the neighborhood of the public
squares of the Lange Voorhout, A^yverberg, and Plein,
the flags of nearly all civilized countries were thrown
to the wind. The delegates of twenty-five Powers
had arrived in order to attend the opening of what
has since been officially known as the International
Peace Conference. It was a perfect spring day, and
it had been chosen for this interesting ceremony
because it was the birthday of the Emperor of Russia.
The birthday At tcu o'clock in the momiug the Russian delegation,
Emperor of togctlicr witli tlic members of the Russian Legation
Russia. ^Q ^YiQ Netherlands, proceeded in full uniform to the

small Orthodox chapel near Scheveningen, where a
solemn Te Deum was chanted in honor of the Czar.
The representatives of the United States of America
had requested permission to participate in the service,
but the request was withdrawn when they were
informed that the chapel was scarcely large enough



THE OPENING OF THE CONFERENCE 37

to hold all of the Russians who were present in an Chapter ii
official capacity.

The opening ceremony of the Conference itself was Tiie '•House
set for two o'clock in the afternoon in the Oranje]^"^^"],^^"'^'^ "
Zaal of the famous House in the Wood {Iluis ^^^^nieetingroom.
Bosch), or Summer Palace of the Dutch royal family,
situated aljout one mile from the city in tlie Ijeautif ul
park known as the Bosch. This palace, and more
especially the meeting room of the Conference, has
been made the subject of numerous descriptions.^
Uniting the qualities of beauty and simplicity to a
striking degree in its exterior, the palace in its inte-
rior presents a series of magnificently decorated rooms,
the finest of which is the Oranje Zaal, or ballroom,
which was finished in 1647, in honor of Prince Fred-
erick Henry of Orange by Jordaens and other pupils
of Rubens, by the order of his widow.

For the purposes of the Conference the room had Arrangement
been arranged in the form of a parliamentary hall'^ eroom.
— four rows of concentric semi-circular tables, covered
with green baize, affording just one hundred seats,
from all of which the chair could be readily seen and
addressed. The presiding officer's chair itself had
been placed in the bay window, flanked on either
side by seats for the Russian delegation, or, as the
case might be, for the members of a committee mak-
ing a report ; and directly in front and between the
chair and the body of the hall there was ample room for

^The best general description of the House in the Wood is perhaps
to be found in an article by Mrs. W. E. II. Lecky, in the Nineteenth
Century for May, 1890.



38 THE PEACE CONFERENCE AT THE HAGUE

Chapter II the Secretaries and attaches. The seats were allotted
to the respective States in alphabetical order, in
the French language, and the United States of Amer-
ica having been classified as " Ameriqiie," nnder " A "
shared with Germany (Allemagne) the seats of honor
along the centre of the room and directly in front
of the chair.^

Exclusion of Thcrc was no room either for spectators or for
journalists, except only a narrow gallery in the
cupola, to which a very few invited guests were
admitted on the opening and closing days of the
Conference, At all other times, outsiders of every
kind were strictly excluded, and visitors were not
permitted even to inspect the palace during the
sessions of the Conference or of any of its com-
mittees. No guaranty was thus lacking for complete
privacy and freedom of deliberations.

The members The followiug is a complctc list of the members

Conference, of the Conference with the committee assignments
of each, arranged alphabetically according to the
names of countries in the French language.

Germany {Allemagne)

Count George Herbert Mlinster Ladenburg, since
created Prince Mlinster Derneburg ; Ambassador for
Hanover at St. Petersburg, 1856-1864 ; Member
of the Prussian House of Lords, 1867, and of the
North German and German Reichstag, 1867-1873 ;

^ This arrangement gave rise to an amusing incident on the
opening day. The veteran Count Mlinster (novi' Prince Miinster Derne-
burg) jokingly charged the American delegation with having origi-



THE OPENING OF THE CONFERENCE 39

Ambassador of (xermany to the Court of St. James, chapter ii
1873-1885 ; Ambassador of Germany to France
since 1885. Count Miinster was the senior member
of the Conference, and Honorary President of the
First Committee.

Baron Carl von Stengel ; Imperial Landgerichts-
rath in Mulhausen, 1871-1879 ; at Strassburg,
1879-1881 ; Professor at University of Breslau,
1881-1890 ; at University of Wurzburg, 1890-1895 ;
at University of Munich since 1895. Vice-President
of the Second Committee, and a member of the First
Committee and of the Committee on the Final Act.

Professor Philip Zorn, Privy Councillor ; Professor
of Law at Munich, 1875, and at Berne, 1875-
1878 ; Professor at University of Konigsberg since
1878. Vice-President of the Third Committee, and
member of the Second Committee, as well as of the
Comite cVExamen.

Colonel, now Major-General, Gross von Schwarz-
hoff, commander of the Fifth Regiment of Infantry,
No. 93 ; Military Expert, Member of the First and
Second Committees.

Captain Siegel, Naval Attache at the Embassy
of the German Empire at Paris ; Naval Expert.
Vice-President of the First Committee, and a mem-
ber of the Second and Third Committees.

iiated the alphabetical arrangement as part of the new " imperialistic "
policy of the United States. On being assured that the American
representatives were as innocent of such complicity as a new born
babe, the Count smilingly shook his head, and remarked, "American
innocence is generally your excuse, and has always been a drawing
card in diplomacy."



40 rilE PEACE CONFERENCE AT THE HAGUE
Chapter II UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (^Etats Utiis cV AmSrique)

The members at -nv* i ttti • t x -nv t tt t^ n

„f tiie Andrew Dickson vVnite, LL.D., L.H.D. ; ^Secretary

Conference. ^^ Legation at St. Petersburg, 1855-1856; State
Senator of New York, 1863-1807 ; President of
Cornell University, 1867-1885 ; Special Commis-
sioner of the United States to the Republic of Santo
Domingo, 1871 ; Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary to Germany, 1879-1881 ; to Russia
1892-1894 ; Ambassador to Germany since 1897.
President of the American Commission, Honorary
President of the First Committee, and member of
the Second and Third Committees.

Seth Low, LL.D. ; Mayor of Brooklyn, 1881-
1885 ; President of Columbia University, New York,
since 1890. Member of the Third Committee, and
of the Committee on the Final Act.

Stanford Newel ; Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary of the United States to the Nether-
lands, since 1897. Member of the Second Com-
mittee.

Captain Alfred T. Malian, LL.D., D.C.L., United
States Navy, appointed to the Navy, 1856 ; Lieuten-
ant, 1861 ; Lieutenant-Commander, 1865 ; President
of the Naval War College at Newport, R. I., 1886-
1893 ; Member of the Naval Advisory Strategy
Board, 1898. Member of the First and Second
Committees.

Captain William Crozier, United States Army ;
Captain in the Ordnance Department since 1890;
inventor of a disappearing gun carriage, wire wrapped



THE OPENING OF THE CONFERENCE 41

rifle, and an improved ten-incli gun; Major and Chapter n
Inspector General of United States Volunteers, 1898.
Member of the Second and Third Committees.

Frederick William Holls, D.C.L., Counselor at
Law ; Member of the Constitutional Convention of
the State of New York, 1894. Secretary and Counsel
of the American Commission, and a member of
the Third Committee, as well as of the Coinite
(TExamen.

Austria-Hungary (^Autriche-Hongrie)

Count Rudolph von Welsersheimb ; Envoy Extraor-
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Belgium in
1888 ; Privy Councillor and Permanent Under-Sec-
retary of State for Foreign Affairs, since 1895 ;
Ambassador Extraordinary to The Hague for the
purposes of this Conference. Honorary President of
the Second Committee and a member of the Third
Committee.

Alexander Okoliscanyi von Okoliscna; Privy Coun-
cillor and Chamberlain of His Majesty the Austrian
Emperor ; Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni-
potentiary to Stuttgart, 1889, and to the Netherlands
in 1894. Member of the Third Committee.

Gaetan Merey de Kapos-Mere ; Councillor of State
and Chief of Cabinet in the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs. Vice-President of the Third Committee of
the Conference and a member of the Second Com-
mittee, and of the Committee on the Final Act.

Professor Heinrich Lammasch, Professor of Law
at the University of Vienna. Member of the Second



4-2 THE PEACE CONFERENCE AT THE HAGUE

Chapter II aiid Tliii'd Committees, as well as of the Coynite

The members cV Examen.

Conference. Victoi" Yon Kliuepacli zu Ried, Zimmerlehen und
Haslburg ; Lieutenant-Colonel on the General Staff ;
Military Expert. Member of the First and Second
Committees.

Count Stanislas Soltyk, Captain ; Naval Expert.
Member of the First and Second Committees.

Belgium {Belgique}

Auguste Beernaert, Minister of State, President of
the Chamber of Deputies of the Kingdom of Belgium.
President of the First Committee, and a member of
the First and Second Committees.

Count de Grelle Rogier; Envoy Extraordinary and
Minister Plenipotentiary of Belgium to the Nether-
lands. Member of the First and Third Committees.

Chevalier Descamps, Senator of the Kingdom of
Belsrium. Member of the Second and Third Com-
inittees, and of the Committee on the Final Act, and
a member and reporter for the Comite d' Examen.

China ( Chine)

Yang Yu, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni-
potentiary to the Courts of St. James and Vienna,
former Minister to Washington, Lima, and Madrid ;
Mandarin of the second class, wearing the peacock
feather.

Lou-Tseng-Tsiang, Secretary of Legation at St.
Petersburg since 1892.

Hoo-Wei-Teh, Secretary of Legation at St. Peters-



THE OPENING OF THE CONFERENCE 43

burg, formerly at London, Washington, and Madrid ; chapter ii
Charge d' Affaires at St. Petersburg and Vienna ;
Mandarin of the third class.

The three Chinese delegates were members of the
Second and Third Committees.

Ho-Yen-Cheng, Councillor of Legation, assistant
delegate.

Denmark (Banemark}

Frederick E. De Bille, Minister at Washington,
1867-1872; at Stockholm, 1872-1890; Envoy Ex-
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to London
since 1800. Vice-President of the Third Committee.

Colonel J. G. F. von Schnack, former Minister of
War. Member of the First and Second Committees.

Spain {Esjmgne)

The Duke of Tetuan, formerly Minister of For-
eign Affairs. Honorary President of the Second Com-
mittee.

W. Ramirez de Villa-Urrutia, Envoy Extraordinary
and Minister Plenipotentiary to Brussels; Plenipo-
tentiary for the negotiation of peace with the United
States in Paris, 1898. Member of the Second and
Third Committees.

Arturo de Baguer, Envoy Extraordinary and j\Iin-
ister Plenipotentiary to The Hague. Member of the
Second Committee.

Colonel Count de Serrallo, Military Attache of the
Spanish Legation at Brussels ; Military Expert. Mem-
ber of the First Committee.



44 THE PEACE CONFERENCE AT THE HAGUE

Chapter II FRANCE (France)

The members Lgoii Boiiro^Gois, fonnerlv Minister of Public In-

of the _ ...

Couference, structioii aiid Priiiis Minister of France. President of
the Third Committee and of the Coniite cT Examen.

Georges Bihourd, Envoy Extraordinary and Minis-
ter Plenipotentiary to The Hague. Member of the
First Committee.

Baron d'Estournelles de Constant, formerly Charge
d' Affaires at London ; member of the Chamber of
Deputies. Vice-President of the Third Committee,
and Secretary of the Comite cV Examen.

Rear-Admiral Pephan, French Navy; Naval Expert.
Member of the First and Second Committees.

Brigadier-General Mounier, French Army ; Mili-
tary Expert. Member of the First and Second Com-
mittees.

Louis Renault, Professor of Law at Paris. Member
of the Second and Third Committees, and a mem-
ber and reporter of the Committee on the Final
Act.

Great Britain and Ireland (Grande Bretagne et
Irlande)

Sir Julian Pauncefote, since raised to the Peerage
as Baron Pauncefote of Preston, Ambassador to the
United States. Honorary President of the Third Com-
mittee of the Conference and of the Comite d' Examen.

Sir Henry Howard, Envoy Extraordinary and Min-
ister Plenipotentiary to The Hague. Member of the
Third Committee.



THE OPENING OF THE CONFERENCE 45

Vice- Admiral Sir John A. Fisher, R.N.; Naval Ex- Chapter ii
pert. Vice-President of the First Committee and
member of the Second Committee.

Major-General Sir John Ardagh, R.A., Director of
Military Intelligence at the War Office ; Military
Expert. Vice-President of the First Committee
of the Conference and member of the Second Com-
mittee.

Lieutenant-Colonel Charles a Court, R.A., Military
Attache at Brussels and at The Hague. Member of
the Second Committee.

Greece (^Grece)

Nicholas P. Delyannis, formerly Prime Minister
and Minister of Foreign Affairs ; Envoy Extraordi-
nary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Paris. Member
of the Third Committee.

Italy {Italie)

Count Constantino Nigra, formerly Ambassador to
France and London ; Ambassador to Vienna. Hono-
rary President of the Third Committee and of the
Com'de cV Examen, and member of the Committee on
the Final Act.

Count A. Zannini ; Envoy Extraordinary and Min-
ister Plenipotentiary to The Hague. Member of the
Third Committee.

Commander Guido Pompilj ; Meml3er of the Italian
Parliament. Vice-President of the Third Committee ;
member of the Second Committee.

Major-General Chevalier Louis Zuccari ; Military



40 THE PEACE CONFERENCE AT THE HAGUE

Chapter II Expert. Vice-President of the Second Committee and
The members member of the First Committee.

i)f the r{ • •

Conference. Captain Chevalier Auguste Bianco ; Naval Expert.
Naval Attache at London. Member of the First
and Second Committees.



Japan (Japon)

Baron Hayashi, formerly Envoy Extraordinary
and Minister Plenipotentiary to St. Petersburg and
at present to the Court of St. James.

M. J. Motono, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary to Brussels. Member of Second and
Third Committees.

Colonel Uyehara, Military Expert. Member of the
First Committee.

Captain Sakamoto, Naval Expert. Member of the
First Committee.

Nagas Arriga, Professor of International Law at
the Army and Navy College at Tokio ; Technical
Delegate.

Luxemburg (^Luxemhourg^

M. Eyschen, Minister of State and President of the
Grand Ducal Government. Member of the Second
and Third Committees.

Count d' Villers, Charge d' Affaires at Berlin. Mem-
ber of the Second and Third Committees.

Mexico (^Mexique)

M. de Mier, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary at Paris.



THE OPENING OF THE CONFERENCE 47

M. Zenil, Minister resident at Brussels, and Chapter ii
member of the Second and Third Committees.

Montenegro

(See Russia)

Netherlands {Pays Bas)

Jonkheer A. P. C. van Karnebeek, formerly
Minister of Foreign Affairs ; member of the Second
Chamber of the States General, Vice-President of the
Peace Conference, and Honorary President of the
First Committee, and member of the Third Com-
mittee.

General J. C. C. Den Beer Poortugael, formerly
Minister of War ; member of the Council of State.
Member of the First Committee.

T. M. C. Asser, member of the Council of State ;
President of the Institute of International Law and
Honorary President of the Second Committee of the
Conference ; member of the Third Committee and of
the Comite cV Examen, as well as of the Committee
on the Final Act.

E. N. Rahusen, member of the First Chamber of
the States General, and member of Second Committee.

Commander A. P. Tadema, Chief of the General
Stalf of the Netherlands Marine ; Naval Expert and
member of the First Committee.

Persia {Perse')

General Mirza Riza Khan (Arfa ud Dovleh), Envoy
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at St.



48 THE PEACE CONFERENCE AT THE HAGUE

Chapter II Petersburg. Member of the First, Second, and Third
■fbe members Committees.

Conference. Mirza Samad Khan Montazis-Saltaneh, Councillor
of the Legation at St. Petersburg.



Portugal {PortugaJ^



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