Frederick William Holls.

The peace conference at The Hague, and its bearings on international law and policy online

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Count de Macedo, Envoy Extraordinary and
Minister Plenipotentiary to Madrid. Vice-President
of the Third Committee.

Agostinho d' Ornellas Vasconcellos, Envoy Ex-
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at St.
Petersburg. Member of the Third Committee.

Count de Selir, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary to The Hague. Member of the Sec-
ond Committee.

Captain Ayres d' Ornellas ; Military Expert. Mem-
ber of the First Committee.

Captain Auguste de Castilho, of the Portuguese
Navy ; Naval Expert.

RouMANiA QRoumanie)

Alexander Beldiman, Envoy Extraordinary and
Minister Plenipotentiary at Berlin. Member of the
First and Third Committees.

Jean N. Papiniu, Envoy Extraordinary and Minis-
ter Plenipotentiary to The Hague. Member of the
Second and Third Committees.

Colonel Constantine Coanda, Director of Artillery
in the Ministry of War; Military Expert. Member
of the First Committee.


Russia (Russie) chapter ii

Baron de Staal, Privy Councillor, Ambassador of
Russia at the Court of St. James ; President of the
Peace Conference. Member of the Third Committee
and of the Coinite cV Examcn.

Fedor de Martens, Privy Councillor ; Permanent
Member of the Council of the Imperial Ministry of
Foreign Affairs. President of the Second Committee,
member of the Third Committee and of the Comife
cVExmnenj as well as of the Committee on the Final

Chamberlain de Easily, Councillor of State ; Director
of First Department of Imperial Ministry of Foreign
Affairs. Member of the First Committee and of the
Coniiie cTExcnnen.

Arthur Raffalovich, Councillor of State ; Agent of
the Imperial Ministry of Finance at Paris. Technical
Delegate, Assistant Secretary-General, and member
of the Committee on the Final Act.

Colonel Gilinsky of the General Staff ; Military Ex-
pert. Member of the First and Second Committees.

Count Barantzew, Colonel of Mounted Artillery in
the Guard ; Military Expert. Member of the First
and Second Committees.

Captain Scheine, Naval Agent of Russia at Paris ;
Naval Expert. Member of the First and Second Com-

Lieutenant Ovtchinnikow, Professor of Jurispru-
dence ; Technical Delegate. Member of the First
and Second Committees.

Servia (Serhie)

Chapter 11 ^ ^

The members Checlomil Mijatovitcli, Envoj Extraordinary and
confe^rence. Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James.
Member of the Second and Third Committees.

Colonel Maschine, Envoy Extraordinary and Min-
ister Plenipotentiary to Cettigne. Member of the
First Committee.

Voislave Veljkovitch, Professor of Law at Bel-
grade. Member of Second and Third Committees.

SiAM (Siam^

Phya Suriya, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary to France. Member of the Third

Phya Visiiddha, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James.

Chevalier Corragioni d' Orelli, Councillor of Le-
gation. Member of the Second and Third Com-

Edouard Rolin, Consul-General of Siam in Bel-
gium. Member of the First and Third Commit-
tees ; reporter of the sub-committee of the Second

Sweden and Norway (Suede et Norvege')

Baron de Bildt, formerly Minister to Washing-
ton and Vienna, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary to Italy. Member of the Third

Col. P. H. E. Brandstrom, Commander First Regi-


ment of Grandees of the Court; Military Expert. Chapter ii
Member of the First and Second Committees,

Captain C» A. M. de Hjiilhammer, Naval Expert.

W. Konow, President of the Odelsthing of Norway,
and member of the Third Committee.

Major-General J. J. Thanlow of the Norwegian

Army, Military Expert. Vice-President of the Second


Switzerland (^Suisse')

Arnold Roth, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary at Berlin. Vice-President of the Sec-
ond Committee and member of the Third Committee.

Colonel Arnold Kuenzli, National Councillor, Mem-
ber of the First and Third Committees.

Edouard Odier, National Councillor ; Counselor at
Law. Member of the Second and Third Committees
and of the Comite cV Examen.

Turkey {Turqide^

Turkhan Pacha, formerly Minister of Foreign
Affairs and member of Council of State. Honorary
President of the Second Committee and member of
the Third Committee.

Noury Bey, Secretary-General in the Ministry of
Foreio;n Affairs. Member of the Second and Third

General Abdullah Pacha, Military Expert. Vice-
President of the First Committee ; member of the
Second Committee.

Rear-Admiral Meheraed Pacha, Naval Expert.
Member of the First and Second Committee.


Chapter II BULGARIA (Bulgarie^

Dimitri I. Stancioff, Diplomatic Agent at St.
Petersburg. Member of the Second and Third

Major Christo Hessaptchieff, Military Attache at


Member of the First Committee.

Address of
M. de
Minister of

So far as the author could ascertain, not one of
these one hundred members was missing at the
opening scene. Promptly at two o'clock the doors
of the meeting room were closed, and an impressive
silence came over the assemblage, in which every
member doubtless realized that a great and solemn
historical moment had arrived.

His Excellency W. H. de Beaufort, Minister of
Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, rose and called
the meeting to order with the following remarks : —

" In the name of Her Majesty, my August Sov-
ereign, I have the honor to bid you welcome, and
to express in this place my sentiments of profound
respect and lively gratitude toward His Majesty, the
Emperor of all the Russias, who, in designating The
Hague as the meeting-place of the Peace Conference,
has conferred a great honor upon our country. His
Majesty, the Emperor of all the Russias, in taking
the noble initiative which has been acclaimed through-
out the entire civilized world, wishing to realize the
desire expressed by one of his most illustrious pred-
ecessors — the Emperor Alexander the First — that
of seeing all the sovereigns and all the nations of


Europe united for the purpose of living as brethren, Chapter ii
aiding each other according to their reciprocal needs,
— inspired by these noble traditions of his august
grandfather, His Majesty has proposed to all the
Governments, of which the representatives are found
here, the meeting of a Conference which should have
the object of seeking the means of putting a limit to
incessant armaments, and to jorevent the calamities
which menace the entire world. The day of the
meeting of this Conference will, beyond doubt, be
one of the days wdiich will mark the history of the
century which is about to close. It coincides with
the festival which all the subjects of His Majesty
celebrate as a national holiday, and in associating
myself, from the bottom of my heart, with all the
wishes for the well-being of this magnanimous
Sovereign, I shall permit myself to become the
interpreter of the wishes of the civilized world, in
expressing the hope that His Majesty, seeing the
results of his generous designs by the efforts of this
Conference, may hereafter be able to consider this
day as one of the happiest in his reign. Her Majesty,
my August Sovereign, animated by the same senti-
ments which have inspired the Emperor of all the
Russias, has chosen to put at the disposal of this
Conference the most beautiful historical monument
which she possesses. The room where you find
yourselves to-day, decorated by the greatest artists
of the seventeenth century, was erected by the widow
of Prince Frederick Henry to the memory of her
noljle husband. Among the greatest of the alle-


Chapter II gorical figures which you will admire here, there is
one appertaining to the peace of Westphalia, which
merits your attention most especially. It is the one
where you see Peace entering this room for the pur-
pose of closing the Temple of Janus. I hope, gen-
tlemen, tliat this beautiful allegory will be a good
omen for your labors, and that, after they have
been terminated, you will be able to say that Peace,
which here is shown to enter this room, has gone
out for the purpose of scattering its blessings
over all humanity. My task is finished. I have
the honor to submit to you two propositions :
first, to offer to His Majesty, the Emperor of all

Telegram to the Russias, our rcspcctful congratulations by tele-

of RuSfa!'^"'^ graph in these words : ^ The Peace Conference places
at the feet of Your Majesty its respectful congratu-
lations on the occasion of Your Majesty's birthday,
and expresses its sincere desire of cooperating in the
accomplishment of the great and noble work in
which Your Majesty has taken the generous initia-
tive, and for which the Conference requests the
acceptance of its humble and profound gratitude.'

Election of " My sccoud propositiou will be met Avith equal
favor. I wish to be permitted to express the desire
that the Presidency of this assembly be conferred
upon His Excellency M. de Staal, Ambassador of

These motions having been carried unanimously.
His Excellency M. de Staal took the presidential
chair, with the following speech : —

the President.


"Gentlemen: My first duty is to express to His chapter ii
Excellency, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the ^'^^'idress of

TVT 1 1 1 • 1 r 1 11 1 1 • 1 I'resident de

JNetherJands, my gratitude lor tlie noble words wiiicli staai.
he has just addressed to my August Master. His
Majesty will be profoundly touched by the high
sentiments by which M. de Beaufort is inspired, as
well as with the spontaneity with which they have
been approved by the inemljers of this high asseinljly.
If the Emperor of Russia has taken the initiative
for the meeting of this Conference, we owe it to Her
Majesty, the Queen of the Netherlands, that we have
been called together in her capital. It is a happy
presage for the success of our labors that we have
been called together under the auspices of a young
Sovereign whose charm is known far and near, and
whose heart, open to everything grand and generous,
has borne witness to so much sympathy for the cause
which has l)roLio;ht us here.

'' In the quiet surroundings of The Hague — in the
midst of a nation which constitutes a most siojnificant
factor of universal civilization, we have under our
eyes a striking example of what may be done for the
welfare of peoples by valor, patriotism, and sustained
energy. It is upon the historic ground of the Nether-
lands that the greatest problems of the political life
of States have been discussed ; it is here, as one may
say, that the cradle of the science of International
Law has stood ; for centuries the important negotia-
tions between European Powers have taken place
here, and it is here that the remarkable treaty was
signed which imposed a truce during the bloody con-


Chapter II test between States. We find ourselves surromicled
Address of bv great historic traditions.

1> -1.1 J ct

1 resulent de . . ^ ji i ,1 tit- • r -r-i

staai. "It remains lor nie to thank the Minister oi l<or-

eign Affairs of the Netherlands for the too flattering
expressions which he has used about me. I am cer-
tain that I express the impulse of this high assembly,
in assuring His Excellency, M. de Beaufort, that we
should have been happy to see him preside over our
meetings. His right to the Presidency was indicated
not only by precedents followed on like occasions, but
especially by his qualities as the eminent statesman
who now directs the foreign policy of the Nether-
lands. His Presidency would, besides, be one more
act of homage which we should love to pay to the
August Sovereign who has offered us her gracious
hospitality. As for myself, I cannot consider the
election which has been conferred upon me otherwise
than as a result of my being a plenipotentiary of the
Emperor, my Master, — the august initiator of the
idea of this Conference. Upon this ground I accept,
with profound thanks for the high honor which the
Minister of Foreign Affairs has conferred upon me
in proposing my name, and which all the members
of the Conference have so graciously ratified. I shall
employ all my efforts to justify this confidence, but
I am perfectly aware that the advanced age which I
have attained is, alas, a sad privilege and a feeble
auxiliary. I hope at least, gentlemen, that it may
be a reason for your indulgence.

" I now propose to send to Her Majesty, the Queen,
whose grateful guests w^e are here, a message which
I shall now read : —


"^Assembled for the first time in the beautiful Chapter ii
House in tlie Woods, tlie members of tlie Confer-
ence hasten to phice their best wishes at tlie feet
of Your Majesty, begging the acceptance of the
homage of their gratitude for the hospitality which
you, niadame, have so graciously deigned to offer

"I propose to confer the Honorary Presidency of Election of
the International Peace Conference upon His Excel- Pres^dJIiT ami
lency, tlie Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Nether- p^^®:^
lands, and to name as Vice-President of this assembly
the Jonkheer van Karnebeek, First Delegate of the

Upon the adoption of these propositions, the fol- secretaries,
lowing officers were elected. Secretary-General,
Jonkheer J. C. N. van Eys of Holland ; Assistant
Secretary-General, M. Raffolovich of Russia; Secre-
taries : M. Albert Legrand of France, M. Edouard
de Grelle Rogier of Belgium, Chevalier W. de Rappard
of Holland, Jonkheer A. G. Schimmelpenninck of
Holland, M. Max Jarousse de Sillac of France, and
Jonkheer J. J. Rochussen of Holland. Assistant
Secretaries : G. J. C. A. Pof) and Lieutenant C. E.

After passing a resolution declaring all meetings Secrecy,
of the Conference and of its Committees to lie abso-
lutely secret, the Conference adjourned at half-past
two until Saturday, May 20, at eleven o'clock in
the morning.



Chapter II

from the
Queen of the
and the
Emperor of

Address of
President de

The Second Session

At the second session of the Conference, the Presi-
dent, M. de Staal, read tlie following telegrams : —

" Hausbadejst : May 19, 1890. In thanking Your

Excellency, as -well as the members of the Peace

Conference, for the sentiments expressed in your

telegram, I take this occasion, with great pleasure,

to repeat my welcome to my country. I wish most

sincerely that, with the aid of God, the work of the

Conference may realize the generous idea of your

AuQ-ust Sovereign, ^c,. ^. uw..,.^.^..^.. "
"^ ^ (Signed) " W ilhelmina.

"St. Petersbueg: May 19, 1899. The Emperor
requests me to act towards the Conference as the
interpreter of his sincere thanks and of his most cor-
dial wishes. My August Master directs me to assure
Your Excellency how much His Majesty appreciates
the telegram which you have sent to him.

(Signed) " Count Mourayieff."

The President stated that at the moment of begin-
ning the laljors of the Conference, he considered it
useful to summarize its objects and general tenden-
cies, and he expressed himself as follows : —

" To seek the most efficacious means to assure to all
peoples the blessings of a real and durable peace,
this, accordincr to the circular of the 12tli — 24th
— of August, is the principal object of our delibera-
tions. The name of Peace Conference, which the
instincts of the people, anticipating a decision on
this point by the Governments, has given to our


assemblage, indicates accurately the essential object chapter ii
of oiir labors. The Peace Conference must not fail
in the mission which devolves upon it ; it must offer
a result of its deliberations uliicli shall Ije tangible,
and which all humanity awaits with confidence. The
eagerness which the Powers have shown in accepting
the proposition contained in the Russian circidar is
the most eloquent testimony of the unanimity which
peaceful ideas have attained. It is, therefore, for
me an agreeable duty to ask the delegates of all the
States represented here to transmit to their respec-
tive Governments the repeated expressions of thanks
of the Russian Government. The very membership
of this assemblage is a certain guarantee of the spirit
in which we approach the labor which has been con-
fided to us. The Governments are represented here
by statesmen who have taken part in shaping the
destiny of their own countries ; by eminent diplo-
mats who have been concerned in great negotiations,
and Avho all know that the first need of peoples is
the maintenance of peace. Besides these, there will
be found here savants who in the domain of inter-
national law enjoy a justly merited renown. The
general and superior officers of the armies and navies
who will help us in our labors will bring to us the
assistance of their high competence. Diplomacy, as
we all know, has for its object the prevention and
the appeasement of conflicts between States ; the
softening of rivalries, the conciliation of interests,
the clearing up of misunderstandings, and the substi-
tution of harmony for discord. I may be permitted


Chapter II to sii}' tluit ill accordaiiCG with the general law, diplo-
Address of jnacj Is HO loiiger only an art in wdiich personal skill

President de . , ^ . ti • j t ,

staai. enjoys exclusive prominence. it is tending to

become a science, which should have its own fixed
rules for the solution of international conflicts. This
is to-day the ideal object which ought to be before
our eyes, and indisputably a great progress would be
accomplished if diplomacy should succeed in estab-
lish in g- here even some of the results of which I have
spoken. We shall also undertake in a special manner
to generalize and codify the practice of arbitration, of
mediation, and of good offices. These ideas consti-
tute, so to speak, the very essence of our task. The
most useful object proposed for our efforts is to pre-
vent conflicts by pacific means. It is not necessary to
enter the domain of Utopia. In the ^vork which w^e
are about to undertake, we should take account of
the possible, and not endeavor to follow abstractions.
AVithout sacrificing anything of our ulterior hopes,^
we should here remain in the domain of reality,
sounding it to the deepest depth for the purpose of
laying solid foundations and building on concrete
bases. Now what does the actual state of affairs
show us ? We perceive between nations an amount
of material and moral interests which is constantly
increasing. The ties which unite all parts of the

^ This phrase was seized upon by the press as an indication of ambi-
guity, not to say duplicity, and the most unfounded and absurd
attacks upon Russian diplomacy were founded on an evident miscon-
ception. Xothing could be clearer than that INI. de Staal was refer-
ring solely to " ulterior hopes " of permanent peace, and not to advan-
tages of a political nature.


human family are ever becoming closer. A nati(jn chapter ii
could not remain isolated if it wished. It finds itself
surrounded, as it were, by a living organism fruitful
in blessings for all, and it is, and should be, a part of
this same organism. Without doubt, rivalries exist ;
but does it not seem that they generally appertain
to the domain of economics, to that of commercial
expansion which originates in the necessity of utiliz-
ing abroad the surplus of activity which cannot find
sufficient employment in the mother country ? Such
rivalry may do good, provided that, above it all, there
shall remain the idea of justice and the lofty sentiment
of human brotherhood. If, therefore, the nations
are united by ties so multifarious, is there no room
for seeking the consequences arising from this fact ?
When a dispute arises between two or more nations,
others, without being concerned directly, are pro-
foundly affected. The consequences of an interna-
tional conflict occurring in any portion of the globe
are felt on all sides. It is for this reason that out-
siders cannot remain indifferent to the conflict — they
are bound to endeavor to appease it by conciliatory
action. These truths are not new. At all times
there have been found thinkers to suggest them and
statesmen to apply them, but they appertain, more
than ever before, to our own time, and the fact that
they are proclaimed by an assembly such as this,
marks a great date in the history of humanity.

" The nations have a great need for peace, and we
owe it to humanity — we owe it to the Governments
which have here given us their powers and who are


Chapter II responsible for the good of their peoples — we owe it
Address of to ourselves to accomplisli a useful work in finding
staai. the method of employing some of the means for the

purpose of insuring peace. Among those means ar-
bitration and mediation must be named. Diplomacy
has admitted them in its practice for a long while,
but it has not fixed the method of their employment,
nor has it defined the cases in which they are allow-
able. It is to this high labor that we must concen-
trate our efforts — sustained by the conviction that
we are laboring for the good of all humanity, accord-
ing to the way which preceding generations have fore-
seen, and when we have firmly resolved to avoid
chimeras, when we have all recognized that our real
task, grand as it is, has its limits, we should also
occupy ourselves with another phase of the situation.
From the moment when every chance of an armed con-
flict between nations cannot be absolutely prevented,
it becomes a great work for humanity to mitigate the
horrors of war. The governments of civilized States
have all entered into international agreements, which
mark important stages of development. It is for us
to establish new principles; and for this category
of questions the presence of so many persons of
peculiar competence at this meeting cannot be other-
wise than most valuable. But there are, besides
these, matters of very great importance, and of great
difficulties, which also appertain to the idea of the
maintenance of peace, and of which a consideration
has seemed to the Imperial Government of Russia a
proper part of the labors of this Conference. This is


the place to ask whether the welfare of })eoples does chapter ii /
not demand a limitation of progressive armaments.
It is for the governments to whom tliis applies to
weigh in their wisdom the interests of which they
have charge.

"These are the essential ideas, gentlemen, which
should in general guide our labors. We shall pro-
ceed, I am sure, to consider them in a lofty and con-
ciliatory spirit, for the purpose of following the way
which leads to a consolidation of peace. We shall
thus accomplish a useful work, for which future gen-
erations will thank the sovereigns and heads of state
represented in this assembly,

"One of our preliminary duties in order to insure Appointment
the progress of our work is to divide our labors, andmittees.
I therefore beg to submit for your ap})roval the fol-
lowing proposal. Three Committees shall Ije ap-
pointed. The First Committee shall have charge of
the Articles 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the Circular of Decem-
ber 30, 1898. The Second Committee of Articles
5, G, and 7. The Third Committee shall have charge
of Article 8 of the said Circular, and each Commit-
tee shall have power to subdivide itself into sub-

" It is understood that outside of the aforemen-
tioned points the Conference does not consider itself
competent to consider any other question. In case
of doubt the Conference shall decide whether any
proposition originating in the Committee is germane
or not to the points outlined. Every State may be
represented upon every Committee. The First Dele-


Chapter II gatcs sluill designate the inembers of the respective
deleg^ations who shall be members of each of the
Committees. Members may be appointed upon two
or more Committees. In the same manner as in the
full Conference each State shall have but one vote in

Online LibraryFrederick William HollsThe peace conference at The Hague, and its bearings on international law and policy → online text (page 5 of 39)